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  • 501.
    Ukhov, Ivan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Probabilistic Analysis of Power and Temperature Under Process Variation for Electronic System Design2014Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, ISSN 0278-0070, E-ISSN 1937-4151, Vol. 33, nr 6, 931-944 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic system design based on deterministic techniques for power-temperature analysis is, in the context of current and future technologies, both unreliable and inefficient since the presence of uncertainty, in particular, due to process variation, is disregarded. In this paper, we propose a flexible probabilistic framework targeted at the quantification of the transient power and temperature variations of an electronic system. The framework is capable of modeling diverse probability laws of the underlying uncertain parameters and arbitrary dependencies of the system on such parameters. For the considered system, under a given workload, our technique delivers analytical representations of the corresponding stochastic power and temperature profiles. These representations allow for a computationally efficient estimation of the probability distributions and accompanying quantities of the power and temperature characteristics of the system. The approximation accuracy and computational time of our approach are assessed by a range of comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations, which confirm the efficiency of the proposed technique.

  • 502.
    Ukhov, Ivan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Temperature-Centric Reliability Analysis and Optimization of Electronic Systems under Process Variation2015Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (vlsi) Systems, ISSN 1063-8210, E-ISSN 1557-9999, Vol. 23, nr 11, 2417-2430 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic system designs that ignore process variationare unreliable and inefficient. In this paper, we propose asystem-level framework for the analysis of temperature-inducedfailures that considers the uncertainty due to process variation.As an intermediate step, we also develop a probabilistic techniquefor dynamic steady-state temperature analysis. Given an electronicsystem under a certain workload, our framework deliversthe corresponding survival function, founded on the basis ofwell-established reliability models, with a closed-form stochasticparameterization in terms of the quantities that are uncertain atthe design stage. The proposed solution is exemplified consideringsystems with periodic workloads that suffer from the thermalcyclingfatigue. The analysis of this fatigue is a challengingproblem as it requires the availability of detailed temperatureprofiles, which are uncertain due to the variability of processparameters. To demonstrate the computational efficiency of ourframework, we undertake a design-space exploration procedureto minimize the expected energy consumption under a set oftiming, thermal, and reliability constraints.

  • 503.
    Ukhov, Ivan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Marculescu, Diana
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, USA.
    Eles, Petru Ion
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fast Synthesis of Power and Temperature Profiles for the Development of Data-Driven Resource Managers2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this work is to facilitate the development of proactive power- and temperature-aware resource managers that leverage machine learning in order to attain their objectives. In this context, the availability of sufficiently large amounts of relevant data, which are essential for learning and, therefore, exploration of research ideas, is elusive. In order to fulfill the need, we present a toolchain for fast generation of realistic power and temperature profiles of computer systems. The toolchain provides profuse representative data to learn from during development stages. The overreaching objective is to help research by making it tractable to experiment with the highly promising but data-demanding state-of-the-art techniques for prediction.

  • 504.
    Ukhov, Ivan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Marculescu, Diana
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, USA.
    Eles, Petru Ion
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fine-Grained Long-Range Prediction of Resource Usage in Computer Clusters2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to facilitate the development of intelligent resource managers of computer clusters, we investigate the utility of the state-of-the-art neural networks for the purpose of fine-grained long-range prediction of the resource usage in one such cluster. We consider a large data set of real-life traces and describe in detail our workflow, starting from making the data accessible for learning and finishing by predicting the resource usage of individual tasks multiple steps ahead. The experimental results indicate that such fine-grained traces as the ones considered possess a certain structure, and that this structure can be extracted by advanced machine-learning techniques and subsequently utilized for making informed predictions.

  • 505.
    Ukhov, Ivan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Villani, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Statistik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Statistical Analysis of Process Variation Based on Indirect Measurements for Electronic System Design2014Ingår i: 2014 19TH ASIA AND SOUTH PACIFIC DESIGN AUTOMATION CONFERENCE (ASP-DAC), New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, 436-442 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a framework for the analysis of process variation across semiconductor wafers. The framework is capable of quantifying the primary parameters affected by process variation, e.g., the effective channel length, which is in contrast with the former techniques wherein only secondary parameters were considered, e.g., the leakage current. Instead of taking direct measurements of the quantity of interest, we employ Bayesian inference to draw conclusions based on indirect observations, e.g., on temperature. The proposed approach has low costs since no deployment of expensive test structures might be needed or only a small subset of the test equipments already deployed for other purposes might need to be activated. The experimental results present an assessment of our framework for a wide range of configurations.

  • 506.
    Uppman, Hannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Computational Complexity of the Minimum Cost Homomorphism Problem on Three-element Domains2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study the computational complexity of the extended minimum cost homomorphism problem (Min-Cost-Hom) as a function of a constraint language, i.e. a set of constraint relations and cost functions that are allowed to appear in instances. A wide range of natural combinatorial optimisation problems can be expressed as extended Min-Cost-Homs and a classification of their complexity would be highly desirable, both from a direct, applied point of view as well as from a theoretical perspective.

    The extended Min-Cost-Hom can be understood either as a flexible optimisation version of the constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) or a restriction of the (general-valued) valued constraint satisfaction problem (VCSP). Other optimisation versions of CSPs such as the minimum solution problem (Min-Sol) and the minimum ones problem (Min-Ones) are special cases of the extended Min-Cost-Hom.

    The study of VCSPs has recently seen remarkable progress. A complete classification for the complexity of finite-valued languages on arbitrary finite domains has been obtained Thapper and Živný [STOC’13]. However, understanding the complexity of languages that are not finitevalued appears to be more difficult. The extended Min-Cost-Hom allows us to study problematic languages of this type without having to deal with with the full generality of the VCSP. A recent classification for the complexity of three-element Min-Sol, Uppman [ICALP’13], takes a step in this direction. In this paper we generalise this result considerably by determining the complexity of three-element extended Min-Cost-Hom.

  • 507.
    Uppman, Hannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Max-Sur-CSP on Two Elements2012Ingår i: Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming 18th International Conference, CP 2012, Québec City, QC, Canada, October 8-12, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Michela Milano, Springer Berlin Heidelberg , 2012, 38-54 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Max-Sur-CSP is the following optimisation problem: given a set of constraints, find a surjective mapping of the variables to domain values that satisfies as many of the constraints as possible. Many natural problems, e.g. Minimum k-Cut (which has many different applications in a variety of fields) and Minimum Distance (which is an important problem in coding theory), can be expressed as Max-Sur-CSPs. We study Max-Sur-CSP on the two-element domain and determine the computational complexity for all constraint languages (families of allowed constraints). Our results show that the problem is solvable in polynomial time if the constraint language belongs to one of three classes, and NP-hard otherwise. An important part of our proof is a polynomial-time algorithm for enumerating all near-optimal solutions to a generalised minimum cut problem. This algorithm may be of independent interest.

