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  • 1.
    Aalto, Sirpa
    University of Oulu.
    Jómsvíkinga Saga as a Part of Old Norse Historiography2014Inngår i: Scripta Islandica: Isländska Sällskapets Årsbok, ISSN 0582-3234, E-ISSN 2001-9416, Vol. 65, s. 33-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article argues that Jómsvíkinga saga, despite its mixed modality, should be included in Old Norse historiography. A comparison with kings’ sagas and legendary sagas — in this case Yngvars saga víðfǫrla — shows how these modes were used in Jómsvíkinga saga. The saga is often grouped with Orkneyinga saga and Færeyinga saga, which were also written around the year 1200; all deal in some way with the relationship between kings and aristocrats. The reason for this may be found in contemporary events: The Scandinavian kings were strengthening their position, while the aristocracy was trying to maintain its influence. Therefore, the sagas have also been called political sagas. The oldest extant versions of Jómsvíkinga saga contain the first part of the saga, which deals with the history of the Danish Kings; this shows that the saga was intended to be perceived as history. However, a later version (AM 510 4to) omits this part, which suggests that the historicity of the saga had eroded. The fact that Jómsvíkinga saga was incorporated into manuscripts containing legendary sagas also shows that the saga may have been valued for its entertaining plot and not because of its connections to real events and historical characters.

  • 2. Aalto, Sirpa
    et al.
    Lehtola, Veli-Pekka
    The Sami Representations Reflecting the Multi-Ethnic North of the Saga Literature2017Inngår i: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 7-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on contextualizing the Sami (finnar) representations in Old Norse saga literature. The purpose is to show that the Sami representations reflect multi-layered Old Norse textual and oral traditions, and complex interaction between the Sami and the Norwegians in the Middle Ages. The stereotypes of the Sami tell us more about the society that created them than about real, historical events. We can be sure that behind them lie very mundane phenomena such as trade and marriages.

    The ultimate goal of the article is therefore to reveal the multi-ethnic North that provided the background for the saga sources, a North whose history is not as homogeneous as sources suggest and quite unlike the modified version which found its way into the histories of nation states. The literary conventions of sagas are not just imaginary tales—their use in various contexts can reveal something essential in otherwise schematic images or configurations. Even researchers of the sagas have certain personal conceptions of what the “real” lives of the Sami were like at the time, and how the sagas depict this. In fact, they participate in a continuum of saga literature that generates representations of the Sami in history.

  • 3.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Journalistik.
    A Narratological Approach to Literary Journalism: How an Interplay between Voice and Point of View May Create Empathy with the Other2016Inngår i: Literary Journalism Studies, ISSN 1944-897X, E-ISSN 1944-8988, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 106-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to present a model for analyzing the in- terplay between voice and point of view in literary journalism/reportage. The model can be used to nuance previous researchers’ discussions about “subjective” and “objective” journalism. It also problematizes the reporter’s special role as an eyewitness by highlighting how narrative techniques can create empathy with the Other and move the reader’s gaze away from the reporter, away from the one who is witnessing. Using tools from classical narratology, I focus on the form of the texts. The tools help me investigate the narrator’s as well as the characters’ subjectivity and interpret the narra- tive’s construction as an expression of a journalistic mission. I systematize variables such as the narrator’s visibility, the relation between an experienc- ing reporter and a narrating reporter, the interplay between the experienc- ing reporter and other characters in the text, and in what way a level with a director (an implied author) can facilitate a comparison between vari- ous kinds of literary journalism. I also examine whether it might be time to abandon the theory that a first-person reportage is more subjective in general than a third-person reportage. I explore whether it is instead the narrator’s visibility that determines the position of the text on a scale be- tween “subjective” and “objective” forms. (Note: I have provided a glossary of terms at the end of the essay.)

