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  • 1.
    Arnqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Mean Wind and Turbulence Conditions in the Boundary Layer above Forests2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As wind turbines have grown, new installation areas become possible. Placing wind turbines in forested landscapes introduce uncertainties to the wind resource estimation. Even though close-to-canopy processes have been studied intensively during the last thirty years, the focus has mostly been on exchange processes and the height span of the studies has been below the rotor of a modern wind turbine.

    This thesis contains analysis of new measurements from a 138 m high tower in a forested landscape. The previous knowledge of near-canopy processes is extended to the region above the roughness sublayer. It is shown that above the roughness sublayer, the surface layer behaves as over low vegetation, and Monin-Obukhov similarity is shown to hold for several variables. However, in stable stratification, effects that could be linked to the boundary layer depth are shown to be present in the measurements. These include wind turning with height, the behaviour of the turbulence length scale and the curvature of the wind profile.

    Two new analytical models are presented in the thesis. One is a flux-profile expression in the roughness sublayer, which allows for analytical integration of the wind gradient. The model suggests that the roughness-sublayer effect depends on stratification and that the aerodynamic roughness length changes with stability. A decrease of roughness length in stable stratification is confirmed with a new method to determine the roughness length using measurements from the 138 m tower.

    The other model determines the spectral tensor in stable stratification using analytical solution to the rapid distortion equations for stratified shear flow, with homogeneous stratification and shear. By using a formulation for the integration time of the distortions of an isotropic spectrum, a model is derived which provides the cross spectra of velocity and temperature at any two given points in space.

    Finally the existence of waves in the wind over forests is investigated and it is concluded that the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability can create waves which are coherent in time and exist over the entire height span of wind turbine rotors. Linear wave theory is shown to be able to explain certain features of the waves.

  • 2.
    Carpman, Nicole
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Uppsala University.
    Resource characterization and variability studies for marine current power2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Producing electricity from marine renewable resources is a research area that develops continuously. The field of tidal energy is on the edge to progress from the prototype stage to the commercial stage. However, tidal resource characterization, and the effect of tidal turbines on the flow, is still an ongoing research area in which this thesis aims to contribute.

    In this thesis, measurements of flow velocities have been performed at three kinds of sites. Firstly, a tidal site has been investigated for its resource potential in a fjord in Norway. Measurements have been performed with an acoustic Doppler current profiler to map the spatial and temporal characteristics of the flow. Results show that currents are in the order of 2 m/s in the center of the channel. Furthermore, the flow is highly bi-directional between ebb and flood flows. The site thus has potential for in-stream energy conversion. Secondly, a river site serves as an experimental site for a marine current energy converter that has been designed at Uppsala University and deployed in Dalälven, Söderfors. The flow rate at the site is regulated by an upstream hydro power plant, making the site suitable for experiments on the performance of the vertical axis turbine in a natural environment. The turbine was run in steady discharge flows and measurements were performed to characterize the extent of the wake. Lastly, at an ocean current site, the effect that transiting ferries may have on submerged devices was investigated. Measurements were conducted with two sonar systems to obtain an underwater view of the wake caused by a propeller and a water jet thruster respectively.

    Furthermore, the variability of the intermittent renewable sources wind, solar, wave and tidal energy was investigated for the Nordic countries. All of the sources have distinctly different variability features, which is advantageous when combining power generated from them and introducing it on the electricity grid. Tidal variability is mainly due to four aspects: the tidal regime, the tidal cycle, local bathymetry causing turbulence, asymmetries etc. and weather effects. Models of power output from the four sources was set up and combined in different energy mixes for a “highly renewable” and a “fully renewable” scenario. By separating the resulting power time series into different frequency bands (long-, mid-, mid/short-, and short-term components) it was possible to minimize the variability on different time scales. It was concluded that a wise combination of intermittent renewable sources may lower the variability on short and long time scales, but increase the variability on mid and mid/short time scales.

