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  • 201.
    Aronis, Stavros
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datalogi.
    Sagonas, Konstantinos
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datalogi.
    Lystig Fritchie, Scott
    VMware, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Testing And Verifying Chain Repair Methods For CORFU Using Stateless Model Checking2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Corfu is a distributed shared log that is designed to be scalable and reliable in the presence of failures and asynchrony. Internally, Corfu is fully replicated for fault tolerance, without sharding data or sacrificing strong consistency. In this case study, we present the modeling approaches we followed to test and verify, using Concuerror, the correctness of repair methods for the Chain Replication protocol suitable for Corfu. In the first two methods we tried, Concuerror located bugs quite fast. In contrast, the tool did not manage to find bugs in the third method, but the time this took also motivated an improvement in the tool that reduces the number of traces explored. Besides more details about all the above, we present experiences and lessons learned from applying stateless model checking for verifying complex protocols suitable for distributed programming.

  • 202.
    Aronsson, John
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Bolmér, Percy
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för informationsteknologi.
    Hur forensiska verktyg påverkar integriteten på mobiltelefoner2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Användandet av mobiltelefoner och andra mobila enheter är stort i samhället vilket gör att de förekommer allt oftare vid brott och brottsutredningar. Information i dessa enheter måste kunna utvinnas och integriteten på det utvinna materialet säkerställas. Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöker om de forensiska verktygen Xry och Encase påverkar materialet vid utvinning från mobiltelefoner. För att ta reda på detta har en litteraturstudie, en intervju och två experiment utförts. Resultatet från experimenten visade på att det fanns filer vars innehåll ändrades mellan utvinningar. En analys av resultatet visade att det var systemet själv samt processer som skedde innan utvinningen som förändrat innehållet. Slutsatsen blev att verktygen inte påverkar materialet under utvinningsprocessen

  • 203.
    Artho, Cyrille
    et al.
    KTH.
    Ölveczky, P.C.
    Preface2017Ingår i: 5th International Workshop on Formal Techniques for Safety-Critical Systems, FTSCS 2016, Springer Verlag , 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 204.
    Arvidsson, Åke
    et al.
    Ericsson AB.
    Du, Manxing
    Acreo.
    Aurelius, Andreas
    Acreo.
    Kihl, Maria
    Lunds universitet.
    Analysis of user demand patterns and locality for YouTube traffic2013Ingår i: 25th International Teletraffic Congress / [ed] Zhisheng Niu. Kurt Tutschku. Zhanhong Xin och Moshe Zukerman, IEEE Communications Society, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Video content, of which YouTube is a major part, constitutes a large share of residential Internet traffic. In this paper, we analyse the user demand patterns for YouTube in two metropolitan access networks with more than 1 million requestsover three consecutive weeks in the first network and more than 600,000 requests over four consecutive weeks in the second network.

    In particular we examine the existence of “local interest communities”, i.e. the extent to which users living closer to each other tend to request the same content to a higher degree, and it is found that this applies to (i) the two networks themselves; (ii) regions within these networks (iii) households with regions and (iv) terminals within households. We also find that different types of access devices (PCs and handhelds) tend to form similar interest communities.

    It is also found that repeats are (i) “self-generating” in the sense that the more times a clip has been played, the higher the probability of playing it again, (ii) “long-lasting” in the sense that repeats can occur even after several days and (iii) “semi regular”in the sense that replays have a noticeable tendency tooccur with relatively constant intervals.

    The implications of these findings are that the benefits from large groups of users in terms of caching gain may be exaggerated, since users are different depending on where they live and what equipment they use, and that high gains can be achieved in relatively small groups or even for individual users thanks totheir relatively predictable behaviour.

  • 205.
    Arvidsson, Åke
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap. Ericsson AB.
    Rydén, Tobias
    Uppsala University.
    Load transients in pooled cellular core network nodes2015Ingår i: Performance evaluation (Print), ISSN 0166-5316, E-ISSN 1872-745X, Vol. 90, 18-35 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The coverage areas of cellular networks are logically subdivided into service areas. Each service area has a local anchor node which “hides” the mobility inside the area and the entire network has a global anchor node which “hides” the mobility between areas.

    The concept of unique local anchor nodes per service area was invented to simplify routing but has been found to complicate expansion. The rapidly growing demand for cellular access has therefore prompted for alternative solutions with pools of local anchor nodes per service area. Such pools are now deployed by several operators all over the world.

    Users in pooled service areas are mapped to specific pool members according to a load distribution policy, but the mapping can change as a result of node failures or operator interventions. Such changes take a certain time to implement and cause additional load on the anchor nodes. We study these processes in detail and derive closed form expressions which allow operators to control the trade-off between rapid changes and acceptable loads.

    Finally we show that the key assumptions of our model are in agreement with measured data and demonstrate how the model can be applied to investigate the effects of different network settings (timers) under different user behaviour (traffic and mobility).

    Contrary to current solutions to this problem, which typically are slow and/or inaccurate, our results enable fast and accurate analysis of different scenarios thereby enabling operators to maximise utilisation of the existing investments and at the same time avoid potentially dangerous situations of overload.

  • 206.
    Arvidsson, Åke
    et al.
    Ericsson AB.
    Zhang, Ying
    Ericsson AB.
    Detecting user dissatisfaction and understanding the underlying reasons2013Ingår i: ACM SIGMETRICS / International conference on measurement and modeling of computer systems, SIGMETRICS '13, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, June 17-21, 2013 / [ed] John Douceur och Jun Xu, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying quality of experience for network applications is challenging as it is a subjective metric with multiple dimensions such as user expectation, satisfaction, and overall experience. Today, despite various techniques to support differentiated Quality of Service (QoS), the operators still lack of automated methods to translate QoS to QoE, especially for general web applications.

    In this work, we take the approach of identifying unsatisfactory performance by searching for user initiated early terminations of web transactions from passive monitoring. However, user early abortions can be caused by other factors such as loss of interests. Therefore, naively using them to represent user dissatisfaction will result in large false positives. In this paper, we propose a systematic method for inferring user dissatisfaction from the set of early abortion behaviors observed from identifying the traffic traces. We conduct a comprehensive analysis on the user acceptance of throughput and response time, and compare them with the traditional MOS metric. Then we present the characteristics of early cancelation from dimensions like the types of URLs and objects. We evaluate our approach on four data sets collected in both wireline network and a wireless cellular network.