  • 508.
    Uppman, Hannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    On Some Combinatorial Optimization Problems: Algorithms and Complexity2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the computational complexity of several classes of combinatorial optimization problems, all related to the constraint satisfaction problems.

    A constraint language consists of a domain and a set of relations on the domain. For each such language there is a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP). In this problem we are given a set of variables and a collection of constraints, each of which is constraining some variables with a relation in the language. The goal is to determine if domain values can be assigned to the variables in a way that satisfies all constraints. An important question is for which constraint languages the corresponding CSP can be solved in polynomial time. We study this kind of question for optimization problems related to the CSPs.

    The main focus is on extended minimum cost homomorphism problems. These are optimization versions of CSPs where instances come with an objective function given by a weighted sum of unary cost functions, and where the goal is not only to determine if a solution exists, but to find one of minimum cost. We prove a complete classification of the complexity for these problems on three-element domains. We also obtain a classification for the so-called conservative case.

    Another class of combinatorial optimization problems are the surjective maximum CSPs. These problems are variants of CSPs where a non-negative weight is attached to each constraint, and the objective is to find a surjective mapping of the variables to values that maximizes the weighted sum of satisfied constraints. The surjectivity requirement causes these problems to behave quite different from for example the minimum cost homomorphism problems, and many powerful techniques are not applicable. We prove a dichotomy for the complexity of the problems in this class on two-element domains. An essential ingredient in the proof is an algorithm that solves a generalized version of the minimum cut problem. This algorithm might be of independent interest.

    In a final part we study properties of NP-hard optimization problems. This is done with the aid of restricted forms of polynomial-time reductions that for example preserves solvability in sub-exponential time. Two classes of optimization problems similar to those discussed above are considered, and for both we obtain what may be called an easiest NP-hard problem. We also establish some connections to the exponential time hypothesis.

  • 509.
    Uppman, Hannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The Complexity of Three-Element Min-Sol and Conservative Min-Cost-Hom2013Ingår i: Automata, Languages, and Programming 40th International Colloquium, ICALP 2013, Riga, Latvia, July 8-12, 2013, Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Fedor V. Fomin, Rūsiņš Freivalds, Marta Kwiatkowska, David Peleg, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, 804-815 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thapper and Živný [STOC’13] recently classified the complexity of VCSP for all finite-valued constraint languages. However, the complexity of VCSPs for constraint languages that are not finite-valued remains poorly understood. In this paper we study the complexity of two such VCSPs, namely Min-Cost-Hom and Min-Sol. We obtain a full classification for the complexity of Min-Sol on domains that contain at most three elements and for the complexity of conservative Min-Cost-Hom on arbitrary finite domains. Our results answer a question raised by Takhanov [STACS’10, COCOON’10].

  • 510.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Framework for Within Day Rescheduling due to UnexpectedIncidents in Transportation Networks2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In activity based modelling the concept of rescheduling is very important in order to gain dynamic scheduling of activities and to adjust the effect of unexpected incidents in individual agendas to keep them realistic and valid. This report describes a new framework to investigate algorithms for rescheduling on a large scale. This framework models the information of traffic demand and results of micro simulation of traffic on a loaded network; it enables agents to adapt their schedules by providing them with information about the traffic flow. A perception filter for each agent is included in this framework. It models the concept that some agents can notice the broadcast traffic information about the incident and get their own prediction of the expected delay, while other agents who do not notice the information can become aware only by experiencing traffic jam. Initial agendas are created by means of the FEATHERS activity based schedule generator for mutually independent agents. FEATHERS has no knowledge about the actual transportation network but makes use of an impedance matrix that specifies the minimal travel time between traffic analysis zones. The matrix specifies a free-flow value for the uncongested case and correction values for the loaded network. In this new framework the network state can be changed by agent behaviour and external incidents; the effect of this change in network state is perceived differently by each agent through a perception filter, and according to the perceived value individual adaption is calculated by a ReScheduler. The modified behaviour again creates new traffic demand hence creating a new traffic state; this phenomenon continues for the complete day. Each activity in the agenda is assumed to generate some utility. Each individual is assumed to maximize the total utility over the day. The ReScheduler is implemented using a marginal utility function that monotonically decreases with activity duration. This results in a monotonically converging relaxation algorithm to efficiently determine the new activity timing when less time is available for activities due to increased travel time caused by the incident.

  • 511.
    Vasconcelos Jansson, Erik Sven
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Analysis of Test Coverage Data on a Large-Scale Industrial System2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Software testing verifies the program's functional behavior, one important process when engineering critical software. Measuring the degree of testing is done with code coverage, describing the amount of production code affected by tests. Both concepts are extensively used for industrial systems. Previous research has shown that gathering and analyzing test coverages becomes problematic on large-scale systems. Here, development experience, implementation feasibility, coverage measurements and analysis method are explored; providing potential solutions and insights into these issues.

    Outlined are methods for constructing and integrating such gathering and analysis system in a large-scale project, along with the problems encountered and given remedies. Instrumentations for gathering coverage information affect performance negatively, these measurements are provided. Since large-scale test suite measurements are quite lacking, the line, branch, and function criteria are presented here. Finally, an analysis method is proposed, by using coverage set operations and Jaccard indices, to find test similarities.

    Results gathered imply execution time was significantly affected when gathering coverage, [2.656, 2.911] hours for instrumented software, originally between [2.075, 2.260] on the system under test, given under the alpha = 5% and n = 4, while both processor & memory usages were inconclusive. Measured criteria were (59.3, 70.7, 24.6)% for these suites. Analysis method shows potential areas of test redundancy.

  • 512.
    Vasilevskaya, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Ariani Gunawan, Linda
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Herrmann, Peter
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU.
    Integrating security mechanisms into embedded systems by domain-specific modelling2014Ingår i: Security and Communication Networks, ISSN 1939-0114, E-ISSN 1939-0122, Vol. 7, nr 12, 2815-2832 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded devices are crucial enablers of the Internet of Things and become increasingly common in our daily life. They store, manipulate and transmit sensitive information and, therefore, must be protected against security threats. Due to the security and also resource constraint concerns, designing secure networked embedded systems is a difficult task. Model-based development (MBD) is promoted to address complexity and ease the design of software intensive systems. We leverage MBD and domain-specific modelling to characterise common issues related to security and embedded systems that are specific to a given application domain. Security-specific knowledge relevant for a certain application domain is represented in the form of an adapted information security ontology. Further, the elements of the ontology are associated with security building blocks modelled with the MBD method SPACE. The selection of relevant security building blocks is based on (i) assets automatically elicited from the functional models, (ii) domain security knowledge captured by the security expert and (iii) the platform adopted by the embedded system engineer. A tool is developed to support the steps supporting this methodology and help to bridge between the security and embedded systems domains. We illustrate our approach with a case study from the smart metering domain.

