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  • 151.
    Bäckström, Christer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ordyniak, Sebastian
    Masaryk University, Czech Republic.
    Szeider, Stefan
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    A complete parameterized complexity analysis of bounded planning2015Ingår i: Journal of computer and system sciences (Print), ISSN 0022-0000, E-ISSN 1090-2724, Vol. 81, nr 7, s. 1311-1332Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The propositional planning problem is a notoriously difficult computational problem, which remains hard even under strong syntactical and structural restrictions. Given its difficulty it becomes natural to study planning in the context of parameterized complexity. In this paper we continue the work initiated by Downey, Fellows and Stege on the parameterized complexity of planning with respect to the parameter "length of the solution plan." We provide a complete classification of the parameterized complexity of the planning problem under two of the most prominent syntactical restrictions, i.e., the so called PUBS restrictions introduced by Backstrom and Nebel and restrictions on the number of preconditions and effects as introduced by Bylander. We also determine which of the considered fixed-parameter tractable problems admit a polynomial kernel and which do not. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 152.
    Bäckström, Christer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jonsson, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ordyniak, Sebastian
    Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Szeider, Stefan
    Vienna University of Technolgy, Austria.
    Parameterized Complexity and Kernel Bounds for Hard Planning Problems2013Ingår i: Algorithms and Complexity: 8th International Conference, CIAC 2013, Barcelona, Spain, May 22-24, 2013. Proceedings / [ed] Paul G. Spirakis & Maria Serna, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, s. 13-24Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The propositional planning problem is a notoriously difficult computational problem. Downey et al. (1999) initiated the parameterized analysis of planning (with plan length as the parameter) and Bäckström et al. (2012) picked up this line of research and provided an extensive parameterized analysis under various restrictions, leaving open only one stubborn case. We continue this work and provide a full classification. In particular, we show that the case when actions have no preconditions and at most e postconditions is fixed-parameter tractable if e ≤ 2 and W[1]-complete otherwise. We show fixed-parameter tractability by a reduction to a variant of the Steiner Tree problem; this problem has been shown fixed-parameter tractable by Guo et al. (2007). If a problem is fixed-parameter tractable, then it admits a polynomial-time self-reduction to instances whose input size is bounded by a function of the parameter, called the kernel. For some problems, this function is even polynomial which has desirable computational implications. Recent research in parameterized complexity has focused on classifying fixed-parameter tractable problems on whether they admit polynomial kernels or not. We revisit all the previously obtained restrictions of planning that are fixed-parameter tractable and show that none of them admits a polynomial kernel unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses to its third level.

  • 153.
    Bäckström, Christer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jonsson, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ståhlberg, Simon
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fast Detection of Unsolvable Planning Instances Using Local Consistency2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Combinatorial Search, AAAI Press, 2013, s. 29-37Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a tremendous advance in domain-independent planning over the past decades, and planners have become increasingly efficient at finding plans. However, this has not been paired by any corresponding improvement in detecting unsolvable instances. Such instances are obviously important but largely neglected in planning. In other areas, such as constraint solving and model checking, much effort has been spent on devising methods for detecting unsolvability. We introduce a method for detecting unsolvable planning instances that is loosely based on consistency checking in constraint programming. Our method balances completeness against efficiency through a parameter k: the algorithm identifies more unsolvable instances but takes more time for increasing values of k. We present empirical data for our algorithm and some standard planners on a number of unsolvable instances, demonstrating that our method can be very efficient where the planners fail to detect unsolvability within reasonable resource bounds. We observe that planners based on the h^m heuristic or pattern databases are better than other planners for detecting unsolvability. This is not a coincidence since there are similarities (but also significant differences) between our algorithm and these two heuristic methods.

  • 154.
    Carlqvist, Alexander
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    OpenModelica Support for Figaro Extensions Regarding Fault Analysis2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The practical result of this thesis is an extension to OpenModelica that transforms Modelica into Figaro. Modelica is an equation-based object-oriented modeling language. OpenModelica is an open source implementation of Modelica. Figaro is a language used for reliability modeling. Figaro is a general representation formalism that can be transformed into reliability models like fault trees. Figaro was designed for fault analysis. Modelica was designed to model the behavior of physical systems and run dynamic simulations. Because of that, you cannot just break components and analyze what happens to a system. This work enables us to have fault analysis in OpenModelica by transforming our Modelica model into a Figaro model and invoke the Figaro compiler. This lets us break particular components and see what happens to the system. This work is part of an ongoing effort to integrate several modeling environments.

  • 155.
    Carlsson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Development of an ISO 26262 ASIL D compliant verification system2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011 a new functional safety standard for electronic and electrical systems in vehicles waspublished, called ISO 26262. This standard concerns the whole lifecycle of the safety criticalelements used in cars, including the development process of such elements. As the correctnessof the tools used when developing such an element is critical to the safety of the element,the standard includes requirements concerning the software tools used in the development,including verification tools. These requirements mainly specify that a developer of a safetycritical element should provide proof of their confidence in the software tools they are using.One recommended way to gain this confidence is to use tools developed in accordance to a“relevant subset of [ISO 26262]”.This project aims to develop a verification system in accordance to ISO 26262, exploringhow and what specifications should be included in this “relevant subset” of ISO 26262 andto which extent these can be included in their current form. The work concludes with thedevelopment of a single safety element of the verification system, to give an demonstrationof the viability of such a system.

  • 156.
    Chattopadhyay, Sudipta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    MESS: Memory Performance Debugging on Embedded Multi-core Systems2015Ingår i: Model Checking Software: 22nd International Symposium, SPIN 2015 / [ed] Bernd Fischer; Jaco Geldenhuys, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, Vol. 9232, s. 105-125Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-core processors have penetrated the modern computing platforms in several dimensions. Such systems aim to achieve high-performance via running computations in parallel. However, the performance of such systems is often limited due to the congestion in shared resources, such as shared caches and shared buses. In this paper, we propose MESS, a performance debugging framework for embedded, multi-core systems. MESS systematically discovers the order of memory-access operations that expose performance bugs due to shared caches. We leverage both on single-core performance profiling and symbolic constraint solving to reveal the interleaved memory-access-pattern that leads to a performance bug. Our baseline framework does not generate any false positive. Besides, its failure to find a solution highlights the absence of performance bugs due to shared caches, for a given input. Finally, we propose an approximate solution that dramatically reduces debugging time, at the cost of a reasonable amount of false positives. Our experiments with several embedded software and a real-life robot controller suggest that we can discover performance bugs in a reasonable time. The implementation of MESS and our experiments are available at https://bitbucket.org/sudiptac/mess.