  • 207.
    Arvidsson, Åke
    et al.
    Ericsson AB.
    Zhang, Ying
    Ericsson AB.
    Neda, Beheshti
    Ericsson AB.
    Detecting user dissatisfaction from passive monitoring2013Ingår i: Proceedings of Eurocon 2013, International Conference on computer as a tool, Zagreb, Croatia, July 1-4, 2013, IEEE Communications Society, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In an increasingly competitive environment it is more important than ever for operators to keep their end users satisfied. User satisfaction is often characterised in terms of Quality of Experience (QoE), a subjective metric with multiple dimensions such as expectations, content, terminal, environment, cost and performance. QoE is typically quantified as MOS, mean opinion score, which is obtained by averaging the ranks of a number of voluntary users for controlled combinations content/terminals/performance etc. While this approach has many advantages, there are also a number of difficulties such as representativeness (the number of users as well as the number of objects and devices all have to be kept small); validity (the results may be biased by the situation, the setting, the renumeration and so on); and applicability (it is not clear how different numbers map to notions such as “acceptable” or “unacceptable” and operators alone cannot do very much about factors such as content).

    We thus investigate the possibilities of detecting user opinions in the above, simplified, terms and from the network itself; with actual expectations, content, terminals, environments, costs and performance for virtually all users all the time. To this end we revisit the earlier suggestion that user opinions be reflected in their behaviour such that poor performance may result in interrupted requests. These works have, however, considered single flows hence we extend that idea to web pages which are groups of flows. In this paper we present our methods to group flows, interpret users, and characterise performance and we make a first assessment of the correlations between web page interruptions and network performance characteristics.

  • 208.
    Aryefyev, Maksym
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    NAT traversal techniques for MediaSense open source platform2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis project concerns NAT traversal techniques and their application to P2P networking with regard to MediaSense platform. Since MediaSense open source platform, developed by Mid Sweden University, utilizes the benefits of P2P networking, it also suffers from the drawbacks provided by NAT. The issue of NAT traversal is not trivial due to the fact that the behavior of NAT devices is not standardized and vendors are free to provide their own implementations. The common knowledge is, that at least four main types of NATs exist, differing in the filtering and mapping algorithms employed. NAT traversal techniques vary accordingly. No single technique can handle all the cases. Most of the techniques can handle up to three main types of NAT. The last type is usually used in large corporate networks and is called the Symmetric NAT. The most viable, and basically the only available technique for its traversal, is data relaying. This thesis builds a NAT traversal module for the MediaSense platform. The main purpose of this module is to provide seamless NAT traversal capabilities to the platform. The module does this in several steps: UPnP enabled device discovery, NAT type determination and data relaying via the proxy. Firstly the module attempts to discover the presence of a UPnP enabled Internet Gateway Device on the network. If such a device is present on the network, a port mapping can be created, making the node located behind NAT accessible from the public Internet. If a UPnP enabled device was not found, the module will try to determine the type of NAT used. Based on the type of NAT used, the module can transit to either the proxy mode or request assistance of the STUN server to keep the created mapping alive. The resulting chapters provide the reader with the output produced by each step, conclusions the author has made while working on this project and some general ideas on future work within the subject.

  • 209.
    Asghar, Adeel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pfeiffer, Andreas
    DLR Institute of System Dynamic and Control, Wessling, Tyskland.
    Palanisamy, Arunkumar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mengist, Alachew
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sjölund, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pop, Adrian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fritzson, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Automatic Regression Testing of Simulation Models and Concept for Simulation of Connected FMUs in PySimulator2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 11th International Modelica Conference: Versailles, France, September 21-23, 2015 / [ed] Peter Fritzson, Hilding Elmqvist, Linköping, 2015, 671-679 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Modelica and FMI tool ecosystem is growing each year with new tools and methods becoming available. The open Modelica standard promises portability but it is important to ensure that a certain model behaves the same in different Modelica tools or in a different version of the same tool. It is also very important (for model evolution) to check that a new version of the same model produces comparable results. Finally, it is desirable to verify that a model exported in FMU form from a Modelica tool gives exactly the same results as the original model. This paper presents a framework for automatic regression testing as part of PySimulator which provides an efficient and concise way of testing if a model or a range of models behaves in the same way in several tools or versions of a tool by checking that the results produced are essentially identical. The FMI standard has been adopted by many tool vendors and is growing in popularity each year. This paper proposes a concept for building and simulating a system made from connected FMUs generated by different tools. The FMUs for Co-Simulation can be connected together using a GUI. The system model built graphically in this way can be saved for later use or simulated directly inside PySimulator. Active development is going on to support simulation of connected FMUs for Model Exchange.

  • 210.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Almeida, Luis
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. University of Porto, Porto, Portugal .
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    MTU Configuration for Real-Time Switched Ethernet Networks2016Ingår i: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 70, 15-25 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we show that in real-time switched Ethernet networks reducing the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) size may cause an increase or decrease in the response time of messages. This contradicting behavior arises an optimization problem for configuring the MTU size. We formulate the optimization problem in the context of the multi-hop HaRTES architecture, which is a hard real-time Ethernet protocol. As part of the solution, we propose a search-based algorithm to achieve optimum solutions. We modify the algorithm by presenting two techniques to reduce the search space. Then, we propose a heuristic algorithm with a pseudo-polynomial time complexity based on the search-based algorithm. We perform several experiments, and we show that the proposed heuristic results in an improvement regarding messages response times, compared with configuring the MTU to the maximum or minimum values. Moreover, we show in small network configurations that the heuristic performs as good as the search-based algorithm in many cases.

  • 211.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Du, Yong
    Almeida, L.
    University of Porto, Porto, Portugal .
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Dynamic reconfiguration in HaRTES switched ethernet networks2016Ingår i: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, 2016, Article number 7496510Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of reconfiguring a system during runtime is essential for dynamic real-time applications in which resource usage is traded online for quality of service. The HaRTES switch, which is a modified Ethernet switch, holds this ability for the network resource, and at the same time it provides hard real-time support for both periodic and sporadic traffic. Although the HaRTES switch technologically caters this ability, a protocol to actually perform the dynamic reconfiguration is missing in multi-hop HaRTES networks. In this paper we introduce such a protocol that is compatible with the traffic scheduling method used in the architecture. We prove the correctness of the protocol using a model checking technique. Moreover, we conduct a set of simulation experiments to show the performance of the protocol and we also show that the reconfiguration process is terminated within a bounded time. 