  • 513.
    Vasilevskaya, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Broman, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sandahl, Kristian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    An Assessment Model for Large Project Courses2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the 45th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (SIGCSE), Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Larger project courses, such as capstone projects, are essential in a modern computing curriculum. Assessing such projects is, how- ever, extremely challenging. There are various aspects and trade-offs of assessments that can affect the quality of a project course. Individual assessments can give fair grading of individuals, but may loose focus of the project as a group activity. Extensive teacher involvement is necessary for objective assessment, but may affect the way students are working. Continuous feedback to students can enhance learning, but may be hard to combine with fair assessment. Most previous work is focusing on some specific assessment aspect, whereas we in this paper present an assessment model that consists of a collection of assessment activities, each covering different aspects. We have applied, developed, and improved these activities during a six-year period and evaluated their usefulness by performing a questionnaire-based survey.

  • 514.
    Vasilevskaya, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Broman, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Sandahl, Kristian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Assessing Large Project Courses: Model, Activities, and Lessons Learned2015Ingår i: ACM Transactions on Computing Education, ISSN 1946-6226, E-ISSN 1946-6226, Vol. 15, nr 4, 20:1-20:30 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a modern computing curriculum, large project courses are essential to give students hands-on experience of working in a realistic software engineering project. Assessing such projects is, however, extremely challenging. There are various aspects and tradeoffs of assessments that can affect the course quality. Individual assessments can give fair grading of individuals, but may loose focus of the project as a group activity. Extensive teacher involvement is necessary for objective assessment, but may affect the way students are working. Continuous feedback to students can enhance learning, but may be hard to combine with fair assessment. Most previous work is focusing on some specific assessment aspect, whereas we in this paper present an assessment model that consists of a collection of assessment activities, each covering different aspects. We have applied, developed, and improved these activities during a seven-year period. To evaluate the usefulness of the model, we perform questionnaire-based surveys over a two-years period. Furthermore, we design and execute an experiment that studies to what extent students can perform fair peer assessment and to what degree the assessments of students and teachers agree. We analyze the results, discuss findings, and summarize lessons learned.

  • 515.
    Vasilevskaya, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Linda, Ariani Gunawan
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Peter, Herrmann
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Security Asset Elicitation for Collaborative Models2012Ingår i: MDsec '12 Proceedings of the Workshop on Model-Driven Security, ACM Digital Library , 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Building secure systems is a difficult job for most engineers since it requires in-depth understanding of security aspects. This task, however, can be assisted by capturing security knowledge in a particular domain and reusing the knowl- edge when designing applications. We use this strategy and employ an information security ontology to represent the se- curity knowledge. The ontology is associated with system designs which are modelled in collaborative building blocks specifying the behaviour of several entities. In this paper, we identify rules to be applied to the elements of collaborations in order to identify security assets present in the design. Further, required protection mechanisms are determined by applying a reasoner to the ontology and the obtained assets. We exemplify our approach with a case study from the smart metering domain. 

  • 516.
    Vasilevskaya, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Quantifying Risks to Data Assets Using Formal Metrics in Embedded System Design2015Ingår i: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 34th International Conference, SAFECOMP 2015, Delft, The Netherlands, September 23-25, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Floor Koornneef; Coen van Gulijk, Springer, 2015, Vol. 9337, 347-361 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses quantifying security risks associated with data assets within design models of embedded systems. Attack and system behaviours are modelled as time-dependent stochastic processes. The presence of the time dimension allows accounting for dynamic aspects of potential attacks and a system: the probability of a success- ful attack changes as time progresses; and a system possesses different data assets as its execution unfolds. These models are used to quan- tify two important attributes of security: confidentiality and integrity. In particular, likelihood/consequence-based measures of confidentiality and integrity losses are proposed to characterise security risks to data assets. In our method, we consider attack and system behaviours as two sepa- rate models that are later elegantly combined for security analysis. This promotes knowledge reuse and avoids adding extra complexity in the system design process. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and metrics on smart metering devices. 

  • 517.
    Vasilevskaya, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Support for Cross-domain Composition of Embedded Systems Using MARTE Models2013Ingår i: ACM SIGBED Review, ISSN 1551-3688, 37-45 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract—Embedded systems have evolved from tailormade systems developed by specialist engineers to artefacts built from complex software/hardware components with many extra-functional concerns. Ubiquity of embedded devices demands other facets such as security and safety to be brought to the fore- front. At the same time, cost efficiency dictates building systems from reusable building blocks. However, integration of extra- functional building blocks comes with a certain performance resource overhead that must be taken into consideration while designing resource-constraint embedded systems. This paper builds on the premise that functional models can be extended with platform modelling to help the application engineers to select the right extra-functional building blocks accounting for performance implications of their integration. We define a UML profile relating it to relevant parts of the MARTE profile in order to capture the performance analysis results for a reusable building block, and a generic notion of model-based compatibility analysis for platform models. Additionally, our approach rests on creation of ontologies to store MARTE description of hardware components, and is supported by a MagicDraw plugin developed for capturing the analysis results and performing the compatibility analysis.

  • 518.
    Vasilevskaya, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Support for Cross-domain Composition ofEmbedded Systems Using MARTE Models2015Ingår i: ACM SIGBED Review, ISSN 1551-3688Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded systems have evolved from tailormade systems developed by specialists to artefacts built from complex software/hardware components with many extra-functional concerns. Ubiquity of embedded devices demands other facets such as security and safety to be brought to the forefront. At the same time, cost efficiency dictates building systems from reusable building blocks. However, integration of extra-functional building blocks comes with a certain resource overhead that must be taken into consideration while designing resource-constrained embedded systems. This paper builds on the premise that functional models can be extended with platform modelling to help the application engineers to select the right extra-functional building blocks while accounting for performance implications of their integration. We define a UML profile relating it to relevant parts of the MARTE profile in order to capture the performance analysis results for a reusable building block, and a generic notion of model-based compatibility analysis for platform models. Additionally, our approach rests on creation of ontologies to store MARTE descriptions of hardware components, and is supported by a MagicDraw plugin developed for capturing the analysis results and performing the compatibility analysis.

  • 519.
    Vergara Alonso, Ekhiotz Jon
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Energy Modelling and Fairness for Efficient Mobile Communication2016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy consumption and its management have been clearly identified as a challenge in computing and communication system design, where energy economy is obviously of paramount importance for battery powered devices. This thesis addresses the energy efficiency of mobile communication at the user end in the context of cellular networks.

    We argue that energy efficiency starts by energy awareness and propose EnergyBox, a parametrised tool that enables accurate and repeatable energy quantification at the user end using real data traffic traces as input. EnergyBox offers an abstraction of the underlying states for operation of the wireless interfaces and allows to estimate the energy consumption for different operator settings and device characteristics. The tool is used throughout the thesis to quantify and reveal inefficient data communication patterns of widely used mobile applications.