  • 157.
    Chattopadhyay, Sudipta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Automated software testing of memory performance in embedded GPUs2014Ingår i: EMSOFT 2014, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded and real-time software is often constrained by several temporal requirements. Therefore, it is important to design embedded software that meets the required performance goal. The inception of embedded graphics processing units (GPUs) brings new light in developing high-performance embedded software which were previously not suitable for embedded platforms. Whereas GPUs use massive parallelism to obtain high throughput, the overall performance of an application running on embedded GPUs is often limited by memory performance. Therefore, a crucial problem lies in automatically detecting the inefficiency of such software developed for embedded GPUs. In this paper, we propose GUPT, a novel test generation framework that systematically explores and detects poor memory performance of applications running on embedded GPUs. In particular, we systematically combine static analysis with dynamic test generation to expose likely execution scenarios with poor memory performance. Each test case in our generated test suite reports a potential memory-performance issue, along with the detailed information to reproduce the same. We have implemented our test generation framework using GPGPU-Sim, a cycle-accurate simulator and the LLVM compiler infrastructure.We have evaluated our framework for several open-source programs. Our experiments suggest the efficacy of our framework by exposing numerous memory-performance issues in a reasonable time. We also show the usage of our framework in improving the performance of programs for embedded GPUs.

  • 158.
    Chattopadhyay, Sudipta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Roychoudhury, Abhik
    National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Cache-Related Preemption Delay Analysis for Multilevel Noninclusive Caches2014Ingår i: ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, ISSN 1539-9087, E-ISSN 1558-3465, Vol. 13, nr 147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rapid growth of complex hardware features, timing analysis has become an increasingly difficult problem. The key to solving this problem lies in the precise and scalable modeling of performance-enhancing processor features (e.g., cache). Moreover, real-time systems are often multitasking and use preemptive scheduling, with fixed or dynamic priority assignment. For such systems, cache related preemption delay (CRPD) may increase the execution time of a task. Therefore, CRPD may affect the overall schedulability analysis. Existing works propose to bound the value of CRPD in a single-level cache. In this article, we propose a CRPD analysis framework that can be used for a two-level, noninclusive cache hierarchy. In addition, our proposed framework is also applicable in the presence of shared caches. We first show that CRPD analysis faces several new challenges in the presence of a multilevel, noninclusive cache hierarchy. Our proposed framework overcomes all such challenges and we can formally prove the correctness of our framework. We have performed experiments with several subject programs, including an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) controller and an in-situ space debris monitoring instrument. Our experimental results suggest that we can provide sound and precise CRPD estimates using our framework.

  • 159.
    Chattopadhyay, Sudipta
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Roychoudhury, Abhik
    National University of Singapore.
    Rosén, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Time-Predictable Embedded Software on Multi-Core Platforms: Analysis and Optimization2014Ingår i: Foundations and Trends in Electronic Design Automation, ISSN 1551-3939, Vol. 8, nr 3-4, s. 199-356Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-core architectures have recently gained popularity due to their high-performance and low-power characteristics. Most of the modern desktop systems are now equipped with multi-core processors. Despite the wide-spread adaptation of multi-core processors in desktop systems, using such processors in embedded systems still poses several challenges. Embedded systems are often constrained by several extra-functional aspects, such as time. Therefore, providing guarantees for time-predictable execution is one of the key requirements for embedded system designers. Multi-core processors adversely affect the time-predictability due to the presence of shared resources, such as shared caches and shared buses. In this contribution, we shall first discuss the challenges imposed by multi-core architectures in designing time-predictable embedded systems. Subsequently, we shall describe, in details, a comprehensive solution to guarantee time-predictable execution on multi-core platforms. Besides, we shall also perform a discussion of different techniques to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art solutions in this topic. Through this work, we aim to provide a solid background on recent trends of research towards achieving time-predictability on multi-cores. Besides, we also highlight the limitations of the state-of-the-art and discuss future research opportunities and challenges to accomplish time-predictable execution on multi-core platforms.

  • 160.
    Chen, Hubie
    et al.
    Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Wrona, Michal
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Guarded Ord-Horn: A Tractable Fragment of Quantified Constraint Satisfaction2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The first-order theory of dense linear orders without endpoints is well-known to be PSPACE-complete. We present polynomial-time tractability results for fragments of this theory which are defined by syntactic restriction, in particular, our fragments can be described using the framework of quantified constraint satisfaction over Ord-Horn clauses.

  • 161.
    Chen, Yi-Ching
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Co-design of Fault-Tolerant Systems with Imperfect Fault Detection2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, transient faults have become a critical issue in modernelectronic devices. Therefore, many fault-tolerant techniques have been proposedto increase system reliability, such as active redundancy, which can beimplemented in both space and time dimensions. The main challenge of activeredundancy is to introduce the minimal overhead of redundancy and to schedulethe tasks. In many pervious works, perfect fault detectors are assumed to simplifythe problem. However, the induced resource and time overheads of suchfault detectors make them impractical to be implemented. In order to tacklethe problem, an alternative approach was proposed based on imperfect faultdetectors.

    So far, only software implementation is studied for the proposed imperfectfault detection approach. In this thesis, we take hardware-acceleration intoconsideration. Field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is used to accommodatetasks in hardware. In order to utilize the FPGA resources efficiently, themapping and the selection of fault detectors for each task replica have to be carefullydecided. In this work, we present two optimization approaches consideringtwo FPGA technologies, namely, statically reconfigurable FPGA and dynamicallyreconfigurable FPGA respectively. Both approaches are evaluated andcompared with the proposed software-only approach by extensive experiments.

  • 162.
    Cichowski, Patrick
    et al.
    FernUniversität in Hagen, Germany.
    Keller, Jörg
    FernUniversität in Hagen, Germany.
    Kessler, Christoph
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Energy-efficient Mapping of Task Collections onto Manycore Processors2013Ingår i: Proceedings of MULTIPROG'13 workshop at HiPEAC'13 / [ed] E. Ayguade et al. (eds.), 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Streaming applications consist of a number of tasks that all run concurrently, and that process data at certain rates. On manycore processors, the tasks of the streaming application must be mapped onto the cores. While load balancing of such applications has been considered, especially in the MPSoC community, we investigate energy-efficient mapping of such task collections onto manycore processors. We first derive rules that guide the mapping process and show that as long as dynamic power consumption dominates static power consumption, the latter can be ignored and the problem reduces to load balancing. When however, as expected in the coming years, static power consumption will be a notable fraction of total power consumption, then an energy-efficient mapping must take it into account, e.g. by temporary shutdown of cores or by restricting the number of cores. We validate our findings with synthetic and real-world applications on the Intel SCC manycore processor.