  • 212.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Khalilzad, Nima
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sander, Ingo
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Almeida, Luis
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Designing End-to-end Resource Reservations in Predictable Distributed Embedded SystemsIngår i: Real-time systems, ISSN 0922-6443, E-ISSN 1573-1383Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 213. Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Moghaddami Khalilzad, Nima
    KTH.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Behnam, Moris
    Sander, Ingo
    Almeida, Luis
    Nolte, Thomas
    Designing end-to-end resource reservations in predictable distributed embedded systems2017Ingår i: Real-time systems, ISSN 0922-6443, E-ISSN 1573-1383, Vol. 53, nr 6, 916-956 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 214.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Almeida, Luis
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    End-to-end Resource Reservations in Distributed Embedded Systems2016Ingår i: Proceedings - 2016 IEEE 22nd International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, RTCSA 2016, 2016, 1-11 s., 7579921Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The resource reservation techniques provide effective means to lower the software complexity, ensure predictability and allow flexibility during the development and execution of complex distributed embedded systems. In this paper we propose a new end-to-end resource reservation model for distributed embedded systems. The model is comprehensive in such a way that it supports end-to-end resource reservations on distributed transactions with various activation patterns that are commonly used in industrial control systems. The model allows resource reservations on processors and real-time network protocols. We also present timing analysis for the distributed embedded systems that are developed using the proposed model. The timing analysis computes the end-to-end response times as well as delays such as data age and reaction delays. The presented analysis also supports real-time networks that can autonomously initiate transmissions. Such networks are not supported by the existing analyses. We also include a case study to show the usability of the model and end-to-end timing analysis with resource reservations.

  • 215.
    Ashjaei, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Patti, Gaetano
    University of Catania, Italy.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Alderisi, Giuliana
    University of Catania, Italy.
    Lo Bello, Lucia
    University of Catania, Italy.
    Schedulability Analysis of Ethernet Audio Video Bridging Networks with Scheduled Traffic Support2017Ingår i: Real-time systems, ISSN 0922-6443, E-ISSN 1573-1383, Vol. 53, nr 4, 526-577 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEEE Audio Video Bridging (AVB) technology is nowadays under consideration in several automation domains, such as, automotive, avionics, and industrial communications. AVB offers several benefits, such as open specifications, the existence of multiple providers of electronic components, and the real-time support, as AVB provides bounded latency to real-time traffic classes. In addition to the above mentioned properties, in the automotive domain, comparing with the existing in-vehicle networks, AVB offers significant advantages in terms of high bandwidth, significant reduction of cabling costs, thickness and weight, while meeting the challenging EMC/EMI requirements. Recently, an improvement of the AVB protocol, called the AVB ST, was proposed in the literature, which allows for supporting scheduled traffic, i.e., a class of time-sensitive traffic that requires time-driven transmission and low latency. In this paper, we present a schedulability analysis for the real-time traffic crossing through the AVB ST network. In addition, we formally prove that, if the bandwidth in the network is allocated according to the AVB standard, the schedulability test based on response time analysis will fail for most cases even if, in reality, these cases are schedulable. In order to provide guarantees based on analysis test a bandwidth over-reservation is required. In this paper, we propose a solution to obtain a minimized bandwidth over-reservation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to formally spot the limitation and to propose a solution for overcoming it. The proposed analysis is applied to both the AVB standard and the AVB ST. The analysis results are compared with the results of several simulative assessments, obtained using OMNeT++, on both automotive and industrial case studies. The comparison between the results of the analysis and the simulation ones shows the effectiveness of the analysis proposed in this work.

  • 216.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lundbäck, John
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Gålnander, Mattias
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Kurt-Lennart
    Arcticus Systems AB, Sweden.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Modeling and Timing Analysis of Vehicle Functions Distributed over Switched Ethernet2017Ingår i: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society IECON 2017, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes an approach to model switched Ethernet communication within a model- and component-based software development framework for vehicular distributed embedded systems. The paper also presents a method to extract the network timing model from the systems that use switched Ethernet networks. In order to provide a proof of concept, an existing industrial component model and its tool suite, namely RCM and Rubus-ICE respectively, are extended by implementing the modeling technique, the timing model extraction method and response-time analysis of the Ethernet AVB protocol. The extensions to RCM are backward compatible with the modeling and end-to-end timing analysis of traditional in-vehicle networks and legacy (previously developed) vehicular distributed embedded systems. Furthermore, the paper discusses the implementation and test strategy used in this work. Finally, the usability of the modeling approach and implemented timing analysis is demonstrated by modeling and time analyzing a vehicular application case study with the extended component model and tool suite.

  • 217.
    Aslam, Mudassar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bringing Visibility in the Clouds: using Security, Transparency and Assurance Services2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of cloud computing allows the provisioning of IT resources over the Internet and promises many benefits for both - the service users and providers. Despite various benefits offered by cloud based services, many users hesitate in moving their IT systems to the cloud mainly due to many new security problems introduced by cloud environments. In fact, the characteristics of cloud computing become basis of new problems, for example, support of third party hosting introduces loss of user control on the hardware; similarly, on-demand availability requires reliance on complex and possibly insecure API interfaces; seamless scalability relies on the use of sub-providers; global access over public Internet exposes to broader attack surface; and use of shared resources for better resource utilization introduces isolation problems in a multi-tenant environment. These new security issues in addition to existing security challenges (that exist in today's classic IT environments) become major reasons for the lack of user trust in cloud based services categorized in Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) or Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS).

    The focus of this thesis is on IaaS model which allows users to lease IT resources (e.g. computing power, memory, storage, etc.) from a public cloud to create Virtual Machine (VM) instances. The public cloud deployment model considered in this thesis exhibits most elasticity (i.e. degree of freedom to lease/release IT resources according to user demand) but is least secure as compared to private or hybrid models. As a result, public clouds are not trusted for many use cases which involve processing of security critical data such as health records, financial data, government data, etc. However, public IaaS clouds can also be made trustworthy and viable for these use cases by providing better transparency and security assurance services for the user. In this thesis, we consider such assurance services and identify security aspects which are important for making public clouds trustworthy. Based upon our findings, we propose solutions which promise to improve cloud transparency thereby realizing trustworthy clouds.

    The solutions presented in this thesis mainly deal with the secure life cycle management of the user VM which include protocols and their implementation for secure VM launch and migration. The VM launch and migration solutions ensure that the user VM is always hosted on correct cloud platforms which are setup according to a profile that fulfills the use case relevant security requirements. This is done by using an automated platform security audit and certification mechanism which uses trusted computing and security automation techniques in an integrated solution. In addition to provide the assurance about the cloud platforms, we also propose a solution which provides assurance about the placement of user data in correct and approved geographical locations which is critical from many legal aspects and usually an important requirement of the user. Finally, the assurance solutions provided in this thesis increase cloud transparency which is important for user trust and to realize trustworthy clouds.