    We consider two different perspectives in the search of energy-efficient solutions. From the application perspective, we show that systematically quantifying the energy consumption of design choices (e.g., communication patterns, protocols, and data formats) contributes to a significantly smaller energy footprint. From the system perspective, we devise a cross-layer solution that schedules packet transmissions based on the knowledge of the network parameters that impact the energy consumption of the handset. These attempts show that application level decisions require a better understanding of possible energy apportionment policies at system level.

    Finally, we study the generic problem of determining the contribution of an entity (e.g., application) to the total energy consumption of a given system (e.g., mobile device). We compare the state-of-the-art policies in terms of fairness leveraging cooperative game theory and analyse their required information and computational complexity. We show that providing incentives to reduce the total energy consumption of the system (as part of fairness) is tightly coupled to the policy selection. Our study provides guidelines to select an appropriate policy depending on the characteristics of the system. 

  • 520.
    Vergara Alonso, Ekhiotz Jon
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Exploiting Energy Awareness in Mobile Communication2013Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Although evolving mobile technologies bring millions of users closer to the vision of information anywhere-anytime, device battery depletions hamper the quality of experience to a great extent. The massive explosion of mobile applications with the ensuing data exchange over the cellular infrastructure is not only a blessing to the mobile user, but also has a price in terms of rapid discharge of the device battery. Wireless communication is a large contributor to the energy consumption. Thus, the current call for energy economy in mobile devices poses the challenge of reducing the energy consumption of wireless data transmissions at the user end by developing energy-efficient communication.

    This thesis addresses the energy efficiency of data transmission at the user end in the context of cellular networks. We argue that the design of energy-efficient solutions starts by energy awareness and propose EnergyBox, a parametrised tool that enables accurate and repeatable energy quantification at the user end using real data traffic traces as input. EnergyBox abstracts the underlying states for operation of the wireless interfaces and allows to estimate the energy consumption for different operator settings and device characteristics.

    Next, we devise an energy-efficient algorithm that schedules the packet transmissions at the user end based on the knowledge of the network parameters that impact the handset energy consumption. The solution focuses on the characteristics of a given traffic class with the lowest quality of service requirements. The cost of running the solution itself is studied showing that the proposed cross-layer scheduler uses a small amount of energy to significantly extend the battery lifetime at the cost of some added latency. 

    Finally, the benefit of employing EnergyBox to systematically study the different design choices that developers face with respect to data transmissions of applications is shown in the context of location sharing services and instant messaging applications. The results show that quantifying energy consumption of communication patterns, protocols, and data formats can aid the design of tailor-made solutions with a significantly smaller energy footprint. 

  • 521.
    Vergara Alonso, Ekhiotz Jon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Simon
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    When Mice Consume Like Elephants: Instant Messaging Applications2014Ingår i: e-Energy '14: Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Future energy systems, ACM Press, 2014, 97-107 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent surge in the usage of instant messaging (IM) applications on mobile devices has brought the energy efficiency of these applications into focus of attention. Although IM applications are changing the message communication landscape, this work illustrates that the current versions of IM applications differ vastly in energy consumption when using the third generation (3G) cellular communication. This paper shows the interdependency between energy consumption and IM data patterns in this context. We analyse the user interaction pattern using a IM dataset, consisting of 1043370 messages collected from 51 mobile users. Based on the usage characteristics, we propose a message bundling technique that aggregates consecutive messages over time, reducing the energy consumption with a trade-off against latency. The results show that message bundling can save up to 43% in energy consumption while still maintaining the conversation function. Finally, the energy cost of a common functionality used in IM applications that informs that the user is currently typing a response, so called typing notification, is evaluated showing an energy increase ranging from 40-104%.

  • 522.
    Vergara Alonso, Ekhiotz Jon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    EnergyBox: A Trace-driven Tool for Data Transmission Energy Consumption Studies2013Ingår i: EE-LSDS 2013, Energy Efficiency in Large Scale Distributed Systems, Springer, 2013, 19-34 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although evolving mobile technologies bring millions of users closer to the vision of information anywhere-anytime, device battery depletions hamper the quality of experience to a great extent. We argue that the design of energy-efficient solutions starts by energy-awareness and propose EnergyBox, a tool that provides accurate and repeatable energy consumption studies for 3G and WiFi transmissions at the user end. We recognize that the energy consumption of data transmission is highly dependable on the traffic pattern, and provide the means for trace-based iterative packet-driven simulation to derive the operation states of wireless interfaces. The strength of EnergyBox is that it allows to modularly set the 3G network parameters specified at operator level, the adaptive power save mode mechanism for a WiFi device, and the different power levels of the operation states for different handheld devices. EnergyBox enables efficient energy consumption studies using real data, which complements the device-dependent laborious physical power measurements. Using real application transmission traces, we have validated EnergyBox showing an accuracy range of 94-99% for 3G and 93-99% for WiFi compared to the real measured energy consumption by a 3G modem and a smartphone with WiFi.

  • 523.
    Vergara Alonso, Ekhiotz Jon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fairness and Incentive Considerations in Energy Apportionment Policies2016Ingår i: ACM Transactions on Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Computing Systems, ISSN 2376-3639, Vol. 2, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy consumption of a system is determined by the system component usage patterns and interactions between the coexisting entities and resources. Energy accounting plays an essential role to reveal the contribution of each entity to the total consumption and for energy management. Unfortunately, energy accounting inherits the apportionment problem of accounting in general, which does not have a general single best solution. In this paper we leverage cooperative game theory commonly used in cost allocation problems to study the energy apportionment problem, i.e., the problem of prescribing the actual energy consumption of a system to the consuming entities (e.g., applications, processes or users of the system).

    We identify five relevant fairness properties for energy apportionment and present a detailed categorisation and analysis of eight previously proposed energy apportionment policies from different fields in computer and communication systems. In addition, we propose two novel energy apportionment policies based on cooperative game theory which provide strong fairness notion and a rich incentive structure. Our comparative analysis in terms of the identified five fairness properties as well as information requirement and computational complexity shows that there is a trade-off between fairness and the other evaluation criteria. We provide guidelines to select an energy apportionment policy depending on the purpose of the apportionment and the characteristics of the system.