    The tidal power variability in Norway was then investigated separately. The predictability of tidal currents has great advantages when planning electricity availability from tidal farms. However, the continuously varying tide from maximum power output to minimum output several times per day increases the demand for backup power or storage. The phase shift between tidal sites introduces a smoothing effect on hourly basis but the tidal cycle, with spring and neap tide simultaneously in large areas, will inevitably affect the power availability.

  • 3.
    Hai, Ling
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Modelling Wave Power by Equivalent Circuit Theory2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The motion of ocean waves can be captured and converted into usable electricity. This indicates that wave power has the potential to supply electricity to grids like wind or solar power. A point absorbing wave energy converter (WEC) system has been developed for power production at Uppsala University. This system contains a semi-submerged buoy on the water surface driving a linear synchronous generator placed on the seabed. The concept is to connect many small units together, to form a wave farm for large-scale electricity generation.

    A lot of effort has gone into researching how to enhance the power absorption from each WEC unit. These improvements are normally done separately for the buoy, the generator or the electrical system, due to the fact that modelling the dynamic behavior of the entire WEC system is complicated and time consuming. Therefore, a quick, yet simple, assessment tool is needed. 

    This thesis focuses on studying the use of the equivalent circuit as a WEC system modelling tool. Based on the force analysis, the physical elements in an actual WEC system can be converted into electrical components. The interactions between the regular waves, the buoy, and the Power Take-off mechanism can be simulated together in one circuit network. WEC performance indicators like the velocity, the force, and the power can be simulated directly from the circuit model. Furthermore, the annual absorbed electric energy can be estimated if the wave data statistics are known.

    The linear and non-linear equivalent circuit models developed in this thesis have been validated with full scale offshore experimental results. Comparisons indicate that the simplest linear circuit can predict the absorbed power reasonably well, while it is not so accurate in estimating the peak force in the connection line. The non-linear circuit model generates better estimations in both cases. To encourage researchers from different backgrounds to adapt and apply the circuit model, an instruction on how to establish a non-linear equivalent circuit model is supplied, as well as on how to apply the model to accelerate the decision making process when planning a WEC system.

  • 4.
    Huang, Yalin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Electricity Distribution Network Planning Considering Distributed Generation2014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of EU’s actions against climate change is to meet 20% of our energy needs from renewable resources. Given that the renewable resources are becoming more economical to extract electricity from, this will result in that more and more distributed generation (DG) will be connected to power distribution. The increasing share of DG in the electricity networks implies both increased costs and benefits for distribution system operators (DSOs), customers and DG producers. How the costs and benefits will be allocated among the actors will depend on the established regulation.

    Distribution networks are traditionally not designed to accommodate generation. Hence, increasing DG penetration is causing profound changes for DSOs in planning, operation and maintenance of distribution networks. Due to the unbundling between DSOs and electricity production, DSOs can not determine either the location or the size of DG. This new power distribution environment brings new challenges for the DSOs and the electric power system regulator. The DSOs are obliged to enable connection of DG meanwhile fulfilling requirements on power quality and adequate reliability. Moreover, regulatory implications can make potential DG less attractive. Therefore regulation should be able to send out incentives for the DSOs to efficiently plan the network to accommodate the increasing levels of DG. To analyze the effects of regulatory polices on network investments, risk analysis methods for integrating the DG considering uncertainties are therefore needed.

    In this work, regulation impact on network planning methods and network tariff designs in unbundled electricity network is firstly analyzed in order to formulate a realistic long-term network planning model considering DG. Photovoltaic (PV) power and wind power plants are used to demonstrate DG. Secondly, this work develops a deterministic model for low-voltage (LV) networks mainly considering PV connections which is based on the worst-case scenario. Dimension the network using worst-case scenario is the convention in the long-term electricity distribution network planning for the reliability and security reason. This model is then further developed into a probabilistic model in order to consider the uncertainties from DG production and load. Therefore more realistic operation conditions are considered and probabilistic constrains on voltage variation can be applied. Thirdly, this work develops a distribution medium-voltage (MV) network planning model considering wind power plant connections. The model obtains the optimal network expansion and reinforcement plan of the target network considering the uncertainties from DG production and load. The model is flexible to modify the constraints. The technical constraints are respected in any scenario and violated in few scenarios are implemented into the model separately.