  • 218.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Risks Related to the Use of Software Tools when Developing Cyber-Physical Systems: A Critical Perspective on the Future of Developing Complex, Safety-Critical Systems2014Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den ökande komplexiteten och storleken på Cyber-Fysiska System (CPS) har lett till att produktiviteten i utvecklingen av CPS har minskat kraftigt. Krav på att CPS ska vara säkra att använda förvärrar problemet ytterligare, då dessa ofta är svåra att säkerställa och samtidigt av stor vikt för samhället.

    Mjukvaruverktyg, eller egentligen alla insatser för att automatisera utvecklingen av CPS, är en central komponent i många innovationer menade att lösa detta problem. Även om forskningen endast delvis studerat säkerhetsrelaterade konsekvenser av att automatisera produktutveckling, så är det känt att automation har haft en kraftig (och subtil) inverkan på operationella system. Om verktyg ska lösa problemet med en ökande komplexitet hos säkerhetskritiska CPS, så måste verktygens påverkan på produktutveckling, och i förlängningen på det säkra användandet av slutprodukterna, vara känd.

    Den här boken ger en översikt av forskningsfronten gällande säkerhetsrelaterade konsekvenser av verktygsanvändning. Denna kommer från en litteraturstudie i områdena systemsäkerhet, mjukvaruutveckling och verktygsintegration. Industriella säkerhetsstandarder identifieras som en viktig informationskälla. Då riskerna med användandet av enskilda verktyg har undersökts i stor utsträckning hos producenter av produkter relaterade till transport, studeras flera välkända säkerhetsstandarder från denna domän. Enligt de utvalda standarderna bör automation primärt utvärderas utifrån dess förmåga att självständigt utföra enskilda processteg på ett robust sätt. Automation som stödjer operatörers egna handlingar ses som tämligen oviktig.

    En konceptuell modell och en referensmodell har utvecklats baserat på litteraturstudien. Den förstnämnda definierar vilka entiteter och relationer som är av vikt för säkerhetsrelaterade konsekvenser av verktygsanvändning. Den sistnämnda beskriver olika aspekter av verktygsintegration och hur dessa relaterar till varandra. Genom att kombinera modellerna och utföra en riskanalys har egenskaper hos verktygskedjor som måste säkerställas för att undvika risk identifierats. Tio sådana säkerhetsrelaterade egenskaper beskrivs.

    Dessa säkerhetsrelaterade egenskaper möjliggör ett systematiskt sätt att begränsa vad som måste beaktas under studier av risker relaterade till verktygsanvändning. Hypotesen att ett stort antal faktorer relaterade till verktygsanvändning innebär risk kunde därför testas i en empirisk studie. Denna studie identifierade säkerhetsrelaterade svagheter i utvecklingsmiljöer knutna både till höga och låga nivåer av automation. Slutsatsen är att ett brett perspektiv, som inkluderar fler faktorer än de som beaktas av de utvalda standarderna, kommer att behövas i framtiden.

    Tre möjliga orsaker till att ett bredare perspektiv ändå skulle vara irrelevant analyseras, nämligen egenskaper specifika för CPS-domänen, egenskaper hos säkerhetskritiska CPS och möjligheten att lita på en beprövad, manuell process. Slutsatsen blir att ett bredare perspektiv är motiverat, och att den framtida utvecklingen av utvecklingsmiljöer för CPS sannolikt kommer att öka denna betydelse.

    Baserat på detta breda perspektiv läggs förslag fram för hur de mentala modellerna som bärs fram av de utvalda säkerhetstandarderna (och andra standarder som dem) kan utvecklas.

  • 219.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Tool Integration Beyond Wasserman2011Ingår i: Advanced Information Systems Engineering Workshops / [ed] Camille Salinesi, Oscar Pastor, Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 2011, 270-281 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The typical development environment today consists of many specialized development tools, which are partially integrated, forming a complex tool landscape with partial integration. Traditional approaches for reasoning about tool integration are insufficient to measure the degree of integration and integration optimality in today’s complex tool landscape. This paper presents a reference model that introduces dependencies between, and metrics for, integration aspects to overcome this problem. This model is used to conceive a method for reasoning about tool integration and identify improvements in an industrial case study. Based on this we are able to conclude that our reference model does not detract value from the principles that it is based on, instead it highlights improvements that were not well visible earlier. We conclude the paper by discussing open issues for our reference model, namely if it is suitable to use during the creation of new systems, if the used integration aspects can be subdivided further to support the analysis of secondary issues related to integration, difficulties related to the state dependency between the data and process aspects within the context of developing embedded systems and the analysis of non-functional requirements to support tool integration.

  • 220.
    Asplund, Katarina
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Partially Reliable Multimedia Transport2004Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 221.
    Asplund, Katarina
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    The trade-off Between Latency and Image Quality: A User PerspectiveManuskript (preprint) (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 222.
    Asplund, Katarina
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Garcia, Johan
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Schneyer, Sean
    Decreasing Transfer Delay Through Partial ReliabilityManuskript (preprint) (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 223.
    Asplund, Lars
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Safety Critical Systems Based on Formal Models2000Ingår i: ACM SIGAda Letters, ISSN 1094-3641, Vol. XX, nr 4, 32-39 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ravenscar profile for high integrity systems using Ada 95 is well defined in all real-time aspects. The complexity of the run-time system has been reduced to allow full utilization of formal methods for applications using the Ravenscar profile. In the Mana project a tool set is being developed including a formal model of a Ravenscar compliant run-time system, a gnat compatible run-time system, and an ASIS based tool to allow for the verification of a system including both COTS and code that is reused.

  • 224.
    Asplund, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Safety Critical Systems Based on Formal Models2000Ingår i: ACM SIGAda Ada Letters - special issue on presentations from SIGAda 2000, Vol. XX, Iss. 4, 2000Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 225.
    Asplund, Lars
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Lundqvist, Kristina
    MIT, Cambridge, MA, United States .
    The Gurkh Project: A Framework for Verification and Execution of Mission Critical Applications2003Ingår i: AIAA/IEEE Digital Avionics Systems Conference - Proceedings, vol. 2, 2003, 10.B.1/1-10.B.1/9 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper contributes with three methods that together will make a complete tool-set for verification of mission critical applications. The first method is the transformation of existing Ada or VHDL code into an intermediate form. This form is used for verification by numerous different model checkers. The second method is a predictable runtime kernel that has both a verifiable formal model and is implemented in hardware to achieve full predictability. Finally, a method for transforming the intermediate form of the complete system into a hardware unit, the SafetyChip that performs runtime control of the system. This SafetyChip can catch 'out-of-state' behaviors.