  • 4.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Journalistik.
    Reportern som ett verktyg för att belysa de andra: Narratologiska konsekvenser av den journalistiska ögonvittnespositionen2015Inngår i: Tidskrift för litteraturvetenskap, ISSN 1104-0556, E-ISSN 2001-094X, nr 1, s. 5-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A reportage is the reporter's story about reality. Even though it details real events, it always presentsa personal interpretation of these events. In contrast to the news article, which primarilyinforms readers, a reportage involves a pronounced degree of personal narration. Normally it is based on the reporter's role as an eyewitness. This essay discusses how the position of the eyewitness establishes narratological structures inthe text, which seem to differ from the structures present in other kinds of non-fiction narrativestold in the first person. For instance, in reading an autobiography, a reader's empathy willbe drawn toward the main character. By contrast, a reportage will direct the reader's empathyaway from the reporter and towards the other. The narratological construction of a reportage may be studied as an interplay between threeinstances: the experiencing reporter, the narrating reporter and the director (the implied reporter).Thus, a three-part model may be utilised in order to help explain, for example, how ahomodiegetic narrator can be combined with external focalisation, and how a character otherthan the experiencing reporter can be internally focalised. It can also illuminate how the textmay employ a form of dissonance between the experiencing and the narrating reporter to serve ajournalistic purpose (displacing the perspective from person – the reporter – to subject-matter).

  • 5.
    Aas, Egil
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia.
    Apel, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia.
    Dock, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia.
    Gamrell, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia.
    Lekberg, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia.
    Notelid, Michel
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia.
    Reisborg, Synnöve
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia.
    Undersökningar för Mälarbanans sträckning: Fältsäsongen 19921993Inngår i: TOR, ISSN 0495-8772, Vol. 25, s. 53-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 6.
    Aas, Marit
    et al.
    Oslo universitet.
    Blom, Thomas
    Karlstads universitet.
    Benchlearning as professional development of school leaders in Norway and Sweden2017Inngår i: Professional Development in Education, ISSN 1941-5257, E-ISSN 1941-5265, s. 1-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate a new national collaborative Benchlearning program for principals in Norway and Sweden. Four process leaders have been running the program. The aim is to give the participants the knowledge to develop a leadership practice and school environment that are more innovative. The program includes theoretical inputs, sharing experiences, school visits, training, and trialing of new leadership practices. Drawing on data from surveys, participants’ reflections, and the leaders’ descriptions of new leadership practice, we examine and identify successful and critical aspects of the learning process. The findings show that principals’ motivation and willingness to start change processes can be created in a synergy between structured school visits, work in learning groups, and a theoretical foundation. Working in groups across schools in two countries seems to enhance principals’ sense of efficacy, which in turn is shown to have a positive effect on their willingness to trial new practices. Two implications of the study are suggested. First, in the design of principal programs, systematic and critical reflection about authentic practice should be the basis. Second, educators should be trained to be process leaders who can support principals’ learning during a critical and social construction of a new practice.

  • 7.
    Abdelmoez Wiklund, Joel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för Asien-, Mellanöstern- och Turkietstudier, Avdelningen för mellanösternstudier.
    Women’s status in Islamic texts and feminist interventions2017Inngår i: Orientaliska Studier, ISSN 0345-8997, nr 152, s. 5-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Abrahamson, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Teologiska fakulteten, Teologiska institutionen.
    Wolfhart Pannenberg och Jesu uppståndelse2004Inngår i: Tro & Liv: Tidskrift för kristen tro och förkunnelse, Vol. 63, nr 3-4, s. 13-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Age of onset and nativelike L2 ultimate attainment of morphosyntactic and phonetic intuition2012Inngår i: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 187-214Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has consistently shown there is a negative correlation between age of onset (AO) of acquisition and ultimate attainment (UA) of either pronunciation or grammar in a second language (L2). A few studies have indeed reported nativelike behavior in some postpuberty learners with respect to either phonetics/phonology or morphosyntax, a result that has sometimes been taken as evidence against the critical period hypothesis (CPH). However, in the few studies that have employed a wide range of linguistic tests and tasks, adult learners have not exhibited nativelike L2 proficiency across the board of measures, which, according to some, suggests that the hypothesis still holds. The present study investigated the relationship between AO and UA and the incidence of nativelikeness when measures of phonetic and grammatical intuition are combined. An additional aim was to investigate whether children and adults develop the L2 through fundamentally different brain mechanisms-namely, whether children acquire the language (more) implicitly as an interdependent whole, whereas adults learn it (more) explicitly as independent parts of a whole.