    In LV networks only PV connections are demonstrated and in MV networks only wind power connections are demonstrated. The planning model for LV networks is proposed as a practical guideline for PV connections. It has been shown that it is simple to be implemented and flexible to adjust the planning constraints. The proposed planning model for MV networks takes reinforcement on existing lines, new connection lines to DG, alternatives for conductor sizes and substation upgrade into account, and considers non-linear power flow constraints as an iterative linear optimization process. The planning model applies conservative limits and probabilistic limits for increasing utilization of the network, and the different results are compared in case studies. The model’s efficiency, flexibility and accuracy in long-term distribution network planning problems are shown in the case studies.

  • 5.
    Morales-España, Germán
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems. Universidad Pontificia Comillas.
    Unit Commitment: Computational Performance, System Representation and Wind Uncertainty Management2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, high penetration of variable generating sources, such as wind power, has challenged independent system operators (ISO) in keeping a cheap and reliable power system operation. Any deviation between expected and real wind production must be absorbed by the power system resources (reserves), which must be available and ready to be deployed in real time. To guarantee this resource availability, the system resources must be committed in advance, usually the day-ahead, by solving the so-called unit commitment (UC) problem. If the quantity of committed resources is extremely low, there will be devastating and costly consequences in the system, such as significant load shedding. On the other hand, if this quantity is extremely high, the system operation will be excessively expensive, mainly because facilities will not be fully exploited.

    This thesis proposes computationally efficient models for optimal day-ahead planning in (thermal) power systems to adequately face the stochastic nature of wind production in the real-time system operation. The models can support ISOs to face the new challenges in short-term planning as uncertainty increases dramatically due to the integration of variable generating resources. This thesis then tackles the UC problem in the following aspects: 

    • Power system representation: This thesis identifies drawbacks of the traditional energy-block scheduling approach, which make it unable to adequately prepare the power system to face deterministic and perfectly known events. To overcome those drawbacks, we propose the ramp-based scheduling approach that more accurately describes the system operation, thus better exploiting the system flexibility.
    • UC computational performance: Developing more accurate models would be pointless if these models considerably increase the computational burden of the UC problem, which is already a complex integer and non-convex problem. We then devise simultaneously tight and compact formulations under the mixed-integer programming (MIP) approach. This simultaneous characteristic reinforces the convergence speed by reducing the search space (tightness) and simultaneously increasing the searching speed (compactness) with which solvers explore that reduced space.
    • Uncertainty management in UC: By putting together the improvements in the previous two aspects, this thesis contributes to a better management of wind uncertainty in UC, even though these two aspects are in conflict and improving one often means harming the other. If compared with a traditional energy-block UC model under the stochastic (deterministic) paradigm, a stochastic (deterministic) ramp-based UC model: 1) leads to more economic operation, due to a better and more detailed system representation, while 2) being solved significantly faster, because the core of the model is built upon simultaneously tight and compact MIP formulations.
    • To further improve the uncertainty management in the proposed ramp-based UC, we extend the formulation to a network-constrained UC with robust reserve modelling. Based on robust optimization insights, the UC solution guarantees feasibility for any realization of the uncertain wind production, within the considered uncertainty ranges. This final model remains as a pure linear MIP problem whose size does not depend on the uncertainty representation, thus avoiding the inherent computational complications of the stochastic and robust UCs commonly found in the literature.
  • 6.
    Möllerström, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, The Rydberg Laboratory for Applied Sciences (RLAS). Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Noise, eigenfrequencies and turbulence behavior of a 200 kW H-rotor vertical axis wind turbine2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) have with time been outrivaled by the today more common and economically feasible horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). However, VAWTs have several advantages which still make them interesting, for example, the VAWTs can have the drive train at ground level and it has been argued that they have lower noise emission. Other proposed advantages are suitability for both up-scaling and floating offshore platforms.

    The work within this thesis is made in collaboration between Halmstad University and Uppsala University. A 200-kW semi-guy-wired VAWT H-rotor, owned by Uppsala University but situated in Falkenberg close to Halmstad, has been the main subject of the research although most results can be generalized to suit a typical H-rotor.