  • 226.
    Asplund, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Attitudes and Perceptions of IoT Security in Critical Societal Services2016Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 4, 2130-2138 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A quiet revolution that impacts several sectors, ranging over transport, home automation, energy, industrial control, and health services is undergoing with addition of new networked devices leading to enhanced services. In this paper, we aim to identify information security requirements that are common over several (vertical) sectors, and in particular, ones that impact critical societal services, namely, the energy, water, and health management systems. We present the results of an interview-based study where actors in these sectors were asked about their perceptions and attitudes on the security of Internet of Things (IoT). We set these perceptions and attitudes in context through a literature review of IoT security, and relate to current challenges in this area. This paper demonstrates that despite an overall optimistic view on IoT in critical societal services, there is a lack of consensus on risks related to IoT security.

  • 227.
    Assabie, Yaregal
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Bigun, Josef
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS).
    Ethiopic Document Image Database for Testing Character Recognition Systems2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe the acquisition and content of a large database of Ethiopic documents for testing and evaluating character recognition systems. The Ethiopic Document Image Database (EDIDB) contains documents written in Amharic and Geez languages. The database was built from a variety of documents such as printouts, books, newspapers, and magazines. Documents written in various font types, sizes and styles were included in the database. Degraded and poor quality documents were also included in the database to represent the real life situation. A total of 1,204 pages were scanned at a resolution of 300 dpi and saved as grayscale images of JPEG format. We also describe an evaluation protocol for standardizing the comparison of recognition systems and their results. The database is made available to the research community through http://www.hh.se/staff/josef/.

  • 228.
    Aster, Maximilian
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Repackaging Web Pages2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Current trends in the market of Web-enabled devices are moving the focus from desktop web pages to pages optimised for a set of other devices like smartphones or tablets. Within this thesis an approach is introduced, able to adapt and automatically transform web pages and even the web applications logic flow into a new kind of representation, specifically for a certain target group. Therefore a general process is defined to describe the various phases that have to be gone through to transform or repackage a website. It serves as the basis for the solution, which was built as part of this thesis, and incorporates state of the art concepts and methods from various fields of Web Science. The implemented artefacts demonstrate how an appropriate architecture looks like and what additional possibilities open up.

  • 229.
    Atif, Sohaib
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informations- och kommunikationssystem. Mid sweden University.
    Cooperative diversity and downlink power control using PARPS with application to LTE services (eMBMS and CoMP)2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile devices and their applications are continuing to develop and the more advanced they are, the more they require high data ranges and the more they demand of the available wireless communication networks. At present, LTE (Long Term Evolution) is a good solution as it provides the users of mobile devices with a good throughput and a low latency. In the future, the two most important aspects for end users will be system spectral efficiency and system power controlling. This thesis deals with LTE downlink spectral efficiency and power controlling. The thesis will show how, by using IP multicasting for the LTE downlink, the base station is able to provide the necessary data through a significantly smaller spectrum and, additionally, how cooperative diversity, i.e. the cooperation between several base stations, can improve or even maximise the total network channel capacity, regardless of bandwidth size. A Packet and Resource Plan Scheduling algorithm (PARPS) is used to schedule the transmissions, and the results are calculated in MATLAB. By this means it is possible to analyse the efficiency of the spectrum management, the coverage probability and the power controlling for the different transmitters used for the LTE downlink.The LTE downlink scheme is simulated in Matlab for different numbers of transmitters (2-3). IP multicasting over the LTE downlink manages to transmit the same amount of data using less transmission power (50- 66.6%) with a better system spectral efficiency.

  • 230.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Bouajjani, Ahmed
    LIAFA, CNRS and University of Paris Diderot.
    Kumar, K. Narayan
    Chennai Mathematical Institute, Chennai, India.
    Saivasan, Prakash
    Chennai Mathematical Institute, Chennai.
    On Bounded Reachability Analysis of Shared Memory Systems2014Ingår i: {IARCS} Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science, {FSTTCS} 2014, December 15-17, 2014, New Delhi, India, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 231.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Bouajjani, Ahmed
    LIAFA, CNRS and University of Paris Diderot.
    Parlato, Gennaro
    University of Southampton.
    Context-Bounded Analysis of TSO Systems2014Ingår i: From Programs to Systems: The Systems perspective in Computing / [ed] Bensalem, S; Lakhneck, Y; Legay, A, Springer, 2014, 21-38 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We address the state reachability problem in concurrent programs running over the TSO weak memory model. This problem has been shown to be decidable with non-primitive recursive complexity in the case of finite-state threads. For recursive threads this problem is undecidable. The aim of this paper is to provide under-approximate analyses for TSO systems that are decidable and have better (elementary) complexity. We propose three bounding concepts for TSO behaviors that are inspired from the concept of bounding the number of context switches introduced by Qadeer and Rehof for the sequentially consistent (SC) model. We investigate the decidability and the complexity of the state reachability problems under these three bounding concepts for TSO, and provide reduction of these problems to known reachability problems of concurrent systems under the SC semantics.

  • 232.
    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datorteknik.
    Kumar, K. Narayan
    Saivasan, Prakash
    Acceleration in Multi-PushDown Systems2016Ingår i: Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems, Springer, 2016, 698-714 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 233.
    Attarzadeh-Niaki, Seyed Hosein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektronik och Inbyggda System.
    Sander, Ingo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektronik och Inbyggda System.
    Integrating Functional Mock-up units into a formal heterogeneous system modeling framework2015Ingår i: 18th CSI International Symposium on Computer Architecture and Digital Systems, CADS 2015, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Functional Mock-up Interface (FMI) standard defines a method for tool- and platform-independent model exchange and co-simulation of dynamic system models. In FMI, the master algorithm, which executes the imported components, is a timed differential equation solver. This is a limitation for heterogeneous embedded and cyber-physical systems, where models with different time abstractions co-exist and interact. This work integrates FMI into a heterogeneous system modeling and simulation framework as process constructors and co-simulation wrappers. Consequently, each external model communicates with the framework without unnecessary semantic adaptation while the framework provides necessary mechanisms for handling heterogeneity. The presented methods are implemented in the ForSyDe-SystemC modeling framework and tested using a case study.