  • 10.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    But first, let's think again!2018Inngår i: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Development and recoverability of L2 codas: A longitudinal study of Chinese/Swedish interphonology2003Inngår i: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 313-349Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the development and recoverability of word-final codas in Chinese-Swedish interlanguage. The relation between consonant deletion and vowel epenthesis is investigated from both a developmental perspective and a grammatical-functional one. Longitudinal, conversational data from three Chinese beginner learners of Swedish were analyzed. First, it is shown that for these learners the acquisition of Swedish codas was U-shaped rather than linear such that they exhibited relatively high accuracy rates at early stages, lower accuracy rates at later stages, and again high accuracy rates at more advanced stages. It is also demonstrated that the epenthesis-deletion differential is closely related to second language proficiency in that the proportion of epenthesis to deletion errors increases over time. Furthermore, the data show that word-final codas that are relatively important for the retention of semantically relevant information generate lower overall frequencies of simplification and greater epenthesis-deletion proportions than codas containing information that is relatively recoverable from other segments or features in the context.

  • 12.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Some observations of child-adult differences in second language pronunciation.1994Inngår i: Scandinavian Working Papers on Bilingualism, Vol. 9, s. 1-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Vowel epenthesis of /sC(C)/ onsets in Spanish/Swedish inter­phonology: A longitudinal case study1999Inngår i: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 473-508Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies showed that vowel epenthesis of initial /sC(C)/ clusters in the L2 production of L1 Spanish speakers is conditioned by several variable constraints, such as preceding environment, onset length, and sonority relations among onset members. This case study was designed to investigate whether the patterns obtained from elicited speech also hold for conversational data. A longitudinal corpus of spontaneous/natural speech from 1 adult L1 Spanish learner of L2 Swedish was used. The study confirmed most of the results from previous research, for example, that the frequency of epenthesis varies with preceding phonetic environment. However, the study suggested that a lowering effect of preceding vowels must be present, not just the enhancing effect of preceding consonants suggested by Carlisle (1997).

  • 14.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Age of L2 acquisition and degree of nativelikeness – listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny.2009Inngår i: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 59, nr 2, s. 249-306Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence of nativelikeness in adult second language acquisition is a controversial issue in SLA research. Although some researchers claim that any learner, regardless of age of acquisition, can attain nativelike levels of second language (L2) proficiency, others hold that attainment of nativelike proficiency is, in principle, impossible. The discussion has traditionally been framed within the paradigm of a critical period for language acquisition and guided by the question of whether SLA is constrained by the maturation of the brain. The work presented in this article can be positioned among those studies that have focused exclusively on the apparent counterexamples to the critical period. We report on a large-scale study of Spanish/Swedish bilinguals (n = 195) with differing ages of onset of acquisition (<1–47 years), all of whom identify themselves as potentially nativelike in their L2. Listening sessions with native-speaker judges showed that only a small minority of those bilinguals who had started their L2 acquisition after age 12, but a majority of those with an age of onset below this age, were actually perceived as native speakers of Swedish. However, when a subset (n = 41) of those participants who did pass for native speakers was scrutinized in linguistic detail with a battery of 10 highly complex, cognitively demanding tasks and detailed measurements of linguistic performance, representation, and processing, none of the late learners performed within the native-speaker range; in fact, the results revealed also that only a few of the early learners exhibited actual nativelike competence and behavior on all measures of L2 proficiency that were employed. Our primary interpretation of the results is that nativelike ultimate attainment of a second language is, in principle, never attained by adult learners and, furthermore, is much less common among child learners than has previously been assumed.

  • 15.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language: listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny2009Inngår i: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 59, nr 2, s. 249-306Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Inlärningsålder och uppfattad inföddhet i andraspråket – lyssnarexperiment med avancerade L2-talare av svenska2006Inngår i: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 9-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    The robustness of aptitude effects in near-native second language acquisition2008Inngår i: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 481-509Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from a number of recent studies suggest that nativelike adult second language (L2) learners possess a high degree of language learning aptitude, the positive effects of which may have compensated for the negative effects of a critical period in these learners. According to the same studies, child learners seem to attain a nativelike command of the L2 regardless of high or low aptitude, which has led researchers to conclude that this factor plays no role in early acquisition. The present study investigates the L2 proficiency and language aptitude of 42 near-native L2 speakers of Swedish (i.e., individuals whom actual mother-tongue speakers of Swedish believe are native speakers). The results confirm previous research suggesting that a high degree of language aptitude is required if adult learners are to reach a L2 proficiency that is indistinguishable from that of native speakers. However, in contrast to previous studies, the present results also identify small yet significant aptitude effects in child SLA. Our findings lead us to the conclusions that the rare nativelike adult learners sometimes observed would all turn out to be exceptionally talented language learners with an unusual ability to compensate for maturational effects and, consequently, that their nativelikeness per se does not constitute a reason to reject the critical period hypothesis.