  • 163.
    Cichowski, Patrick
    et al.
    FernUniversität in Hagen, Germany.
    Keller, Jörg
    FernUniversität in Hagen, Germany.
    Kessler, Christoph
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Modelling Power Consumption of the Intel SCC2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the 6th Many-core Applications Research Community (MARC) Symposium / [ed] Eric Noulard, HAL Archives Ouvertes , 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Intel SCC manycore processor supports energy-efficient computing by dynamic voltage and frequency scaling of cores on a fine-grained level. In order to enable the use of that feature in application-level energy optimizations, we report on experiments to measure power consumption in different situations. We process those measurements by a least-squares error analysis to derive the parameters of popular models for power consumption which are used on an algorithmic level. Thus, we provide a link between the worlds of hardware and high-level algorithmics.

  • 164.
    Creignou, Nadia
    et al.
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Egly, Uwe
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Schmidt, Johannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Complexity Classifications for Logic-Based Argumentation2014Ingår i: ACM Transactions on Computational Logic, ISSN 1529-3785, E-ISSN 1557-945X, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 19-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider logic-based argumentation in which an argument is a pair (Phi, alpha), where the support Phi is a minimal consistent set of formulae taken from a given knowledge base (usually denoted by Delta) that entails the claim alpha (a formula). We study the complexity of three central problems in argumentation: the existence of a support Phi subset of Delta, the verification of a support, and the relevance problem (given psi, is there a support Phi such that psi is an element of Phi?). When arguments are given in the frill language of propositional logic, these problems are computationally costly tasks: the verification problem is DP-complete; the others are Sigma(P)(2)-complete. We study these problems in Schaefers famous framework where the considered propositional formulae are in generalized conjunctive normal form. This means that formulae are conjunctions of constraints built upon a fixed finite set of Boolean relations Gamma (the constraint language). We show that according to the properties of this language Gamma, deciding whether there exists a support for a claim in a given knowledge base is either polynomial, NP-complete, coNP-complete, or Sigma(P)(2)-complete. We present a dichotomous classification, P or DP-complete, for the verification problem and a trichotomous classification for the relevance problem into either polynomial, NP-complete, or Sigma(P)(2)-complete. These last two classifications are obtained by means of algebraic tools.

  • 165.
    Creignou, Nadia
    et al.
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Meier, Arne
    Leibniz University of Hannover, Germany.
    Mueller, Julian-Steffen
    Leibniz University of Hannover, Germany.
    Schmidt, Johannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vollmer, Heribert
    Leibniz University of Hannover, Germany.
    Paradigms for Parameterized Enumeration2017Ingår i: Theory of Computing Systems, ISSN 1432-4350, E-ISSN 1433-0490, Vol. 60, nr 4, s. 737-758Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to examine the computational complexity and algorithmics of enumeration, the task to output all solutions of a given problem, from the point of view of parameterized complexity. First, we define formally different notions of efficient enumeration in the context of parameterized complexity: FPT-enumeration and delayFPT. Second, we show how different algorithmic paradigms can be used in order to get parameter-efficient enumeration algorithms in a number of examples. These paradigms use well-known principles from the design of parameterized decision as well as enumeration techniques, like for instance kernelization and self-reducibility. The concept of kernelization, in particular, leads to a characterization of fixed-parameter tractable enumeration problems. Furthermore, we study the parameterized complexity of enumerating all models of Boolean formulas having weight at least k, where k is the parameter, in the famous Schaefers framework. We consider propositional formulas that are conjunctions of constraints taken from a fixed finite set I". Given such a formula and an integer k, we are interested in enumerating all the models of the formula that have weight at least k. We obtain a dichotomy classification and prove that, according to the properties of the constraint language I", either one can enumerate all such models in delayFPT, or no such delayFPT enumeration algorithm exists under some complexity-theoretic assumptions.

  • 166.
    Creignou, Nadia
    et al.
    Aix-Marseille Université, France.
    Meier, Arne
    Leibniz Universität, Hannover, Germany.
    Müller, Julian-Steffen
    Leibniz Universität, Hannover, Germany.
    Schmidt, Johannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Vollmer, Heribert
    Leibniz Universität, Hannover, Germany.
    Paradigms for Parameterized Enumeration2013Ingår i: Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 2013 / [ed] Krishnendu Chatterjee, Jirí Sgall, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, s. 290-301Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to examine the computational complexity and algorithmics of enumeration, the task to output all solutions of a given problem, from the point of view of parameterized complexity. First we define formally different notions of efficient enumeration in the context of parameterized complexity. Second we show how different algorithmic paradigms can be used in order to get parameter-efficient enumeration algorithms in a number of examples. These paradigms use well-known principles from the design of parameterized decision as well as enumeration techniques, like for instance kernelization and self-reducibility. The concept of kernelization, in particular, leads to a characterization of fixed-parameter tractable enumeration problems.

  • 167.
    Crusoe, Jonathan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Metoder för användardriven gränssnittsprogrammering2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    När användare bestämmer sig för att utveckla gränssnitt till sina system sker detta via någon form av verktyg. Vi måste avgöra vilken utvecklingsmetodik som ska användas och hur vi kan tillföra mer funktionalitet för att systemet inte ska bli föråldrat. För att svara på detta bryter vi upp arbetet i två delar. I första delen undersöker vi vilken programmeringsmetodik som lämpar sig bäst för gränssnittsutveckling genom en undersökning i två delar. I andra delen ser vi över vilka lösningar som existerar för att implementera ny funktionalitet till ett verktyg för att sedan presentera en egen lösning.

  • 168.
    Cucurull, Jordi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Asplund, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Surviving Attacks in Challenged Networks2012Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, ISSN 1545-5971, E-ISSN 1941-0018, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. 917-929Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the event of a disaster, telecommunication infrastructures can be severely damaged or overloaded. Hastily formed networks can provide communication services in an ad hoc manner. These networks are challenging due to the chaotic context where intermittent connection is the norm and the identity and number of participants cannot be assumed. In such environments malicious actors may try to disrupt the communications to create more chaos for their own benefit. This paper proposes a general security framework for monitoring and reacting to disruptive attacks. It includes a collection of functions to detect anomalies, diagnose them, and perform mitigation. The measures are deployed in each node in a fully distributed fashion, but their collective impact is a significant resilience to attacks, so the actors can disseminate information under adverse conditions. The approach is evaluated in the context of a simulated disaster area network with a many-cast dissemination protocol, Random Walk Gossip, with a store-and-forward mechanism. A challenging threat model where adversaries may 1) try to drain the resources both at node level (battery life) and network level (bandwidth), or 2) reduce message dissemination in their vicinity, without spending much of their own energy, is adopted. The results demonstrate that the approach diminishes the impact of the attacks considerably.