  • 234.
    Atxutegi, Eneko
    et al.
    Spanien.
    Liberal, Fidel
    Spanien.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University.
    Arvidsson, Åke
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap. Ericsson AB.
    Robert, Rèmi
    Ericsson AB.
    TCP behaviour in LTE: impact of flow start-up and mobility2016Ingår i: Wireless and Mobile Networking Conference (WMNC), 2016 9th IFIP, IEEE Communications Society, 2016, 73-80 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile internet has been widely adopted and it is expected to rise to almost 4 billion users by 2020. Despite the research effort dedicated to the enhancement of its performance, there still exists a gap in the understanding of how TCP and its many variants work over LTE. To this end, this paper evaluates the extent to which five common TCP variants, CUBIC, NewReno,Westwood+, Illinois, and CAIA Delay Gradient (CDG), are able to utilise available radio resources under hard conditions, such as during start-up and in mobile scenarios at different speeds. The paper suggests that CUBIC, due to its Hybrid Slow-Start mechanism, enters congestion avoidance prematurely, and thus experiences a prolonged start-up phase. As a result, it is unable to efficiently utilise radio resources during shorter transmissionsessions. Besides, CUBIC, Illinois and NewReno, i.e., the loss-based TCP implementations, offer better throughput, and are able to better utilise available resources during mobility than Westwood+ and CDG - the delay-based variants do.

  • 235.
    Augustsson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för informatik (IK).
    Salomonsson, Peter
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för informatik (IK).
    Gamification - Samspelet mellan människor och IT: Undersökning av spelmekanismers motivationshöjande effekter2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kandidatuppsats är en studie gjord för att undersöka spelmekanismer i en utvald träningsapplikation. Syftet med undersökningen är att skapa ökad förståelsen på varför människor får motivationshöjande effekter med hjälp av den utvalda träningsapplikationen. Detta kommer göras genom att undersöka användare av det praktiskta exemplet Nike+ för att ta reda på vilka funktioner som de anser gett dem motivationshöjande effekter och därmed ta fram vilka spelmekanismer dessa innefattar.

     

    Studien använder sig av en kvalitativ ansats och genom  intervjuer göra en datainsamling av användare av undersökningsexemplet Nike+. Intervjufrågorna grundar sig i teori om området Gamification samt tidigare forskning kring ämnet.

     

    Resultatet visar att det finns flera olika spelmekanismer implementerade i Nike+ som har positiv inverkan på användarna. Resultatet stärker att de spelmekanismer som informanterna ställts sig positivt till har hjälpt till att göra motionsträning en roligare form av träning samt ökat träningsfrekvensen hos informanterna.

  • 236.
    Aurelius, Andreas
    et al.
    Acreo.
    Arvidsson, Åke
    Ericsson AB.
    Heegard, Poul
    Norge.
    Villa, Björn
    Norge.
    Kihl, Maria
    Lunds Universitet.
    Zhang, Yichi
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    How much of the bandwidth do we actually use?: an investigation of residential access traffic load2012Ingår i: ICTON 2012 / [ed] Bozena Jaskorzynska och Richard De La Rue, IEEE Communications Society, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet traffic from a fibre based residential access network is investigated concerning traffic volumes and link load. Also the cost of the services is analyzed. We show that 1 Mbps accesses subscribers maintain high loads, and that the price they pay per GB used is five times higher than the one paid by 100 Mbps access subscribers.

  • 237. Avdagic, Zikrija
    et al.
    Boskovic, Dusanka
    Causevic, Aida
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Code Evaluation Using Fuzzy Logic2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents application of a fuzzy logic based system to automatically evaluate the

    maintainability of code. Code evaluation is accomplished by rating its quality provided with bad smells in

    code as inputs. Straightforward bad smells with existing software metrics tools are selected as inputs:

    duplicated code, long methods, large classes having a high cyclomatic complexity, or a large number of

    parameters and temporary fields. Removing these bad smells can result in significant code improvements

    concerning readability and maintainability. However, the precise definition of attributes like small, long, large

    or high is not clear, and their identification is rather subjective. Fuzzy logic values are suitable for capturing

    partial correspondence to attributes and fuzzy rules model have been used to describe the relation between bad

    smells and code quality. Model supporting the experimental evaluation of the fuzzy based code evaluation is

    implemented in Java.

    Key-Words: - Fuzzy Logic, Reasoning Systems, Refactoring, Bad Smells

  • 238.
    Avdic, Kenan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Melot, Nicolas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kessler, Christoph
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Keller, Jörg
    FernUniversität in Hagen.
    Pipelined parallel sorting on the Intel SCC2011Ingår i: Fourth Swedish Workshop on Multi-Core Computing MCC-2011: November 23-25, 2011, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Christoph Kessler, Linköping: Linköping University , 2011, Vol. S. 96-101, 96-101 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Single-Chip Cloud Computer (SCC) is an experimental processor created by Intel Labs. It comprises 48 Intel-IA32 cores linked by an on-chip high performance mesh network, as well as four DDR3 memory controllers to access an off-chip main memory. We investigate the adaptation of sorting onto SCC as an algorithm engineering problem. We argue that a combination of pipelined mergesort and sample sort will fit best to SCC's architecture. We also provide a mapping based on integer linear programming to address load balancing and latency considerations. We describe a prototype implementation of our proposai together with preliminary runtime measurements, that indicate the usefulness of this approach. As mergesort can be considered as a representative of the class of streaming applications, the techniques deveioped here should also apply to the other problems in this class, such as many applications for parallel embedded systems, i.e. MPSoC. 

  • 239.
    Avgouleas, Ioannis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    IoT Networking Resource Allocation and Cooperation2017Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) promises that "anything that can be connected, will be connected". It comprises of Information and Communication Technologies that interconnect billions of physical and visual things with some "basic" intelligence. The emerging IoT services will be able to react with minimal human intervention and further contribute to the big data era that requires real-time, ultrareliable, ubiquitous, scalable, and heterogeneous operation.

    This thesis is the result of our investigations on problems dealing with the evolution of such technologies. First, we explore the potential of using relay i.e., intermediate, nodes that assist users to transmit their packets in a a cellular network. Paper I provides insights into how adapting the cooperation of the relay's receiver and transmitter optimizes the network-wide throughput while the relay's queue stability is guaranteed.

    The next part of the thesis copes with the resource allocation of services on IoT devices equipped with multiple network interfaces. The resources are heterogeneous and can be split among dierent interfaces. Additionally, they are not interchangeable. In paper II, we develop optimization models for this resource allocation problem, prove the complexity of the models, and derive results that give intuition into the problems. Moreover, we propose algorithms that approximate the optimal solution and show under which circumstances this is possible.