  • 18.
    Abu-Deeb, Kamal
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Arabiska.
    السذاجة العربيةفي مواجهة الدهاء الأوروبي2011Inngår i: الحياةArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 19.
    Abu-Deeb, Kamal
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Arabiska.
    قليلا من العقل يا سورية2011Inngår i: القدس العربيArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 20.
    Abusabib, Mohamed
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för ABM, estetik och kulturstudier.
    Back to Mangu Zambiri: Art, Politics and Identity in Northern Sudan2001Inngår i: New Political Sciences, Vol. 23, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Abusabib, Mohamed
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för ABM, estetik och kulturstudier.
    Political Islam and the Arts: the Sudanese Experience2001Inngår i: ISIM Newsletter, nr 8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 22.
    Abusabib, Mohamed
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för ABM, estetik och kulturstudier.
    The Concept of Sudanism in Ahmed A. Zein Alabdin's Thought,2000Inngår i: Kitabat Sudaniyya, nr 12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The article reflects, in a critical mode, on the cultural basis of modern Sudanese visual art as perceived by Zein Alabdin, the late Sudanese art historian.

  • 23.
    Abusabib, Mohamed
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för ABM, estetik och kulturstudier.
    The Impact of Islam on African Art: The Sudanese Example1995Inngår i: Islamic Art and Culture in Sub-Saharan AfricaArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 24.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Jacquet, Pierre O.
    Tennie, Claudio
    Behavioral constraints and the evolution of faithful social learning2012Inngår i: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 58, nr 2, s. 307-318Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral “traditions”, i.e. behavioral patterns that are acquired with the aid of social learning and that are relativelystable in a group, have been observed in several species. Recently, however, it has been questioned whether non-human sociallearning is faithful enough to stabilize those patterns. The observed stability could be interpreted as a result of various constraintsthat limit the number of possible alternative behaviors, rather than of the fidelity of transmission mechanisms. Those constraints canbe roughly described as “internal”, such as mechanical (bodily) properties or cognitive limitations and predispositions, and “external”, such as ecological availability or pressures. Here we present an evolutionary individual-based model that explores the relationships between the evolution of faithful social learning and behavioral constraints, represented both by the size of the behavioral repertoire and by the “shape” of the search space of a given task. We show that the evolution of high-fidelity transmission mechanisms, when associated with costs (e.g. cognitive, biomechanical, energetic, etc.), is only likely if the potential behavioral repertoire of a species is large and if the search space does not provide information that can be exploited by individual learning. Moreover we show how stable behavioral patterns (“traditions”) can be achieved at the population level as an outcome of both high-fidelity and low-fidelity transmission mechanisms, given that the latter are coupled with a small behavioral repertoire or with a search space that provide substantial feedback. Finally, by introducing the possibility of environmental change, we show that intermediaterates of change favor the evolution of faithful social learning.

  • 25.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Nunn, Charles
    Harvard University, Department of Human Evolutionary Biology.
    Predation and the phasing of sleep: an evolutionary individual-based model2011Inngår i: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 81, nr 4, s. 801-811Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    All mammals thus far studied sleep, yet important questions remain concerning the ecological factors that influence sleep patterns. Here, we developed an evolutionary individual-based model to investigate the effect of predation pressure on prey sleep. We investigated three ecological conditions, including one that assumed a dynamic interaction between predator and prey behaviour. In condition 1, we found that monophasic predators (i.e. with one sleep bout per 24 h) select for monophasic prey that sleep perfectly out of phase with predators. In condition 2, predators were monophasic but the safety of prey varied as a function of their activity (sleeping versus awake). In this condition, the prey adjusted their sleeping behaviour to lower the risk of predation. Finally, in condition 3, we modelled a more dynamic interaction between predator and prey, with predator activity dependent on prey activity in the previous hour. In this scenario, the prey adjusted their behaviour relative to one another, resulting in either greater or lesser synchrony in prey as a function of predator searching behaviour. Collectively, our model demonstrates that predator behaviour can have a strong influence on prey sleep patterns, including whether prey are monophasic or polyphasic (i.e. with many sleep bouts per 24 h). The model further suggests that the timing of sleep relative to predator behaviour may depend strongly on how other potential prey partition the activity period.