    This thesis has three main topics regarding VAWTs: (1) how the wind energy extraction is influenced by turbulence, (2) aerodynamical noise generation and (3) eigenfrequencies of the semi-guy-wired tower.

    The influence from turbulence on the wind energy extraction is studied by evaluating logged operational data and examining how the power curve and the tip-speed ratio for maximum Cp is impacted by turbulence. The work has showed that the T1-turbine has a good ability to extract wind energy at turbulent conditions, indicating an advantage in energy extraction at turbulent sites for VAWTs compared to HAWTs.The noise characteristics are studied experimentally, and models of the two most likely aerodynamic noise mechanisms are applied. Here, inflow-turbulence noise is deemed as the prevailing noise source rather than turbulent-boundary-layer trailing-edge noise (TBL-TE) which is the most important noise mechanism for HAWTs. The overall noise emission has also been measured and proven low compared to similar sized HAWTs.

    The eigenfrequencies of a semi-guy-wired tower are also studied. Analytical expressions describing the first-mode eigenfrequency of both tower and guy wire has been derived and verified by experiments and simulations.

  • 7.
    Möllerström, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Noise, eigenfrequencies and turbulence behavior of a 200 kW H-rotor vertical axis wind turbine2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) have with time been outrivaled by the today more common and economically feasible horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). However, VAWTs have several advantages which still make them interesting, for example, the VAWTs can have the drive train at ground level and it has been argued that they have lower noise emission. Other proposed advantages are suitability for both up-scaling and floating offshore platforms.

    The work within this thesis is made in collaboration between Halmstad University and Uppsala University. A 200-kW semi-guy-wired VAWT H-rotor, owned by Uppsala University but situated in Falkenberg close to Halmstad, has been the main subject of the research although most results can be generalized to suit a typical H-rotor.

    This thesis has three main topics regarding VAWTs: (1) how the wind energy extraction is influenced by turbulence, (2) aerodynamical noise generation and (3) eigenfrequencies of the semi-guy-wired tower.

    The influence from turbulence on the wind energy extraction is studied by evaluating logged operational data and examining how the power curve and the tip-speed ratio for maximum Cp is impacted by turbulence. The work has showed that the T1-turbine has a good ability to extract wind energy at turbulent conditions, indicating an advantage in energy extraction at turbulent sites for VAWTs compared to HAWTs.The noise characteristics are studied experimentally, and models of the two most likely aerodynamic noise mechanisms are applied. Here, inflow-turbulence noise is deemed as the prevailing noise source rather than turbulent-boundary-layer trailing-edge noise (TBL-TE) which is the most important noise mechanism for HAWTs. The overall noise emission has also been measured and proven low compared to similar sized HAWTs.

    The eigenfrequencies of a semi-guy-wired tower are also studied. Analytical expressions describing the first-mode eigenfrequency of both tower and guy wire has been derived and verified by experiments and simulations.

  • 8.
    Möllerström, Erik
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: Tower Dynamics and Noise2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) have with time been outrivaled by the today common and economically feasible horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). However, VAWTs have several advantages such as the possibility to put the drive train at ground level, lower noise emissions and better scaling behavior which still make them interesting for research.

    The work within this thesis is made in collaboration between the Department of Construction and Energy Engineering at Halmstad University and the Division for Electricity at Uppsala University. A 200 kW VAWT owned by the latter and situated close to Falkenberg in the southwest of Sweden has been the main subject of the research even if most learnings has been generalized to fit a typical vertical turbine. This particular turbine has a wooden tower which is semi-guy-wired, i.e. the tower is both firmly attached to the ground and supported by guy-wires.

    This thesis has two main topics both regarding VAWTs: eigenfrequency of the tower and the noise generated from the turbine. The eigenfrequency of a semi-guy-wired tower is studied and an analytical expression describing this is produced and verified by experiments and simulations. The eigenfrequency of the wire itself and how it is affected by wind load are also studied.  The noise characteristics of VAWTs have been investigated, both theoretically and by noise measurement campaigns. Both noise emission and frequency distribution of VAWTs has been studied.