  • 524.
    Vergara Alonso, Ekhiotz Jon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Watts2Share: Energy-Aware Traffic Consolidation2013Ingår i: Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom), 2013 IEEE and Internet of Things (iThings/CPSCom), IEEE International Conference on and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing, IEEE Computer Society, 2013, 14-22 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy consumption is becoming the Achilles' heel of the mobile user quality of experience partly due to undisciplined use of the cellular (3G) transmissions by applications. The operator infrastructure is typically configured for peak performance, whereas during periods of underutilisation the handsets pay the price by staying in high energy states even if each application only uses a fraction of the maximum available bandwidth. In this paper we promote a bi-radio scenario where instead of independently using own cellular connections, several users share a single cellular link offered by one member of a coalition (a rotating aggregator). We present Watts2Share, an architecture for energy-aware traffic consolidation whereby group members' data flows transmitted through a second radio (e.g., WiFi) are aggregated by the aggregator and retransmitted through the cellular link. Through careful and repeatable studies we demonstrate that this scheme saves up to 68% of the total transmission energy in handsets compared to a pure 3G scenario. The studies are based on a wide range of real traffic traces and real cellular operator settings, and further illustrate that this scheme reduces the overall energy by reducing the signalling overhead, as well as extending the lifetime of all handsets.

  • 525.
    Vergara Alonso, Ekhiotz Jon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Asplund, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sharing the Cost of Lunch: Energy Apportionment Policies2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 11th ACM Symposium on QoS and Security for Wireless and Mobile Networks, ACM Digital Library, 2015, 91-97 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy consumption has become a hot topic in computer and communication technologies pinpointing the need to carefully analyse system efficiency. The energy consumption of a system is determined by the usage patterns of system components and complex interactions between the coexisting entities and resources. Providing transparency of a system’s consumption by breaking down the total consumption is vital to evaluate and provide energy-efficient design and operation.

    In this paper we survey the apportionment problem in different fields such as computer systems, wireless sensor networks, mobile devices and energy-efficient buildings. The challenge lies in how to attribute a share of the total energy consumption to the responsible entities (e.g., applications, processes or users of the system). Our analysis identifies that energy apportionment is a common problem in different fields and reviews five previously applied energy apportionment policies. Also, the work identifies relevant further research.

  • 526.
    Vergara Alonso, Ekhiotz Jon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Prihodko, Mihails
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    EnergyBox: Disclosing the wireless transmission energy cost for mobile devices2014Ingår i: Sustainable Computing: Informatics and Systems, ISSN 2210-5379, Vol. 4, nr 2, 118-135 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While evolving mobile technologies bring millions of users closer to the vision of information anywhere-anytime, device battery depletions still hamper the quality of experience to a great extent. The energy consumption of data transmission is highly dependent on the traffic pattern, and we argue that designing energy efficient data transmissions starts by energy awareness. Our work proposes EnergyBox, a parametrised tool that facilitates accurate and repeatable energy consumption studies for 3G and WiFi transmissions at the user end using real traffic data.

    The tool takes as input the parameters of a network operator and the power draw for a given mobile device in the 3G and WiFi transmission states. It outputs an estimate of the consumed energy for a given packet trace, either synthetic or captured in a device using real applications. Using nine different applications with different data patterns the versatility and accuracy of the tool was evaluated. The evaluation was carried out for a modern and popular smartphone in the WiFi setting, a specific mobile broadband module for the 3G setting, and within the operating environment of a major mobile operator in Sweden. A comparison with real power traces indicates that EnergyBox is a valuable tool for repeatable and convenient studies. It exhibits an accuracy of 94–99% for 3G, and 95–99% for WiFi given the studied applications’ traces.

    Next the tool was deployed in a use case where a location sharing application was ran on top of two alternative application layer protocols (HTTP and MQTT) and with two different data exchange formats (JSON and Base64). The illustrative use case helped to identify the appropriateness of the pull and push strategies in sharing location data, and the benefit of EnergyBox in characterising where the breaking point lies for preferring one or the other protocol, under which network load, or exchange data format.

  • 527.
    Vergara Alonso, Ekhiotz Jon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Prihodko, Mihails
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mobile Location Sharing: An Energy Consumption Study2013Ingår i: e-Energy '13 Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Future Energy Systems: Where Energy, Computing and Communication Meet, New York, NY, USA: ACM Press, 2013, 289-290 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of a mobile device's battery for frequent transmissions of position data in a location sharing application can be more expensive than the location retrieval itself. This is in part due to energy-agnostic application development and in part dependent on choice of protocols. This paper studies the lightweight Message Queuing Telemetry Transport protocol (MQTT) as an application layer protocol on top of the third generation cellular communication. The energy efficiency and amount of data generated by the publish/subscribe MQTT protocol is experimentally compared against the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which is currently used in typical location sharing applications.

    The evaluation results indicate that MQTT is a good candidate as a protocol for location sharing. At comparable bandwidth and energy expenses MQTT offers better quality of user experience, since the subscribers are notified at once when the location of some interesting client has changed. Our measurements show that MQTT is more energy-efficient than HTTP in the idle state and when the number of other users with whom the client shares location is low. When the number of users increases beyond 3, HTTP becomes the preferred option in terms of energy efficiency at the cost of a higher notification delay.

  • 528.
    Vergara Alonso, Ekhiotz Jon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sanjuan, Joseba
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kernel Level Energy-Efficient 3G Background Traffic Shaper for Android Smartphones2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the energy consumption of wireless devices is paramount to a wide spread adoption of mobile applications. Cellular communication imposes high energy consumption on the mobile devices due to the radio resource allocation, which differs from other networks such as WiFi. Most applications are unaware of the energy consumption characteristics of third generation cellular communication (3G). This makes the background small data transfers of undisciplined applications an energy burden due to inefficient utilisation of resources.

    While several approaches exist to reduce the energy consumption of this best-effort background traffic by means of traffic shaping, we find that they are mostly evaluated with simulations and the actual energy overhead for the traffic shaper itself has not been studied. In order to cover this gap, our work realises an existing energy saving algorithm as a Kernel Level Shaper (KLS) within the Android platform, and measures its energy footprint. The total energy savings of our implementation range from 8% to 58% for emulated real background traffic, that is categorised as best-effort traffic. We further show the implications of running the KLS during live operation of applications as an exploratory study.

  • 529.
    Vergara, Ekhiotz Jon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Energy-aware Cross-layer Burst Buffering for Wireless Communication2012Ingår i: e-Energy '12 Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Future Energy Systems: Where Energy, Computing and Communication Meet, ACM , 2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The massive explosion of mobile applications with the ensuing data exchange over the cellular infrastructure is not only a blessing to the mobile user but also has a price in terms of regular discharging of the device battery. A big contributor to this energy consumption is the power hungry wireless network interface. We leverage a measurement kit to perform accurate physical energy consumption measurements in a third generation (3G) telecommunication modem thus isolating the energy footprint of data transfers as opposed to other mobile phone-based measurement studies. Using the measurement kit we show how the statically configured network parameters, i.e., channel switch timers, and buffer thresholds, in addition to the transfer data pattern and the radio coverage, impact the communication energy footprint. We then demonstrate that being aware of static network parameters creates room for energy savings. This is done by devising a set of algorithms that (a) infer the network parameters efficiently, and (b) use the parameters in a new packet scheduler in the device. The combined regime is shown to transfer background uplink data, from real world traces of Facebook and Skype, with significant energy saving compared to the state-of-the-art.