  • 26.
    Acerbi, Alberto
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Tennie, Claudio
    Nunn, Charles
    Modeling imitation and emulation in constrained search spaces2011Inngår i: Animal Learning and Behavior, ISSN 0090-4996, E-ISSN 1532-5830, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 104-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social transmission of behavior can be realized through distinct mechanisms. Research on primate social learning typically distinguishes two forms of information that a learner can extract from a demonstrator: copying actions (defined as imitation) or copying only the consequential results (defined as emulation). We propose a decomposition of these learning mechanisms (plus pure individual learning) that incorporates the core idea that social learning can be represented as a search for an optimal behavior that is constrained by different kinds of information. We illustrate our approach with an individual-based model in which individuals solve tasks in abstract “spaces” that represent behavioral actions, results, and benefits of those results. Depending on the learning mechanisms at their disposal, individuals have differential access to the information conveyed in these spaces. We show how different classes of tasks may provide distinct advantages to individuals with different learning mechanisms and discuss how our approach contributes to current empirical and theoretical research on social learning and culture.

  • 27.
    Adamou, Evangelia
    et al.
    Oral Tradition Languages and Civilizations laboratory, French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) & University Paris Sorbonne Nouvelle, France.
    Granqvist, Kimmo
    Department of Finnish, Finno-Ugrian and Scandinavian Studies, Helsingin Yliopisto, Finland.
    Unevenly mixed Romani languages2015Inngår i: International Journal of Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0069, E-ISSN 1756-6878, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 525-547Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on language mixing in two Romani communities, with a century-long presence in Finland and in Greece respectively. A quantitative analysis of free-speech data shows that verbs from the contact languages, Finnish and Turkish, are systematically inserted into a dominant Romani speech with their respective Finnish and Turkish tense, mood, aspect, and person morphology. The insertion in language A of non-integrated single words from language B is atypical for classic code-switching and borrowing, but is a well-known mechanism in the creation of mixed languages. Unlike mixed languages, however, where no single dominant language can be identified, Romani is the main component in the corpora under study. We suggest that this type of Romani language mixing illustrates an early stage of mixed language formation that did not develop into an independent mixed language, owing to changes in the sociopolitical settings.

  • 28.
    Adams, Jonathan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    ‘Beware of false prophets’: A Fragment of the Old Swedish Miracle Homily Book2016Inngår i: Medieval Sermon Studies, ISSN 1366-0691, E-ISSN 1749-6276, Vol. 60, nr 1, s. 5-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article comprises an introduction to and an edition and translation of an Old Swedish sermon fragment found in the Hannaas Collection at the Ethno-Folkloristic Archive, University of Bergen, Norway (Hannaas 66). This previously unpublished paper fragment is one of the missing parts of the Old Swedish Homily Book (known as Svensk järteckens postilla), dating from the second half of the fifteenth century and now housed at the Royal Library in Stockholm, Sweden (Cod. Holm. A 111). The text in Hannaas 66 comprises a sermon for the 8th Sunday after Trinity based on Matthew 7. 15–16 and includes a miracle exemplum that illustrates the importance of acting justly and following the will of God.

  • 29.
    Adams, Jonathan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Birgitta and Bernard: Two Saints and Five Old Swedish Fragments in the Danish National Archives2017Inngår i: European Journal of Scandinavian Studies, ISSN 2191-9399, E-ISSN 2191-9402, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 263-290Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Danish National Archives in Copenhagen houses several thousand manuscript fragments, the remains of numerous works that were cut up and used in the bindings of later books. The majority of these fragments are written in Latin, Middle Low German, or Danish, although a few in Old Swedish also survive. Five of these Old Swedish fragments are published and discussed in this article. They contain parts of two of St Birgitta’s Revelations (Liber Caelestis and Revelationes Extravagantes) and of St Bernard’s A Rule of Good Life (Ad sororem modus bene vivendi in christianam religionem). The Birgittine texts are from an early stage of the retranslation process when compared to other extant versions and include several unique wordings that demonstrate the specific use of the original manuscript in a monastic environment. The Bernard fragments are one of just two extant versions and may predate the version in Stockholm, Royal Library, A 9; as such, they are an important witness to the propagation of the saint’s writings in Sweden.