  • 169.
    Cucurull, Jordi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Raciti, Massimiliano
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Modular Anomaly Detection for Smartphone Ad Hoc Communication2012Ingår i: Information Security Technology for Applications: 16th Nordic Conference on Secure IT Systems, NordSec 2011, Tallinn, Estonia, October 26-28, 2011, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Peeter Laud, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, Vol. 7161, s. 65-81Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The capabilities of the modern smartphones make them the obvious platform for novel mobile applications. The open architectures, however, also create new vulnerabilities. Measures for prevention, detection, and reaction need to be explored with the peculiarities that resource-constrained devices impose. Smartphones, in addition to cellular broadband network capabilities, include WiFi interfaces that can even be deployed to set up a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). While intrusion detection in MANETs is typically evaluated with network simulators, we argue that it is important to implement and test the solutions in real devices to evaluate their resource footprint. This paper presents a modular implementation of an anomaly detection and mitigation mechanism on top of a dissemination protocol for intermittently-connected MANETs. The overhead of the security solution is evaluated in a small testbed based on three Android-based handsets and a laptop. The study shows the feasibility of the statistics-based anomaly detection regime, having low CPU usage, little added latency, and acceptable memory footprint.

  • 170.
    Dag, Antymos
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Autonomous Indoor Navigation System for Mobile Robots2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    With an increasing need for greater traffic safety, there is an increasing demand for means by which solutions to the traffic safety problem can be studied. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the feasibility of using an autonomous indoor navigation system as a component in a demonstration system for studying cooperative vehicular scenarios. Our method involves developing and evaluating such a navigation system. Our navigation system uses a pre-existing localization system based on passive RFID, odometry and a particle filter. The localization system is used to estimate the robot pose, which is used to calculate a trajectory to the goal. A control system with a feedback loop is used to control the robot actuators and to drive the robot to the goal.

     

    The results of our evaluation tests show that the system generally fulfills the performance requirements stated for the tests. There is however some uncertainty about the consistency of its performance. Results did not indicate that this was caused by the choice of localization techniques. The conclusion is that an autonomous navigation system using the aforementioned localization techniques is plausible for use in a demonstration system. However, we suggest that the system is further tested and evaluated before it is used with applications where accuracy is prioritized.

  • 171.
    Danylenko, Antonina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Kessler, Christoph
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Comparing Machine Learning Approaches for Context-Aware Composition2011Ingår i: Software Composition / [ed] Sven Apel, Ethan Jackson, Springer, 2011, s. 18-33Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context-Aware Composition allows to automatically select optimal variants of algorithms, data-structures, and schedules at runtime using generalized dynamic Dispatch Tables. These tables grow exponentially with the number of significant context attributes. To make Context-Aware Composition scale, we suggest four alternative implementations to Dispatch Tables, all well-known in the field of machine learning: Decision Trees, Decision Diagrams, Naive Bayes and Support Vector Machines classifiers. We assess their decision overhead and memory consumption theoretically and practically in a number of experiments on different hardware platforms. Decision Diagrams turn out to be more compact compared to Dispatch Tables, almost as accurate, and faster in decision making. Using Decision Diagrams in Context-Aware Composition leads to a better scalability, i.e., Context-Aware Composition can be applied at more program points and regard more context attributes than before.

  • 172.
    DASH, ASSMITRA
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Minimizing Test Time through Test FlowOptimization in 3D-SICs2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    3D stacked ICs (3D-SICs) with multiple dies interconnected by through-silicon-vias(TSVs) are considered as a technology driver and proven to have overwhelming advantagesover traditional ICs with a single die in a package in terms of performance, powerconsumption and silicon overhead. However, these “super chips” bring new challengesto the process of IC manufacturing; among which, testing 3D-SICs is the major andmost complex issue to deal with. In traditional ICs, tests can usually be performedat two stages (test instances), namely: a wafer sort and a package test. Whereas for3D-SICs, tests can be performed after each stacking event where a new die is stackedover a partial stack. This expands the set of available test instances. A combination ofselected test instances where a test is performed (active test instance) is known as a testflow. Test time is a major contributor to the total test cost. Test time changes with theselected test flow. Therefore, choosing a cost effective test flow which will minimizesthe test time is absolutely essential.This thesis focuses on finding an optimal test flow which minimizes the test timefor a given 3D-SIC. A mathematical model has been developed to evaluate the test timeof any test flow. Then a heuristic has been proposed for finding a near optimal test flowwhich minimizes the test time. The performance of this approach in terms of computationtime and efficiency has been compared against the minimum test time obtainedby exhaustive search. The heuristic gives good results compared to exhaustive searchwith much lesser computation time.

  • 173.
    Dastgeer, Usman
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Performance-aware Component Composition for GPU-based systems2014Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses issues associated with efficiently programming modern heterogeneous GPU-based systems, containing multicore CPUs and one or more programmable Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). We use ideas from component-based programming to address programming, performance and portability issues of these heterogeneous systems. Specifically, we present three approaches that all use the idea of having multiple implementations for each computation; performance is achieved/retained either a) by selecting a suitable implementation for each computation on a given platform or b) by dividing the computation work across different implementations running on CPU and GPU devices in parallel.

    In the first approach, we work on a skeleton programming library (SkePU) that provides high-level abstraction while making intelligent  implementation selection decisions underneath either before or during the actual program execution. In the second approach, we develop a composition tool that parses extra information (metadata) from XML files, makes certain decisions online, and, in the end, generates code for making the final decisions at runtime. The third approach is a framework that uses source-code annotations and program analysis to generate code for the runtime library to make the selection decision at runtime. With a generic performance modeling API alongside program analysis capabilities, it supports online tuning as well as complex program transformations.

    These approaches differ in terms of genericity, intrusiveness, capabilities and knowledge about the program source-code; however, they all demonstrate usefulness of component programming techniques for programming GPU-based systems. With experimental evaluation, we demonstrate how all three approaches, although different in their own way, provide good performance on different GPU-based systems for a variety of applications.

  • 174.
    Dastgeer, Usman
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, PELAB - Laboratoriet för programmeringsomgivningar. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Enmyren, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, PELAB - Laboratoriet för programmeringsomgivningar. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kessler, Christoph
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Auto-tuning SkePU: A multi-backend skeleton programming framework for multi-GPU systems2011Ingår i: IWMSE '11 Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Multicore Software Engineering, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2011, s. 25-32Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    SkePU is a C++ template library that provides a simple and unified interface for specifying data-parallel computations with the help of skeletons on GPUs using CUDA and OpenCL. The interface is also general enough to support other architectures, and SkePU implements both a sequential CPU and a parallel OpenMP backend. It also supports multi-GPU systems. Currently available skeletons in SkePU include map, reduce, mapreduce, map-with-overlap, maparray, and scan. The performance of SkePU generated code is comparable to that of hand-written code, even for more complex applications such as ODE solving.

    In this paper, we discuss initial results from auto-tuning SkePU using an off-line, machine learning approach where we adapt skeletons to a given platform using training data. The prediction mechanism at execution time uses off-line pre-calculated estimates to construct an execution plan for any desired configuration with minimal overhead. The prediction mechanism accurately predicts execution time for repetitive executions and includes a mechanism to predict execution time for user functions of different complexity. The tuning framework covers selection between different backends as well as choosing optimal parameter values for the selected backend. We will discuss our approach and initial results obtained for different skeletons (map, mapreduce, reduce).