  • 530.
    Viel, Brieuc
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Asplund, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Why is fingerprint-based indoor localization still so hard?2014Ingår i: IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PERCOM Workshops), IEEE Computer Society, 2014, 443-448 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless indoor localization systems and especially signal strength fingerprinting techniques have been the subject of significant research efforts in the last decades. However, most of the proposed solutions require a costly site-survey to build the radio map which can be used to match radio signatures with specific locations. We investigate a novel indoor localization system that addresses the data collection problem by progressively and semi-autonomously creating a radio-map with limited interaction cost. Moreover, we investigate how spatiotemporal and hardware properties-based variations can affect the RSSI values collected and significantly influence the resulting localization. We show the impact of these fluctuations on our system and discuss possible mitigations.

  • 531.
    Vincelette, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Forecast: Beräkningar på affärs data2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    RemoteX Technologies AB är ett mjukvaruföretag i Stockholm. De utvecklar branschlösningar för ärendehantering och administration inom och mellan företrädandevis serviceföretag, ex. fastighetsförvaltning, VVS och byggbolag. Deras produkt heter RemoteX Applications och har sedan ett par månader tillbaka en möjlighet att kunna generera jobb utifrån fördefinierade scheman, vilket säkerställer att man kan hantera sina åtaganden i form av ronderingar och planerat underhåll. Deras kunder saknar dock en möjlighet att se vad den samlade mängden scheman kommer att generera framåt i tiden.Detta examensarbete syftar till att bygga en simulator för att beräkna hur mycket jobb som genereras och visa upp detta i ett webbgränssnitt. Simulatorn kommer skrivas i C# och hämta data från bakomliggande databas med LINQ to SQL och fokus ligger på att göra simuleringen så effektiv som möjligt med de tekniker som används. Webbgränssnittet skrivs i HTML5 och JavaScript och använder sig av färdiga JavaScript bibliotek för att visualisera prognosen som skapas av simulatorn.En slutpunkt har byggts i RemoteX REST API som tillhandahåller prognoser 6 månader framåt i tiden. Det går att ge parametrar till slutpunkten för att filtrera sin prognos ytterligare. En front-end som är en ny vy inom planning modulen har skapats och denna kommunicerar med slutpunkten. Denna front-end visualiserar prognosen i form av en agenda.

  • 532.
    Vogel, Harald
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Enhetstestning inom PL/SQL - en fallstudie2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att ha ett väl fungerande automatiskt testsystem är allt viktigare inom mjukvaruutveckling. Tyvärr är det fortfarande vanligt med företag som framförallt förlitar sig på manuell testning i olika former vilket för med sig en rad problem. Extra svårt blir det för de ovanligare programmeringsspråken, som inte har samma historia av automatisk testning som andra språk. Genom att implementera enhetstestning på liten skala på ett riktigt system i PL/SQL och mäta resultaten, kan flera slutsatser dras om enhetstestnings duglighet. Enhetstestning tar betydligt kortare tid att exekvera än motsvarande tester manuellt och kan lätt återupprepas. De kan även testa kombinationer som är omöjliga eller mycket svåra att utföra manuellt, och de minskar tiden det tar att rätta buggar. Att skriva enhetstester tar initialt mycket tid och kräver en viss kunskap. Det kan även dröja innan enhetstester börjar ge resultat och de behöver underhållas allt eftersom att koden ändras. 

  • 533.
    Walander, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Larsson, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Critical success factors in Agile software development projects2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 534.
    Wang, Q.
    et al.
    Embedded Intelligent Solutions (EIS) By Semcon AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wallin, A.
    Embedded Intelligent Solutions (EIS) By Semcon AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Izosimov, Viacheslav
    Embedded Intelligent Solutions (EIS) By Semcon AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ingelsson, Urban
    Embedded Intelligent Solutions (EIS) By Semcon AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Test tool qualification through fault injection2012Ingår i: Test Symposium (ETS 2012), IEEE , 2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    According to ISO 26262, a recent automotive functional safety standard, verification tools shall undergo qualification, e.g. to ensure that they do not fail to detect faults that can lead to violation of functional safety requirements. We present a semi-automatic qualification method involving a monitor and fault injection that reduce cost in the qualification process. We experiment on a verification tool implemented in LabVIEW.

  • 535.
    Wen, Liang
    et al.
    University of Elect Science and Technology China, Peoples R China.
    Jiang, Wei
    University of Elect Science and Technology China, Peoples R China.
    Jiang, Ke
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhang, Xia
    University of Texas Dallas, TX USA.
    Pan, Xiong
    University of Elect Science and Technology China, Peoples R China.
    Zhou, Keran
    University of Elect Science and Technology China, Peoples R China.
    Detecting Fault Injection Attacks on Embedded Real-Time Applications: A System-Level Perspective2015Ingår i: 2015 IEEE 17TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING AND COMMUNICATIONS, 2015 IEEE 7TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CYBERSPACE SAFETY AND SECURITY, AND 2015 IEEE 12TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMBEDDED SOFTWARE AND SYSTEMS (ICESS), IEEE , 2015, 700-705 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach to the synthesis of secure real-time applications mapped on distributed embedded systems, which focuses on preventing fault injection attacks. We utilize symmetric cryptographic service to protect confidentiality, and deploy fault detection within confidential algorithm to resist fault injection attacks. Several fault detection schemes are identified, and their fault coverage rates and time overheads are derived and measured, respectively. Our synthesis approach makes efforts to determine the best fault detection schemes for the encryption/decryption of messages, such that the overall security strength of resisting fault injection attack is minimized, and the deadline constraint of the real-time applications is guaranteed. Since addressing the problem is still a NP-hard problem, we propose an efficient algorithm based on Fruit fly Optimization Algorithm (FOA), which can achieve better results by lower time overheads, compared with simulated annealing algorithm. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of our approach.

  • 536.
    Wennberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Danielson, Viktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Evaluation of a Testing Process to Plan and Implement an Improved Test System: A Case Study, Evaluation and Implementation in Lab-VIEW/TestStand2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to ensure the quality of a product, the provider of the product must performcomplete testing of the product. This fact increases the demands on the test systems usedto conduct the testing, the system needs to be reliable.When developing new software for a company, sometimes a requirements specificationcreated at the beginning of the project is not enough. Details of the desired implementationmay get lost when working with a general requirements specification.This thesis presents a case study of how a certain company work with their test systems.The aim of the case study was to find where the largest points of improvements could bemade in a new test system, which was to be implemented during this thesis work. Theimplementation of this new system was done in LabVIEW in conjunction with TestStandand this process is covered in this thesis.The performed case study revealed that the employees at the company found robustnessand usability to be the key factors in a new test system. During and after the implementationof the new system, it was evaluated regarding these two metrics, this process isalso covered in this thesis.