  • 30.
    Adams, Jonathan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Fjerne spejle: Jøder og muslimer i østnordisk litteratur2015Inngår i: Årsskrift for Det Unge Akademi, s. 10-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [da]

    De fleste studier om jøder, muslimer og kristne i middelalderens Europa fokuserer på de områder, hvor de levede sammen. Behandlingen af de ikke-kristne i de komplekse spændinger mellem kirken og de sekulære myndigheder danner kernen i disse studier, som fx sigter på at undersøge de spontane udbrud af antijødisk vold i dele af Central- og Vesteuropa eller virkeligheden bag den fredelige sameksistens, ”convivencia”, i Spanien. Følgerne af bl.a. korstogene, pesten, økonomisk nedtur samt politisk og social uro i disse områder regnes som de vigtigste faktorer i de skiftende forhold mellem de tre grupper naboer. Forholdene påvirkede også de skriftlige fremstillinger, da litteratur i middelalderen ligesom nu var et af de vigtigste midler, hvorved man udtrykte sin verdensopfattelse og skabte mening og struktur i det omkringliggende samfund. Disse tekster giver en et vigtigt indblik i, hvordan kristne europæere tænkte og hvad der optog dem.

  • 31.
    Adams, Jonathan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Grumme løver og menstruerende mænd2012Inngår i: RAMBAM: tidsskrift for jødisk kultur og forskning, ISSN 0907-2160, Vol. 21, s. 78-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article examines the portrayal of Jews in medieval texts written in Danish before 1515. It begins by describing the theological basis for and creation of a ‘fantasy Jew’. The perception of Jews was fundamentally shaped by the idea that they had tortured and killed the Christian messiah. Devotional texts, sermons and Passion stories which describe the Jews as Christ killers are therefore discussed in detail, and the image of the deicide Jew in vernacular texts is shown to be malleable and changing. The image of the violent Jew who tortured and killed Jesus was used to arouse empathy among readers and to chastise them for being too like the Jews by behaving sinfully. Other Jewish ‘types’ that occur in the material are also investigated: effeminate, Satanic and usurious Jews as well as comparisons with animals. The preliminary results of an investigation into the type of language that was used to shape the image of Jews show that certain ‘negative’ words were used disproportionately more frequently in descriptions of Jews than of non-Jews. This suggests a powerful association between such words and the perception of Jews — a connection that was supported and further enhanced through religious art and theatre. The article concludes by noting what is missing in the extant material and what this might tell us about medieval Danish attitudes towards Jews.

  • 32.
    Adams, Jonathan
    Det Danske Sprog- og Litteraturselskab.
    Hebraiske ord i Jødernes hemmeligheder (1516)2010Inngår i: Danske studier, ISSN 0106-4525, E-ISSN 2246-8323, nr 105, s. 31-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 33.
    Adams, Jonathan
    Det Danske Sprog- og Litteraturselskab.
    In Danico Dicitur: Glossing in Danish Manuscripts2010Inngår i: Scandinavian Studies, ISSN 0036-5637, E-ISSN 2163-8195, nr 82, s. 117-158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 34.
    Adams, Jonathan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Kristi mordere: Jøder i danske passionsberetninger fra middelalderen2013Inngår i: Danske studier, ISSN 0106-4525, E-ISSN 2246-8323, s. 25-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The image of the Jews as the killers of Jesus has its origins in the Gospels where Jews are portrayed as responsible – directly or indirectly – for the Crucifixion. The enduring myth of the Christ-killer has evolved over nearly two millennia to find a variety of expressions in religion, politics, philosophy, literature and drama. In this article, I examine how Jews are portrayed as murderers in late medieval descriptions of the Passion found in Old Danish sermons and devotional literature. The influence of the saints Augustine of Hippo, Thomas Aquinas and Birgitta of Sweden is examined as also is the question of Jewish culpability in each of the texts and what this would have meant to the audience and readers. The Christkiller motif is shown to be an effective and flexible tool for the Church in marking the boundaries of vita christiana and in teaching empathy and spirituality to its members.