  • 175.
    Dastgeer, Usman
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kessler, Christoph
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Framework for Performance-aware Composition of Applications for GPU-based Systems2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    User-level components of applications can be made performance-aware by annotating them with performance model and other metadata. We present a component model and a composition framework for the performance-aware composition of applications for modern GPU-based systems from such components, which may expose multiple implementation variants. The framework targets the composition problem in an integrated manner, with particular focus on global performance-aware composition across multiple invocations. We demonstrate several key features of our framework relating to performance-aware composition including implementation selection, both with performance characteristics being known (or learned) beforehand as well as cases when they are learned at runtime. We also demonstrate hybrid execution capabilities of our framework on real applications. Furthermore, as an important step towards global composition, we present a bulk composition technique that can make better composition decisions by considering information about upcoming calls along with data flow information extracted from the source program by static analysis, thus improving over the traditional greedy performance-aware policy that only considers the current call for optimization.

  • 176.
    Dastgeer, Usman
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kessler, Christoph
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A performance-portable generic component for 2D convolution computations on GPU-based systems2011Ingår i: Fourth Swedish Workshop on Multi-Core Computing MCC-2011: November 23-25, 2011, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Christoph Kessler, Linköping: Linköping University , 2011, Vol. S. 39-44, s. 39-44Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe our work on providing a generic yet optimized GPU (CUDA/OpenCL) implementation for the 2D MapOverlap skeleton. We explain our implementation with the help  of a 2D convolutilution application, implemented using the newly deveioped skeleton.

  • 177.
    Dastgeer, Usman
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kessler, Christoph
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A performance-portable generic component for 2D convolution computations on GPU-based systems2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Programmability Issues for Heterogeneous Multicores (MULTIPROG-2012) at the HiPEAC-2012 conference, Paris, Jan. 2012 / [ed] E. Ayguade, B. Gaster, L. Howes, P. Stenström, O. Unsal, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe our work on providing a generic yet optimized GPU (CUDA/OpenCL) implementation for the 2D MapOverlap skeleton. We explain our implementation with the help of a 2D convolution application, implemented using the newly developed skeleton. The memory (constant and shared memory) and adaptive tiling optimizations are applied and their performance implications are evaluated on different classes of GPUs. We present two different metrics to calculate the optimal tiling factor dynamically in an automated way which helps in retaining best performance without manual tuning while moving to newGPU architectures. With our approach, we can achieve average speedups by a factor of 3.6, 2.3, and 2.4 over an otherwise optimized (without tiling) implementation on NVIDIA C2050, GTX280 and 8800 GT GPUs respectively. Above all, the performance portability is achieved without requiring any manual changes in the skeleton program or the skeleton implementation.

  • 178.
    Dastgeer, Usman
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kessler, Christoph
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Conditional component composition for GPU-based systems2014Ingår i: Proc. Seventh Workshop on Programmability Issues for Multi-Core Computers (MULTIPROG-2014) at HiPEAC-2014, Vienna, Austria, Jan. 2014, Vienna, Austria: HiPEAC NoE , 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    User-level components can expose multiple functionally equivalent implementations with different resource requirements and performance characteristics. A composition framework can then choose a suitable implementation for each component invocation guided by an objective function (execution time, energy etc.). In this paper, we describe the idea of conditional composition which enables the component writer to specify constraints on the selectability of a given component implementation based on information about the target system and component call properties. By incorporating such information, more informed and user-guided composition decisions can be made and thus more efficient code be generated, as shown with an example scenario for a GPU-based system.

  • 179.
    Dastgeer, Usman
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kessler, Christoph
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Performance-aware Composition Framework for GPU-based Systems2015Ingår i: Journal of Supercomputing, ISSN 0920-8542, E-ISSN 1573-0484, Vol. 71, nr 12, s. 4646-4662Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    User-level components of applications can be made performance-aware by annotating them with performance model and other metadata. We present a component model and a composition framework for the automatically optimized composition of applications for modern GPU-based systems from such components, which may expose multiple implementation variants. The framework targets the composition problem in an integrated manner, with the ability to do global performance-aware composition across multiple invocations. We demonstrate several key features of our framework relating to performance-aware composition including implementation selection, both with performance characteristics being known (or learned) beforehand as well as cases when they are learned at runtime. We also demonstrate hybrid execution capabilities of our framework on real applications. Furthermore, we present a bulk composition technique that can make better composition decisions by considering information about upcoming calls along with data flow information extracted from the source program by static analysis. The bulk composition improves over the traditional greedy performance aware policy that only considers the current call for optimization.

  • 180.
    Dastgeer, Usman
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kessler, Christoph
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Smart Containers and Skeleton Programming for GPU-Based Systems2016Ingår i: International journal of parallel programming, ISSN 0885-7458, E-ISSN 1573-7640, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 506-530Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss the role, design and implementation of smart containers in the SkePU skeleton library for GPU-based systems. These containers provide an interface similar to C++ STL containers but internally perform runtime optimization of data transfers and runtime memory management for their operand data on the different memory units. We discuss how these containers can help in achieving asynchronous execution for skeleton calls while providing implicit synchronization capabilities in a data consistent manner. Furthermore, we discuss the limitations of the original, already optimizing memory management mechanism implemented in SkePU containers, and propose and implement a new mechanism that provides stronger data consistency and improves performance by reducing communication and memory allocations. With several applications, we show that our new mechanism can achieve significantly (up to 33.4 times) better performance than the initial mechanism for page-locked memory on a multi-GPU based system.

  • 181.
    Dastgeer, Usman
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Li, Lu
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Kessler, Christoph
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Adaptive Implementation Selection in the SkePU Skeleton Programming Library2013Ingår i: Advanced Parallel Processing Technologies (APPT-2013), Proceedings / [ed] Chengyung Wu and Albert Cohen (eds.), 2013, s. 170-183Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In earlier work, we have developed the SkePU skeleton programming library for modern multicore systems equipped with one or more programmable GPUs. The library internally provides four types of implementations (implementation variants) for each skeleton: serial C++, OpenMP, CUDA and OpenCL targeting either CPU or GPU execution respectively. Deciding which implementation would run faster for a given skeleton call depends upon the computation, problem size(s), system architecture and data locality.

    In this paper, we present our work on automatic selection between these implementation variants by an offline machine learning method which generates a compact decision tree with low training overhead. The proposed selection mechanism is flexible yet high-level allowing a skeleton programmer to control different training choices at a higher abstraction level. We have evaluated our optimization strategy with 9 applications/kernels ported to our skeleton library and achieve on average more than 94% (90%) accuracy with just 0.53% (0.58%) training space exploration on two systems. Moreover, we discuss one application scenario where local optimization considering a single skeleton call can prove sub-optimal, and propose a heuristic for bulk implementation selection considering more than one skeleton call to address such application scenarios.