    Finally, in paper III, we present a resource allocation problem specically for smart cities services. In comparison to the previous problem denition, resources are of one type but the IoT network device can oer capacities that vary over time. Furthermore, services have a tolerance regarding their preferred scheduling, namely, their allocation over time. We parametrize each service with a pricing function to indicate its tolerance to be served at the beginning of the scheduling window. We prove that the problem is computationally hard and provide numerical results to gain insight into how different pricing weight functions impact the allocations' distribution within the scheduling window.

  • 240.
    Avgouleas, Ioannis
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pappas, Nikolaos
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yuan, Di
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Angelakis, Vangelis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Probabilistic Cooperation of a Full-Duplex Relay in Random Access Networks2017Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 5, 7394-7404 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze the probabilistic cooperation of a full-duplex relay in a multiuser random-access network. The relay is equipped with on/off modes for the receiver and the transmitter independently. These modes are modeled as probabilities by which the receiver and the transmitter are activated. We provide analytical expressions for the performance of the relay queue, such as arrival and service rates, stability conditions, and the average queue size. We optimize the relays operation setup to maximize the network-wide throughput while, simultaneously, we keep the relays queue stable and lower the relays receptions and transmissions. Furthermore, we study the effect of the SINR threshold and the self-interference coefficient on the per-user and network-wide throughput. For low SINR threshold, we show under which circumstances it is beneficial to switch off the relay completely, or switch off the relays receiver only.

  • 241.
    Avritzer, A
    et al.
    Siemens Corporate Research, USA.
    Weyuker, Elaine
    AT and T Labs - Research, USA.
    The Automated Generation of Test Cases using an Extended Domain Based Reliability Model2009Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2009 ICSE Workshop on Automation of Software Test, AST 2009, 2009, 44-52 s., 5069040Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 242.
    Awan, Ahsan Javed
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    Performance Characterization and Optimization of In-Memory Data Analytics on a Scale-up Server2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The sheer increase in the volume of data over the last decade has triggered research in cluster computing frameworks that enable web enterprises to extract big insights from big data. While Apache Spark defines the state of the art in big data analytics platforms for (i) exploiting data-flow and in-memory computing and (ii) for exhibiting superior scale-out performance on the commodity machines, little effort has been devoted to understanding the performance of in-memory data analytics with Spark on modern scale-up servers. This thesis characterizes the performance of in-memory data analytics with Spark on scale-up servers.Through empirical evaluation of representative benchmark workloads on a dual socket server, we have found that in-memory data analytics with Spark exhibit poor multi-core scalability beyond 12 cores due to thread level load imbalance and work-time inflation (the additional CPU time spent by threads in a multi-threaded computation beyond the CPU time required to perform the same work in a sequential computation). We have also found that workloads are bound by the latency of frequent data accesses to the memory. By enlarging input data size, application performance degrades significantly due to the substantial increase in wait time during I/O operations and garbage collection, despite 10% better instruction retirement rate (due to lower L1cache misses and higher core utilization).For data accesses, we have found that simultaneous multi-threading is effective in hiding the data latencies. We have also observed that (i) data locality on NUMA nodes can improve the performance by 10% on average,(ii) disabling next-line L1-D prefetchers can reduce the execution time by upto14%. For garbage collection impact, we match memory behavior with the garbage collector to improve the performance of applications between 1.6xto 3x and recommend using multiple small Spark executors that can provide up to 36% reduction in execution time over single large executor. Based on the characteristics of workloads, the thesis envisions near-memory and near storage hardware acceleration to improve the single-node performance of scale-out frameworks like Apache Spark. Using modeling techniques, it estimates the speed-up of 4x for Apache Spark on scale-up servers augmented with near-data accelerators.

  • 243.
    Awan, Ahsan Javed
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Performance Characterization of In-Memory Data Analytics on a Scale-up Server2016Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The sheer increase in volume of data over the last decade has triggered research in cluster computing frameworks that enable web enterprises to extract big insights from big data. While Apache Spark defines the state of the art in big data analytics platforms for (i) exploiting data-flow and in-memory computing and (ii) for exhibiting superior scale-out performance on the commodity machines, little effort has been devoted at understanding the performance of in-memory data analytics with Spark on modern scale-up servers. This thesis characterizes the performance of in-memory data analytics with Spark on scale-up servers.

    Through empirical evaluation of representative benchmark workloads on a dual socket server, we have found that in-memory data analytics with Spark exhibit poor multi-core scalability beyond 12 cores due to thread level load imbalance and work-time inflation. We have also found that workloads are bound by the latency of frequent data accesses to DRAM. By enlarging input data size, application performance degrades significantly due to substantial increase in wait time during I/O operations and garbage collection, despite 10% better instruction retirement rate (due to lower L1 cache misses and higher core utilization).

    For data accesses we have found that simultaneous multi-threading is effective in hiding the data latencies. We have also observed that (i) data locality on NUMA nodes can improve the performance by 10% on average, (ii) disabling next-line L1-D prefetchers can reduce the execution time by up-to 14%. For GC impact, we match memory behaviour with the garbage collector to improve performance of applications between 1.6x to 3x. and recommend to use multiple small executors that can provide up-to 36% speedup over single large executor.

  • 244.
    Awan, Ahsan Javed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    Brorsson, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    Vlassov, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    Ayguade, Eduard
    Barcelona Super Computing Center and Technical University of Catalunya.
    Architectural Impact on Performance of In-memoryData Analytics: Apache Spark Case StudyManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    While cluster computing frameworks are contin-uously evolving to provide real-time data analysis capabilities,Apache Spark has managed to be at the forefront of big data an-alytics for being a unified framework for both, batch and streamdata processing. However, recent studies on micro-architecturalcharacterization of in-memory data analytics are limited to onlybatch processing workloads. We compare micro-architectural per-formance of batch processing and stream processing workloadsin Apache Spark using hardware performance counters on a dualsocket server. In our evaluation experiments, we have found thatbatch processing are stream processing workloads have similarmicro-architectural characteristics are bounded by the latency offrequent data access to DRAM. For data accesses we have foundthat simultaneous multi-threading is effective in hiding the datalatencies. We have also observed that (i) data locality on NUMAnodes can improve the performance by 10% on average and(ii)disabling next-line L1-D prefetchers can reduce the executiontime by up-to 14% and (iii) multiple small executors can provideup-to 36% speedup over single large executor

  • 245.
    Awan, Ahsan Javed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    Brorsson, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    Vlassov, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    Ayguade, Eduard
    Technical University of Catalunya, Barcelona Super Computing Center.
    How Data Volume Affects Spark Based Data Analytics on a Scale-up Server2015Ingår i: Big Data Benchmarks, Performance Optimization, and Emerging Hardware: 6th Workshop, BPOE 2015, Kohala, HI, USA, August 31 - September 4, 2015. Revised Selected Papers, Springer, 2015, Vol. 9495, 81-92 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sheer increase in volume of data over the last decade has triggered research in cluster computing frameworks that enable web enterprises to extract big insights from big data. While Apache Spark is gaining popularity for exhibiting superior scale-out performance on the commodity machines, the impact of data volume on the performance of Spark based data analytics in scale-up configuration is not well understood. We present a deep-dive analysis of Spark based applications on a large scale-up server machine. Our analysis reveals that Spark based data analytics are DRAM bound and do not benefit by using more than 12 cores for an executor. By enlarging input data size, application performance degrades significantly due to substantial increase in wait time during I/O operations and garbage collection, despite 10 % better instruction retirement rate (due to lower L1 cache misses and higher core utilization). We match memory behaviour with the garbage collector to improve performance of applications between 1.6x to 3x.