  • 35.
    Adams, Jonathan
    University of Hull.
    Three newly “discovered” Danish sermons in the Austrian National Library2002Inngår i: Medieval Sermon Studies, ISSN 1366-0691, nr 46, s. 70-94Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 36.
    Adams, Jonathan
    Det Danske Sprog- og Litteraturselskab.
    Tre gammeldanske prædikener: Et nyt tilskud til den gammeldanske homiletiske litteratur2004Inngår i: Danske studier, ISSN 0106-4525, E-ISSN 2246-8323, nr 99, s. 5-41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 37.
    Adams, Jonathan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Luetzelschwab, Ralf
    Freie Universität Berlin.
    Editorial2015Inngår i: Medieval Sermon Studies, ISSN 1366-0691, E-ISSN 1749-6276, Vol. 59, nr 1, s. 1-1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38. Adams, Jonathan
    et al.
    Rönnby, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Avdelning 3, Marinarkeologi.
    Kuggmaren 1: the first cog find in the Stockholm archipelago, Sweden.2002Inngår i: International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, ISSN 1057-2414, E-ISSN 1095-9270, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 172-181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39. Adams, Jonathan
    et al.
    Rönnby, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Arkeologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, MARIS (Marinarkeologiska forskningsinstitutet).
    One of His Majesty's 'Beste Kraffwells': the wreck of an early carvel-built ship at Franska Sternarna, Sweden2013Inngår i: International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, ISSN 1057-2414, E-ISSN 1095-9270, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 103-117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report recent fieldwork on an early-16th-century wreck in the Stockholm archipelago, Sweden. The discovery not only provides new insights into early carvel shipbuilding and its adoption across northern Europe but manifests the changing role of ships and the nature of power and agency in the process of state formation at the dawn of the modern world. (C) 2012 The Authors

  • 40.
    Adams, Jonathan
    et al.
    Det Danske Sprog- og Litteraturselskab.
    Zeeberg, Peter
    Det Danske Sprog- og Litteraturselskab.
    Dansk(e) Renæssancesprog2011Inngår i: Studier i Nordisk Filologi, ISSN 0356-0376, s. 5-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 41.
    Adams, Jonathan
    et al.
    Det Danske Sprog- og Litteraturselskab.
    Zeeberg, Peter
    Det Danske Sprog- og Litteraturselskab.
    The Dictionary Database at www.renaessancesprog.dk: An Online Tool for the Study of Renaissance Language in Denmark2010Inngår i: Renæssanceforum: Tidsskrift for Renæssanceforskning, ISSN 1604-5394, E-ISSN 1604-5394, nr 6, s. 43-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 42. Adcock, Tina
    et al.
    Roberts, Peder
    Nations, Natures, and Networks: The New Environments of Northern Studies2015Inngår i: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 7-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 43. Addessi, Anna Rita
    et al.
    Anelli, Filomena
    Benghi, Diber
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Child-Computer Interaction at the Beginner Stage of Music Learning: Effects of Reflexive Interaction on Children's Musical Improvisation2017Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article childrens musical improvisation is investigated through the reflexive interaction paradigm. We used a particular system, the MIROR-Impro, implemented in the framework of the MIROR project (EC-FP7), which is able to reply to the child playing a keyboard by a reflexive output, mirroring (with repetitions and variations) her/his inputs. The study was conducted in a public primary school, with 47 children, aged 6-7. The experimental design used the convergence procedure, based on three sample groups allowing us to verify if the reflexive interaction using the MIROR-Impro is necessary and/or sufficient to improve the childrens abilities to improvise. The following conditions were used as independent variables: to play only the keyboard, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro but with not-reflexive reply, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with reflexive reply. As dependent variables we estimated the childrens ability to improvise in solos, and in duets. Each child carried out a training program consisting of 5 weekly individual 12 min sessions. The control group played the complete package of independent variables; Experimental Group 1 played the keyboard and the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with not-reflexive reply; Experimental Group 2 played only the keyboard with the reflexive system. One week after, the children were asked to improvise a musical piece on the keyboard alone (Solo task), and in pairs with a friend (Duet task). Three independent judges assessed the Solo and the Duet tasks by means of a grid based on the TAI-Test for Ability to Improvise rating scale. The EG2, which trained only with the reflexive system, reached the highest average results and the difference with EG1, which did not used the reflexive system, is statistically significant when the children improvise in a duet. The results indicate that in the sample of participants the reflexive interaction alone could be sufficient to increase the improvisational skills, and necessary when they improvise in duets. However, these results are in general not statistically significant. The correlation between Reflexive Interaction and the ability to improvise is statistically significant. The results are discussed on the light of the recent literature in neuroscience and music education.