  • 182.
    Dastgeer, Usman
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Li, Lu
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kessler, Christoph
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The PEPPHER composition tool: performance-aware composition for GPU-based systems2014Ingår i: Computing, ISSN 0010-485X, E-ISSN 1436-5057, Vol. 96, nr 12, s. 1195-1211Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The PEPPHER (EU FP7 project) component model defines the notion of component, interface and meta-data for homogeneous and heterogeneous parallel systems. In this paper, we describe and evaluate the PEPPHER composition tool, which explores the application’s components and their implementation variants, generates the necessary low-level code that interacts with the runtime system, and coordinates the native compilation and linking of the various code units to compose the overall application code to optimize performance. We discuss the concept of smart containers and its benefits for reducing dispatch overhead, exploiting implicit parallelism across component invocations and runtime optimization of data transfers. In an experimental evaluation with several applications, we demonstrate that the composition tool provides a high-level programming front-end while effectively utilizing the task-based PEPPHER runtime system (StarPU) underneath for different usage scenarios on GPU-based systems.

  • 183.
    Dastgeer, Usman
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Li, Lu
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kessler, Christoph
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The PEPPHER Composition Tool: Performance-Aware Dynamic Composition of Applications for GPU-Based Systems2012Ingår i: High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis (SCC), 2012 SC Companion, IEEE, 2012, s. 711-720Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The PEPPHER component model defines an environment for annotation of native C/C++ based components for homogeneous and heterogeneous multicore and manycore systems, including GPU and multi-GPU based systems. For the same computational functionality, captured as a component, different sequential and explicitly parallel implementation variants using various types of execution units might be provided, together with metadata such as explicitly exposed tunable parameters. The goal is to compose an application from its components and variants such that, depending on the run-time context, the most suitable implementation variant will be chosen automatically for each invocation. We describe and evaluate the PEPPHER composition tool, which explores the application's components and their implementation variants, generates the necessary low-level code that interacts with the runtime system, and coordinates the native compilation and linking of the various code units to compose the overall application code. With several applications, we demonstrate how the composition tool provides a high-level programming front-end while effectively utilizing the task-based PEPPHER runtime system (StarPU) underneath.

  • 184.
    Delosières, Laurent
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    BATMAN Store-and-Forward: the Best of the Two Worlds2012Ingår i: Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PERCOM Workshops), IEEE , 2012, s. 721-727Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for communication is highest in disaster scenarios when the infrastructure is also adversely affected. A recent protocol for ad hoc communication, the BATMAN protocol, is dependent on minimal infrastructure, in the form of mesh nodes that are used as access points, or nodes acting as an intermediary in a multi-hop connection. While BATMAN works well in a scenario in which there is a multihop path from senders to receivers at all times, it will drop the packets in intermittently-connected networks. Moreover, although implementation on a device is essential as a proof of concept, performing large scale evaluations requires a simulation platform in which variations in the operating environment can be studied. This paper is about adding the store-and-forward mechanism to the routing component in BATMAN nodes, to overcome intermittent connectivity through mobility. We describe an extension of the protocol, SF-BATMAN, that has been implemented in an interoperable manner with BATMAN, i.e. with no added signaling, and no change of basic BATMAN settings. We have implemented SF-BATMAN in a packet level simulator (NS3), and demonstrated its performance in a scenario that consists of two regions of connectivity: a wellconnected mesh network and a set of sparser subnetworks. We show that the added capability enhances the performance of BATMAN, through an increase of the delivery ratio by 20% with a lower overhead, while it exhibits a similar latency in comparable network scenarios.

  • 185.
    Delshad, Payman
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Behavior Driven Development in a Large-Scale Application: Evaluation of Usage for Developing IFS Applications2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, Agile software development methods are often used in large multisite organizations that develop large-scale applications. Behavior Driven Development (BDD) is a relatively new Agile software development process where the development process starts with acceptance tests written in a natural language. The premise of BDD is to create a common and effective process of communication between different roles in a software project to ensure that every activity can be mapped to the business goal of the application. This thesis work aims to find an effective and efficient BDD process and to evaluate its usage in a large-scale application in a large multisite organization through a series of interviews, a controlled experiment, and an online survey. Furthermore, by means of the aforementioned experiment, the study measures the impact of an experimental usage of BDD on testing quality. To discover an effective and efficient BDD process, two alternatives with automated tests that run on different architectural layers, namely client layer and web service layer, were examined. Based on the defined metrics, the alternative with automated tests that ran directly on the web service layer was chosen as the more efficient process which was compared against the existing Agile-based baseline that used automated client tests. The results show that an efficient BDD process improves the testing quality significantly which can, in turn, result in a better overall software quality.

  • 186.
    Delzanno, Giorgio
    et al.
    Università di Genova.
    Rezine, Ahmed
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A lightweight regular model checking approach for parameterized systems2012Ingår i: International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT), ISSN 1433-2779, E-ISSN 1433-2787, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 207-222Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, we have designed a lightweight approach to regular model checking specifically designed for parameterized systems with global conditions. Our approach combines the strength of regular languages, used for representing infinite sets of configurations, with symbolic model checking and approximations. In this paper, we give a uniform presentation of several variations of a symbolic backward reachability scheme in which different classes of regular expressions are used in place of BDDs. The classification of the proposed methods is based on the precision of the resulting approximated analysis.

  • 187.
    Disqah, Arash
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle, UK.
    Maheri, Alireza
    Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle, UK.
    Busawon, Krishna
    Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle, UK.
    Fritzson, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Standalone DC Microgrids as Complementarity Dynamical Systems: Modeling and Applications.2014Ingår i: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, Vol. 35, nr 10, s. 102-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that, due to bimodal operation as well as existent discontinuous differential states of batteries, standalone microgrids belong to the class of hybrid dynamical systems of non-Filippov type. In this work, however, standalone microgrids are presented as complementarity systems (CSs) of the Filippov type which is then used to develop a multivariable nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC)-based load tracking strategy as well as Modelica models for long-term simulation purposes. The developed load tracker strategy is a multi-source maximum power point tracker (MPPT) that also regulates the DC bus voltage at its nominal value with the maximum of ±2.0% error despite substantial demand and supply variations.

  • 188.
    Drabent, Wlodzimierz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A simple correctness proof for magic transformation2012Ingår i: Theory and Practice of Logic Programming, ISSN 1471-0684, E-ISSN 1475-3081, Vol. 12, nr 6, s. 929-936Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a simple and concise proof of correctness of the magic transformation. We believe that it may provide a useful example of formal reasoning about logic programs. The correctness property concerns the declarative semantics. The proof, however, refers to the operational semantics (LD-resolution) of the source programs. Its conciseness is due to applying a suitable proof method.