  • 246.
    Awan, Ahsan Javed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    Brorsson, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    Vlassov, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    Ayguade, Eduard
    Barcelona Super Computing Center and Technical University of Catalunya.
    Micro-architectural Characterization of Apache Spark on Batch and Stream Processing Workloads2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While cluster computing frameworks are continuously evolving to provide real-time data analysis capabilities, Apache Spark has managed to be at the forefront of big data analytics for being a unified framework for both, batch and stream data processing. However, recent studies on micro-architectural characterization of in-memory data analytics are limited to only batch processing workloads. We compare the micro-architectural performance of batch processing and stream processing workloads in Apache Spark using hardware performance counters on a dual socket server. In our evaluation experiments, we have found that batch processing and stream processing has same micro-architectural behavior in Spark if the difference between two implementations is of micro-batching only. If the input data rates are small, stream processing workloads are front-end bound. However, the front end bound stalls are reduced at larger input data rates and instruction retirement is improved. Moreover, Spark workloads using DataFrames have improved instruction retirement over workloads using RDDs.

  • 247.
    Awan, Ahsan Javed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    Brorsson, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    Vlassov, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    Ayguade, Eduard
    Barcelona Super Computing Center and Technical University of Catalunya.
    Node architecture implications for in-memory data analytics on scale-in clusters2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While cluster computing frameworks are continuously evolving to provide real-time data analysis capabilities, Apache Spark has managed to be at the forefront of big data analytics. Recent studies propose scale-in clusters with in-storage processing devices to process big data analytics with Spark However the proposal is based solely on the memory bandwidth characterization of in-memory data analytics and also does not shed light on the specification of host CPU and memory. Through empirical evaluation of in-memory data analytics with Apache Spark on an Ivy Bridge dual socket server, we have found that (i) simultaneous multi-threading is effective up to 6 cores (ii) data locality on NUMA nodes can improve the performance by 10% on average, (iii) disabling next-line L1-D prefetchers can reduce the execution time by up to 14%, (iv) DDR3 operating at 1333 MT/s is sufficient and (v) multiple small executors can provide up to 36% speedup over single large executor.

  • 248.
    Axelsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE).
    Ambrosius, Christian
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för Informationsvetenskap, Data– och Elektroteknik (IDE).
    Nya lagar och avtal: Hur kan de komma att förändra svenskarnas fildelningsvanor?2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I många år nu har det varit vanligt förekommande att människor suttit hemma vid sin dator och med några få klick laddat ner filmer, musik och programvaror, till en början helt lagligt, men med åren har lagar kommit till som har gjort det mer och mer olagligt.Oavsett om det har varit lagligt eller inte, så är det troligt att många artister, filmmakare och liknande gått miste om stora summor pengar i förlorade inkomster på grund av att folk inte har betalat för att ta del av deras verk, utan istället valt att ladda ner dem över Internet.

    Det faktum att fildelning har blivit så pass vanligt och att folk inte har sett det som ett särskilt allvarligt brott, har lett till att fildelning länge har varit ett hett omdiskuterat ämne i media, bland upphovsrättsinnehavare och bland folk i allmänhet. Upphovsmän och upphovsrättsinnehavare, såsom filmbolag, författare och artister har legat på och debatterat för att försöka få till en hårdare lagstiftning för att försvåra fildelning och kopiering av upphovsrättsskyddat material, samt för att få till hårdare straff mot fildelning.

    Flera försök från beslutsfattare har gjorts för att råda bot på problemet, nya lagar har stiftats och avtal har skrivits under. Frågan är om de nya lagarna och avtalen gör någon nytta? Blir folk avskräckta från att fildela eller fortsätter de som förut? Många har säkert under många år blivit bortskämda med att kunna sitta hemma vid datorn och på några minuter få hem de senaste filmerna och den nyaste musiken helt gratis, vilket säkert gör det svårt att helt plötsligt sluta fildela och börja betala för film och musik igen.

  • 249.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory, Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Kista, Sweden .
    A Systematic Mapping of the Research Literature on System-of-Systems Engineering2015Ingår i: 10th Annual Systems of Systems Engineering Conference SOSE, 2015, 18-23 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The research area systems-of-systems engineering has increased rapidly over the last decade and now contains a substantial body of literature. To get an overview of the field, a systematic mapping of the literature has been done, covering over 3000 papers. It revealed a field massively dominated by US researchers, with an emphasis on military and space systems. A large number of people are involved, but few researchers focus on the area, and citations are fairly low compared to other fields. Important research topics include architecture, modeling and simulation, integration and interoperability, communication, sustainability, and safety and security. There are signs of immaturity within the research area, and it is recommended that existing venues are complemented with an international scientific event with very high standards for submissions.

  • 250.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Architectural Allocation Alternatives and Associated Concerns in Cyber-Physical Systems: A Case Study2015Ingår i: ECSAW '15 Proceedings of the 2015 European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, 2015, Vol. Article No.15Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems is an extension of traditional embedded systems, where communication to the outside world is given more emphasis. This leads to a new design space also for software development, allowing new allocation strategies for functionality. In traditional embedded systems, all functionality was inside the product, but now it becomes possible to partition the software between the embedded systems and IT systems outside the product. This paper investigates, through a case study from the automotive domain, possible new allocation alternatives where computation is offloaded from the embedded system to a server, and what additional architectural concerns this leads to, including performance, resource utilization, robustness, and lifecycle aspects. In addition, the paper addresses new opportunities created by allocating functionality outside the embedded systems, and thus making data available for extended services, as well as the larger concerns that result on the organizational level, including new competency in architecture and DevOps.

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