  • 537.
    Wiberg, Fabian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Patterns for Injection of Mock Objects in a Modeling Environment2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Capsules are modeling language elements which are sometimes used to develop real-time software. One way to test such capsule elements without relying on dependencies to other units is to use mock objects. The aim of the study was to look at existing object-oriented design patterns and investigate how they could be used for capsules, in order to perform mock testing. The focus was to find solutions that were usable from the programmers’ point of view, meaning that they should promote high user effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction when implementing them. It was also important that program efficiency wasn’t affected negatively. 5 design- or refactoring patterns were adapted for capsules: Constructor Injection, Setter Injection, Parameterize Method, Factory Method and Abstract Factory. Those patterns were evaluated by 5 programmers in a usability test, where Incarnate Injection (an adaptation of Constructor Injection) and Abstract Factory were considered most usable. Incarnate Injection seemed to be easier to implement and promoted high user efficiency, while Abstract Factory was considered more flexible. The performance tests indicated that Abstract Factory compromises program efficiency when the factory product is resource-heavy and is required frequently by dependent capsules. The study showed that it is possible to adapt design patterns to capsules by looking at conceptual similarities between capsules and classes. However, there are cases when this adaptation is impossible. Furthermore, even when adaptation is possible, it was apparent that different patterns adapt differently well to capsules.

  • 538.
    Wilander, John
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Contributions to Specification, Implementation, and Execution of Secure Software2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contributes to three research areas in software security, namely security requirements and intrusion prevention via static analysis and runtime detection.

    We have investigated current practice in security requirements by doing a field study of eleven requirement specifications on IT systems. The conclusion is that security requirements are poorly specified due to three things:  inconsistency in the selection of requirements, inconsistency in level of detail, and almost no requirements on standard security solutions. A follow-up interview study addressed the reasons for the inconsistencies and the impact of poor security requirements. It shows that the projects had relied heavily on in-house security competence and that mature producers of software compensate for poor requirements in general but not in the case of security and privacy requirements specific to the customer domain.

    Further, we have investigated the effectiveness of five publicly available static analysis tools for security. The test results show high rates of false positives for the tools building on lexical analysis and low rates of true positives for the tools building on syntactical and semantical analysis. As a first step toward a more effective and generic solution we propose decorated dependence graphs as a way of modeling and pattern matching security properties of code. The models can be used to characterize both good and bad programming practice as well as visually explain code properties to programmers. We have implemented a prototype tool that demonstrates how such models can be used to detect integer input validation flaws.

    Finally, we investigated the effectiveness of publicly available tools for runtime prevention of buffer overflow attacks. Our initial comparison showed that the best tool as of 2003 was effective against only 50 % of the attacks and there were six attack forms which none of the tools could handle. A follow-up study includes the release of a buffer overflow testbed which covers 850 attack forms. Our evaluation results show that the most popular, publicly available countermeasures cannot prevent all of these buffer overflow attack forms.

  • 539.
    Wrona, Michal
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Local-to-Global Consistency Implies Tractability of Abduction2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 540.
    Wrona, Michal
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Syntactically Characterizing Local-to-Global Consistency in ORD-Horn2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Establishing local consistency is one of the most frequently used algorithmic techniques in constraint satisfaction in general and in spatial and temporal reasoning in particular. A collection of constraints is globally consistent if it is completely explicit, that is, every partial solution may be extended to a full solution by greedily assigning values to variables one at a time. We will say that a structure B has local-to-global consistency if establishing local-consistency yields a globally consistent instance of CSP(B) .

    This paper studies local-to-global consistency for ORD-Horn languages, that is, structures definable over the ordered rationals (ℚ; < ) within the formalism of ORD-Horn clauses. This formalism has attracted a lot of attention and is of crucial importance to spatial and temporal reasoning. We provide a syntactic characterization (in terms of first-order definability) of all ORD-Horn languages enjoying local-to-global consistency.

  • 541.
    Wrona, Michal
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tractability Frontier for Dually-Closed Ord-Horn Quantified Constraint Satisfaction Problems2014Ingår i: MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE 2014, PT I, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, Vol. 8634, 535-546 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A temporal constraint language is a relational structure with a first-order definition in the rational numbers with the order. We study here the complexity of the Quantified Constraint Satisfaction Problem (QCSP) for Ord-Horn languages: probably the most widely studied family of all temporal constraint languages.

    We restrict ourselves to a natural subclass that we call dually-closed Ord-Horn languages. The main result of the paper states that the QCSP for a dually-closed Ord-Horn language is either in P or it is coNP-hard.

  • 542.
    Xu, Yang
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Årzen, Karl-Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Cervin, Anton
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bini, Enrico
    Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Italy.
    Tanasa, Bogdan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Exploiting Job Response-Time Information in the Co-Design of Real-Time Control Systems2015Ingår i: 2015 IEEE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMBEDDED AND REAL-TIME COMPUTING SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, 247-256 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a real-time system of multiple tasks, each task having a plant to control. The overall quadratic control cost is to be optimized. We exploit the periodicity of the task response time, which corresponds to a periodic delay pattern in the feedback control loop. Perturbed periods are used as a tool to find a finite hyper period. We present an analytical procedure to design a periodic linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) controller for tasks with fixed execution times as well as a numerical solution to the periodic -- stochastic LQG problem for tasks with variable execution times. The controllers are evaluated using simulations in real-time scheduling and control co-design examples.

  • 543.
    Yang, Ming-Jie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Design and Implementation of a Compiler for an XML-based Hardware Description Language to Support Energy Optimization2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    GPU-based heterogeneous system architectures are popular as they combine the advantages of CPU with the benefits of GPU. Development of high-performance and power-efficient software for heterogeneous system architecture needs to take both hardware and software specifications into consideration, which leads the software development process to be more complicated. To simplify the software development process, Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) came out. By modeling the target architecture components into structural formats, programmers can adapt their software to the platforms which they used.

    XPDL is a modular and extensible XML-based platform description language which is mainly designed to support optimization.The purposes of this thesis are to design the query API (Application Programming Interface) and develop a compiler which translates the XPDL descriptors to libraries that implement the API to support programmers for the development of adaptive high-performance and energy-optimized software.

    In this thesis, we design and develop a compiler to generate the API according to the XPDL descriptors.The main workflow of the designed compiler is following: first, the toolchain validates the XPDL descriptors against XSDs. Second, it parses the descriptors into DOM trees and transforms them into XPDL model trees. Next, the compiler links all XPDL model trees together, which results in the intermediate representation (IR). Then, any unspecified node values which means the unknown attributes, are handled by microbenchmark generator and executor. In the end, the code generator generates the libraries which expose the API according to the information in the IR. Finally, a few example codes are discussed to show how the API can be used to develop performance adaptive applications on heterogeneous systems.