  • 189.
    Drabent, Wlodzimierz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Institute of Computer Science, Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Logic + Control: An Example2012Ingår i: Technical Communications of the 28th International Conference on Logic Programming (ICLP'12) / [ed] Agostino Dovier and Vítor Santos Costa, Dagstuhl Publishing , 2012, s. 301-311Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a Prolog program (the SAT solver of Howe and King) as a logic program with added control. The control consists of a selection rule (delays of Prolog) and pruning the search space. We construct the logic program together with proofs of its correctness and completeness, with respect to a formal specication. This is augmented by a proof of termination under any selection rule. Correctness and termination are inherited by the Prolog program, the change of selection rule preserves completeness. We prove that completeness is also preserved by one case of pruning; for the other an informal justication is presented.

    For proving correctness we use a method, which should be well known but is often neglected. A contribution of this paper is a method for proving completeness. In particular we introduce a notion of semi-completeness, for which a local sucient condition exists.

    We compare the proof methods with declarative diagnosis (algorithmic debugging). We introduce a method of proving that a certain kind of pruning preserves completeness. We argue that the proof methods correspond to natural declarative thinking about programs, and that they can be used, formally or informally, in every-day programming.

  • 190.
    Drabent, Wlodzimierz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Logic + control: On program construction and verification2018Ingår i: Theory and Practice of Logic Programming, ISSN 1471-0684, E-ISSN 1475-3081, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 1-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an example of formal reasoning about the semantics of a Prolog program of practical importance (the SAT solver of Howe and King). The program is treated as a definite clause logic program with added control. The logic program is constructed by means of stepwise refinement, hand in hand with its correctness and completeness proofs. The proofs are declarative – they do not refer to any operational semantics. Each step of the logic program construction follows a systematic approach to constructing programs which are provably correct and complete. We also prove that correctness and completeness of the logic program is preserved in the final Prolog program. Additionally, we prove termination, occur-check freedom and non-floundering.

    Our example shows how dealing with “logic” and with “control” can be separated. Most of the proofs can be done at the “logic” level, abstracting from any operational semantics.

    The example employs approximate specifications; they are crucial in simplifying reasoning about logic programs. It also shows that the paradigm of semantics-preserving program transformations may be not sufficient.  We suggest considering transformations which preserve correctness and completeness with respect to an approximate specification.

  • 191.
    Drabent, Wlodzimierz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    On completeness of logic programs2015Ingår i: Logic-Based Program Synthesis and Transformation - 24th International Symposium, (LOPSTR-2014), 2015, Vol. 8981, s. 261-278Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Program correctness (in imperative and functional programming) splits in logic programming into correctness and completeness. Completeness means that a program produces all the answers required by its specification. Little work has been devoted to reasoning about completeness. This paper presents a few sufficient conditions for completeness of definite programs. We also study preserving completeness under some cases of pruning of SLD-trees (e.g. due to using the cut). We treat logic programming as a declarative paradigm, abstracting from any operational semantics as far as possible. We argue that the proposed methods are simple enough to be applied, possibly at an informal level, in practical Prolog programming. We point out importance of approximate specifications.

  • 192.
    Drabent, Wlodzimierz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Institute of Computer Science, Polish Academy of Sciences.
    On definite program answers and least Herbrand models2016Ingår i: Theory and Practice of Logic Programming, ISSN 1471-0684, E-ISSN 1475-3081, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 498-508Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A sufficient and necessary condition is given under which least Herbrand models exactlycharacterize the answers of definite clause programs.

  • 193.
    Drabent, Wlodzimierz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Polish Academic Science, Poland.
    Proving completeness of logic programs with the cut2017Ingår i: Formal Aspects of Computing, ISSN 0934-5043, E-ISSN 1433-299X, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 155-172Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Completeness of a logic program means that the program produces all the answers required by its specification. The cut is an important construct of programming language Prolog. It prunes part of the search space, this may result in a loss of completeness. This paper proposes a way of proving completeness of programs with the cut. The semantics of the cut is formalized by describing how SLD-trees are pruned. A sufficient condition for completeness is presented, proved sound, and illustrated by examples.

  • 194.
    Drabent, Włodzimierz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Institute of Computer Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warzawa, Poland.
    Correctness and Completeness of Logic Programs2016Ingår i: ACM Transactions on Computational Logic, ISSN 1529-3785, E-ISSN 1557-945X, Vol. 17, nr 3, artikel-id 18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss proving correctness and completeness of definite clause logic programs.  We propose a method for proving completeness, while for proving correctness we employ a method which should be well known but is often neglected.  Also, we show how to prove completeness and correctness in the presence of SLD-tree pruning, and point out that approximate specifications simplify specifications and proofs.

    We compare the proof methods to declarative diagnosis (algorithmic debugging), showing that approximate specifications eliminate a major drawback of the latter.  We argue that our proof methods reflect natural declarative thinking about programs, and that they can be used, formally or informally, in every-day programming.

  • 195.
    Durairaj, Selva Ganesh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Parallelize Automated Tests in a Build and Test Environment2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the possibilities of finding solutions, in order to reduce the total time spent for testing and waiting times for running multiple automated test cases in a test framework. The “Automated Test Framework”, developed by Axis Communications AB, is used to write the functional tests to test both hardware and software of a resource. The functional tests that tests the software is considered in this thesis work. In the current infrastructure, tests are executed sequentially and resources are allocated using First In First Out scheduling algorithm. From the user’s point of view, it is inefficient to wait for many hours to run their tests that take few minutes to execute. The thesis consists of two main parts: (1) identify a plugin that suits the framework and executes the tests in parallel, which reduces the overall execution time of tests and (2) analyze various scheduling algorithms in order to address the resource allocation problem, which arose due to limited resource availability, while the tests were run in parallel. By distributing multiple tests across several resources and executing them in parallel, help in improving the test strategy, thereby reducing the overall execution times of test suites. The case studies were created to emulate the problematic scenarios in the company and sample tests were written that reflect the real tests in the framework. Due to the complexity of the current architecture and the limited resources available for running the test in parallel, a simulator was developed with the identified plugin in a multi-core computer, with each core simulating a resource. Multiple tests were run using the simulator in order to explore, check and assess if the overall execution time of the tests can be reduced. While achieving parallelism in running the automated tests, resource allocation became a problem, since limited resources are available to run parallel tests. In order to address this problem, scheduling algorithms were considered. A prototype was developed to mimic the behaviour of a scheduling plugin and the scheduling algorithms were implemented in the prototype. The set of values were given as input to the prototype and tested with scenarios described under case studies. The results from the prototype are used to analyze the impact caused by various scheduling algorithms on reducing the waiting times of the tests. The combined usage of simulator along with scheduler prototype helped in understanding how to minimize the total time spent for testing and improving the resource allocation process.