  • 44.
    Adelswärd, Rebecka Millhagen
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Konstvetenskapliga institutionen.
    More Than Meets the Eye. "Castles and Manor Houses in Sweden" Revisited2016Inngår i: Konsthistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-3609, E-ISSN 1651-2294, Vol. 85, nr 1, s. 97-108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The landmark book series Slott och herresaten i Sverige (transl. Castles and Manor Houses in Sweden), published in 1966-1971 by Allhems forlag, is still today considered the most important art historical reference work on Swedish manor buildings and country houses. The 18 volumes seem to present a near complete picture of the nation's rich heritage of manor buildings, combining the comprehensive and topographically organized guide book with the thoroughness of the architectural monograph. This paper will address the more problematic aspects of the book series, its critical role in the writing of a Swedish architectural history and in shaping a national country house narrative. While each volume provides an authoritative and concise overview of the history, ownership and stylistic development of the most significant manor buildings in the province - their architecture, interiors, gardens and collections - the presentation with its general descriptions, formal analysis and neutral tone omits a more in-depth analysis of these complex environments as well as underlying social, political and economic aspects. The descriptions have, in a sense, been working against the depth of historical understanding and the identification of more complex networks. As a consequence, the Swedish manor house is presented as a continuous and self-contained "treasure house", with the critical perspectives and broader European context very seldom present in the characterizations.

  • 45.
    Adelswärd, Viveka
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Kommunikation. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Economou, Konstantin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Kommunikation. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Forstorp, Per-Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Kommunikation. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Linell, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Kommunikation. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Samtal i samhället: på vems villkor1997Inngår i: Rhetorica Scandinavica, ISSN 1397-0534, nr 1, s. 38-43Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det offentliga samtalets dynamik och förändring står i blickpunkten för projektet Samtal i samhället. På vems villkor? Forfattarnas intresse är att med dialogteoretiska och samtalsanalytiska begrepp och metoder studera dynamiken inom och mellan olika offentliga arenor. Delprojekten inriktar sig på diskurser där frågor om ansvar, säkerhet och risk, moral och politik står i fokus. Artikeln avslutas med en jämförelse mellan retorik och kommunikationsforskning.

  • 46.
    Adetorp, Johan
    Lund University.
    Det keltiska talar genom brakteaterna2002Inngår i: Populär Arkeologi, ISSN 0281-014X, nr 4, s. 30-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 47.
    Adetorp, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Institutionen för kulturvetenskaper, KV.
    Förhistoriska bilder som religionsvetenskaplig källa: Några kriterier att beakta vid tolkningar av religionsikonografiskt material2011Inngår i: Chaos: skandinavisk tidsskrift for religionshistoriske studier, ISSN 0108-4453, E-ISSN 1901-9106, Vol. 56, nr 2, s. 65-79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A challenge when interpreting prehistoric art is that we often lack written source material, a contemporary text written by people who lived in the cultural context that is studied. It is therefore not uncommon to use texts that are younger than the material that we want to interpret. This could lead to misinterpretations and circular arguments. Images are cultural products formed by their contemporaries and influenced by older idea traditions. This article presents four criteria that might be worth taking into consideration when interpreting prehistoric religious iconography. The article discusses how one might proceed to study prehistoric religious art and what could be helpful to keep in mind when analyzing religions by means of pictures and material culture. 

  • 48.
    Adetorp, Johan
    Lund University.
    Guldbrakteaternas ikonografi: Bilder av en folkvandringstida föreställningsvärld2003Inngår i: Adoranten, ISSN 0349-8808, s. 30-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 49.
    Adetorp, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för kulturvetenskaper (KV).
    Identitet och verksamhet: Hjulbärande gudinnor och attribut i mellaneuropeisk järnåldersikonografi2015Inngår i: Chaos: skandinavisk tidsskrift for religionshistoriske studier, ISSN 0108-4453, E-ISSN 1901-9106, Vol. 64, nr 2, s. 53-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the difference between identifying and classifying attributes and analyzes the problematic implications if we confuse the two. The empirical material consists of Gallic stone reliefs depicting goddesses with a wheel as attribute. Male deities depicted with wheels have mainly been identified as a Celtic Jupiter or a male sky god sometimes called Taranis. The Gallic goddesses show that the wheel attribute was not an identifying attribute exclusive to this god, but that it rather served as a marker for an activity shared by several deities, both male and female. The articles argument that we need to distinguish between identifying and classifying attributes in order to make a source critical and methodological correct iconographical interpretation, especially when we interpret iconographical representation without the aid of any written sources.

  • 50.
    Adetorp, Johan
    Lund University.
    Vad heter du min skarpe vän?: Vapennamn i myt och verklighet2003Inngår i: Populär Arkeologi, ISSN 0281-014X, nr 3, s. 24-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
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