  • 544.
    Zadegan, Farrokh Ghani
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Carlsson, Gunnar
    Ericsson, Linköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Scenario-Based Network Design for P16872013Ingår i: SSoCC'13, 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve testability of integrated circuits against manufacturing defects, and to better handle the complexity of modern designs during debugging and characterization, it is common to embed testing, debugging, configuration, and monitoring features (called on-chip instruments) within the chip. IEEE P1687 proposes a flexible network for accessing and operating such on-chip instruments from outside the chip, and facilitates reusing instrument access procedures in different usage scenarios throughout the chip's life-cycle-spanning from chip prototyping to in-field test. Efficient access (in terms of time) to on-chip instruments requires careful design of the instrument access network. However, it is shown that a network optimized for one usage scenario, is not necessarily efficient in other scenarios. To address the problem of designing a network which is efficient in terms of instrument access time under multiple scenarios, in this work, we compare a number of network design approaches provided by P1687, in terms of instrument access time and hardware overhead.

  • 545.
    Zadegan, Farrokh Ghani
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ingelsson, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system.
    Asani, Golnaz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system.
    Carlsson, Gunnar
    Ericsson, Linköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system.
    Test Scheduling in an IEEE P1687 Environment with Resource and Power Constraints2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the Asian Test Symposium, IEEE , 2011, 525-531 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to IEEE 1149.1, IEEE P1687 allows, through segment insertion bits, flexible scan paths for accessing on-chip instruments, such as test, debug, monitoring, measurement and configuration features. Flexible access to embedded instruments allows test time reduction, which is important at production test. However, the test access scheme should be carefully selected such that resource constraints are not violated and power constraints are met. For IEEE P1687, we detail in this paper session-based and session-less test scheduling, and propose resource and power-aware test scheduling algorithms for the detailed scheduling types. Results using the implementation of our algorithms shows on ITC’02-based benchmarks significant test time reductions when compared to non-optimized test schedules.

  • 546.
    Zadegan, Farrokh Ghani
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ingelsson, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system.
    Carlsson, Gunnar
    Ericsson, Linköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system.
    Automated Design for IEEE P16872011Ingår i: The 11th Swedish System-on-Chip Conference, Varberg, Sweden, May 2-3, 2011., 2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 547.
    Zeng, Haibo
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech.
    Joshi, Prachi
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech.
    Thiele, Daniel
    Elektrobit Automotive GmbH.
    Diemer, Jonas
    Symtavision.
    Axer, Philip
    NXP Semiconductors.
    Ernst, Rolf
    Institut für Datentechnik und Kommunikationsnetze, Technische Universität Braunschweig.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Networked Real-Time Embedded Systems2017Ingår i: Handbook of Hardware/Software Codesign, Springer Netherlands, 2017, 1-40 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter gives an overview on various real-time communication protocols, from the Controller Area Network (CAN) that was standardized over twenty years ago but is still popular, to the FlexRay protocol that provides strong predictability and fault tolerance, to the more recent Ethernet-based networks. The design of these protocols including their messaging mechanisms was driven by diversified requirements on bandwidth, real-time predictability, reliability, cost, etc. The chapter provides three examples of real-time communication protocols: CAN as an example of event-triggered communication, FlexRay as a heterogeneous protocol supporting both time-triggered and event-triggered communications, and different incarnations of Ethernet that provide desired temporal guarantees.

  • 548.
    Zhang, Xia
    et al.
    University of Electronic Science and Technology, China.
    Zhang, Jinyu
    University of Electronic Science and Technology, China.
    Jiang, Wei
    University of Electronic Science and Technology, China.
    Ma, Yue
    University of Electronic Science and Technology, China.
    Jiang, Ke
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Design Optimization of Security-Sensitive Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Embedded Systems2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we are interested in securitysensitive mixed-criticality real-time systems. Existing researches on mixed-criticality systems usually are safety-oriented, which seriously ignore the security requirements. We firstly establish the system model to capture security-critical applications in mixed-criticality systems. Higher security-criticality protection always results in significant time and energy overhead in mixedcriticality systems. Thus, this paper proposes a system-level design framework for energy optimization of security-sensitive mixed-criticality system. Since the time complexity of finding optimal solutions grows exponentially as problem size grows, a GA based efficient heuristic algorithm is devised to address the system-level optimization problem. Extensive experiments demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed technique, which can obtain balanced minimal energy consumption while satisfying strict security and timing constraints.

  • 549.
    Zhang, Ying
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Li, Huawei
    Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Xiaowei
    Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Automatic Test Program Generation Using Executing Trace Based Constraint Extraction for Embedded Processors2013Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (vlsi) Systems, ISSN 1063-8210, E-ISSN 1557-9999, Vol. 21, nr 7, 1220-1233 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software-based self-testing (SBST) has been a promising method for processor testing, but the complexity of the state-of-art processors still poses great challenges for SBST. This paper utilizes the executing trace collected during executing training programs on the processor under test to simplify mappings and functional constraint extraction for ports of inner components, which facilitate structural test generation with constraints at gate level, and automatic test instruction generation (ATIG) even for hidden control logic (HCL). In addition, for sequential HCL, we present a test routine generation technique on the basis of an extended finite state machine, so that structural patterns for combinational subcircuits in the sequential HCL can be mapped into the test routines to form a test program. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed ATIG method can achieve good structural fault coverage with compact test programs on modern processors.

  • 550.
    Zhang, Ying
    et al.
    School of Software Engineering, Tongji University, China.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jiang, Jianhui
    School of Software Engineering, Tongji University, China.
    Li, Huawei
    State Key Laboratory of Computer Architecture, Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Fujita, Masahiro
    VLSI Design and Education Center, University of Tokyo, Japan .
    Temperature-Aware Software-Based Self-Testing for Delay Faults2015Ingår i: Proc. Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference (DATE’15), Grenoble, France, Mar. 9-13, 2015., 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Delay defects under high temperature have been one of the most critical factors to affect the reliability of computer systems, and the current test methods don’t address this problem properly. In this paper, a temperature-aware software-based selftesting (SBST) technique is proposed to self-heat the processors within a high temperature range and effectively test delay faults under high temperature. First, it automatically generates highquality test programs through automatic test instruction generation (ATIG), and avoids over-testing caused by nonfunctional patterns. Second, it exploits two effective powerintensive program transformations to self-heat up the processors internally. Third, it applies a greedy algorithm to search the optimized schedule of the test templates in order to generate the test program while making sure that the temperature of the processor under test is within the specified range. Experimental results show that the generated program is successful to guarantee delay test within the given temperature range, and achieves high test performance with functional patterns.

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