  • 196.
    Eilert, Rickard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Development of a framework for creating cross-platform TV HTML5 applications2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    När man utvecklar HTML5-applikationer för TV-plattformar, finns utöver HTML5s standardfunktionalitet,även extra APIer för att komma åt TV-specifika funktioner. Dessa extra APIer skiljer sig åt mellan TV-plattformar, och det är ett problem när man utvecklar en applikation för många plattformar. Dettaexamensarbete har undersökt om det är möjligt att designa ett ramverk som förser utvecklaren med ett APIsom fungerar för många plattformar genom att wrappa deras plattformsspecifika kod. Svaret är ja. Ramverketharmoniserar: fjärrkontrollsindata, video, volym, internetförbindelse, TV-kanalströmmar och deras TV-tablåer, till ett gemensamt JavaScript-bibliotek-API. Vidare paketerar ett byggsystem koden på de sätt somplattformarna förväntar sig. Ramverket underlättar utveckling av HTML5-applikationer för TV-plattformar.För tillfället stöder ramverket plattformarna: Pace, PC och Samsung Smart TV, men det kan breddas med flerTV-plattformar.

  • 197.
    Einarson, Carl
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    An extension of the PPSZ Algorithm to Infinite-Domain Constraint Satisfaction Problems2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The PPSZ algorithm (Paturi et al., FOCS 1998) is the fastest known algorithm for solving k-SAT when k >= 4. Hertli et al. recently extended the algorithm to solve (d, k)-Clause Satisfaction problems ((d,k)-ClSP) for which it is the fastest known algorithm for all k >= 3 (Hertli et al. CP 2016). We analyze their algorithm and extend it to solve problems over an infinite domain. More specifically we show how the extended algorithm can solve problems that have an infinite domain but where we can, for each instance of the problem, find a finite subset of the domain which has the following properties: If there exists a solution to the problem instance, then there exists a solution using only values from this subset and the size of this subset is polynomial in the size of the problem instance. We show numerically that our algorithm is the fastest known for problems over bounded disjunction languages for some values of k <= 500 and we look at the branching time temporal language, which is a bounded disjunction language, to show how to transform a specific problem to (d,k)-ClSP. We also look at Allen's interval algebra but conclude that there is already a faster algorithm for solving this problem.

  • 198.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Leifler, Ola
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rapport: Lärande för hållbar utveckling vid utbildningsprogram vid IEI, LiU2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

     

     Denna rapport beskriver en studie vars syfte har varit att undersöka vilka utmaningar och möjligheter som finns med att på ett systematiskt sätt arbeta för att främja ett lärande för hållbar utveckling vid LiU. Vår utgångspunkt har varit universitetskanslerämbetets tematiska utvärdering från 2017 av lärosätenas arbete med att främja en hållbar utveckling genom sina utbildningar. Vi har genomfört en studie med programansvariga vid utbildningar som ges vid institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, IEI varav en del på filosofisk och andra på teknisk fakultet. Dels har vi gått igenom utbildningsplanerna för programmen, dels har vi genomfört en enkätundersökning och en uppsättning fokusgruppsdiskussioner med programansvariga.

    Ett mindre antal av programmen och specifikt civilingenjörsutbildningen i Energi, Miljö & Management (EMM) har i utbildningsplaner referenser till specifika mål för en hållbar utveckling som man avser förbereda sina studenter att kunna bidra till. De flesta programs primära fokus ligger dock på anställningsbarhet för sina studenter. Från enkäten och fokusgruppsdiskussioner har vi förstått att det för många programansvariga har varit det första tillfället de fått att fundera över hur deras utbildningar eventuellt bidrar till att förbereda studenter för att hantera utmaningar kopplade till en hållbar utveckling. I våra resultat märks också en tydlig ambivalens och tveksamhet inför både vad man gör just nu, vad man vill göra och vilken sorts drivkrafter och styrning man önskar i det arbetet. Flera programansvariga hävdar å ena sidan att begreppet är svårdefinierat, men att man å andra sidan är säker på att man arbetar i en riktning som gör att utbildningarna bidrar till att främja en hållbar utveckling. Man hävdar att en del lärare vid de egna programmen kan sakna kompetens att hantera problem med flera dimensioner, men anser samtidigt att de egna lärarna har den kompetens som behövs för utbildnings-programmen. Man ser positivt på studenters och externa finansiärers önskemål om förändringar av utbildningarna, men är samtidigt tveksam till många av de sätt som LiU skulle kunna använda för att stödja arbetet med för-ändringar.

    Baserat på vår analys av programansvarigas respons och universitetskanslersämbetets rekommendationer ger vi avslutningsvis rekommendationer för fortsatt arbete med frågan om lärande för hållbar utveckling på LiU.

  • 199.
    Enblom, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eskebaek, Hannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Real Time Vehicle Diagnostics Using Head Mounted Displays2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis evaluates how a head mounted display (HMD) can be used to increase usability compared to existing computer programs that are used during maintenance work on vehicles. Problems identified during a case study in a vehicle workshop are first described. As an attempt to solve some of the identified problems a prototype application using a HMD was developed. The prototype application aids the user during troubleshooting of systems on the vehicle by leading the mechanic with textual information and augmented reality (AR). Assessment of the prototype application was done by comparing it to the existing computer program and measuring error rate and time to completion for a predefined task. Usability was also measured using the System Usability Scale. The assessment showed that HMDs can provide higher usability in terms of efficiency and satisfaction. Furthermore, the thesis describes and discusses other possibilities and limitations that usage of HMDs and AR can lead to that were identified both from theory and during implementation.

  • 200.
    Englund, Albin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Suther, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bluetooth Low Energy som trådlös standard för hemautomation2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Allmänheten har en stor efterfrågan av produkter inom området för hemautomation. Den senaste bluetoothstandarden Bluetooth Low Energy skapar nya möjligheter för intressanta produkter som underlättar vardagen. Lösningar som IR och Wi-Fi ger inte de förutsättningar som krävs för att på ett energisnålt och praktiskt sätt erbjuda sådana produkter, något som Bluetooth Low Energy gör. I denna rapport diskuteras standarden i syfte att redogöra för hur den kan användas för att automatisera ett hem.

    För detta examensarbete implementerades en strömbrytarprototyp och en iOS-applikation, vilka användes för att unders öka och påvisa ett koncept för hur tekniken kan tillämpas för hemautomation. Resultaten visar att teknikens räckvidd är dess främsta begränsning. Likaså visas hur signalstyrkan kan användas som en utlösande faktor för att styra en strömbrytare.

    Denna rapport redogör också för hur systemet uppnår interoperabilitet genom att implementera en utarbetad profil.

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