    The work has resulted in analytical expressions for tower and wire eigenfrequency of a semi-guy-wired tower as well as recommendations for designing future towers for VAWTs. The noise emission of VAWTs has been studied and proven low compared to HAWTs. The noise frequency distribution of the 200 kW VAWT differs significantly from that of a similar size HAWTs with for example lower levels for frequencies below 3000 Hz.

  • 9.
    Möllerström, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Högskolan i Halmstad, Energiteknik.
    Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: Tower Dynamics and Noise2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) have with time been outrivaled by the today common and economically feasible horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). However, VAWTs have several advantages such as the possibility to put the drive train at ground level, lower noise emissions and better scaling behavior which still make them interesting for research.

    The work within this thesis is made in collaboration between the Department of Construction and Energy Engineering at Halmstad University and the Division for Electricity at Uppsala University. A 200 kW VAWT owned by the latter and situated close to Falkenberg in the southwest of Sweden has been the main subject of the research even if most learnings has been generalized to fit a typical vertical turbine. This particular turbine has a wooden tower which is semi-guy-wired, i.e. the tower is both firmly attached to the ground and supported by guy-wires.

    This thesis has two main topics both regarding VAWTs: eigenfrequency of the tower and the noise generated from the turbine. The eigenfrequency of a semi-guy-wired tower is studied and an analytical expression describing this is produced and verified by experiments and simulations. The eigenfrequency of the wire itself and how it is affected by wind load are also studied.  The noise characteristics of VAWTs have been investigated, both theoretically and by noise measurement campaigns. Both noise emission and frequency distribution of VAWTs has been studied.

    The work has resulted in analytical expressions for tower and wire eigenfrequency of a semi-guy-wired tower as well as recommendations for designing future towers for VAWTs. The noise emission of VAWTs has been studied and proven low compared to HAWTs. The noise frequency distribution of the 200 kW VAWT differs significantly from that of a similar size HAWTs with for example lower levels for frequencies below 3000 Hz.

  • 10.
    Rossander, Morgan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Electromechanics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind power is an established mean of clean energy production and the modern horizontal axis wind turbine has become a common sight. The need for maintenance is high and future wind turbines may need to be improved to enable more remote and offshore locations. Vertical axis wind turbines have possible benefits, such as higher reliability, less noise and lower centre of gravity. This thesis focuses on electromechanical interaction in the straight bladed Darrieus rotor (H-rotor) concept studied at Uppsala University.

    One of the challenges with vertical axis technology is the oscillating aerodynamic forces. A force measurement setup has been implemented to capture the forces on a three-bladed 12 kW open site prototype. The normal force showed good agreement with simulations. An aerodynamic torque could be estimated from the system. The total electrical torque in the generator was determined from electrical measurements. Both torque estimations lacked the expected aerodynamic ripple at three times per revolution. The even torque detected is an important result and more studies are required to confirm and understand it.

    The force measurement was also used to study the loads on the turbine in parked conditions. It was discovered that there is a strong dependence on wind direction and that there is a positive torque on the turbine at stand still. The results can assist to determine the best parking strategies for an H-rotor turbine.

    The studied concept also features diode rectification of the voltage from the permanent magnet synchronous generator. Diodes are considered a cheap and robust solution for rectification at the drawback of inducing ripple in the torque and output voltage. The propagation of the torque ripple was measured on the prototype and studied with simulations and analytical expressions. One key conclusion was that the mechanical driveline of the turbine is an effective filter of the diode induced torque ripple.

    A critical speed controller was implemented on the prototype. The controller was based on optimal torque control and according to the experiments and the simulations it was able to avoid a rotational speed span. Finally, the optimal torque control was evaluated for multiple turbines with diode rectification to a common DC-link. The setup can potentially reduce the overall complexity of wind farms. The simulations suggest that stability of the system can be obtained by controlling the DC-link load as a semi constant voltage.

    The thesis is based on nine papers of which six are treated in the thesis summary.

     

  • 11.
    Sun, Qie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Understanding the Clean Development Mechanism and its dual aims: the case of China's projects2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Having been running for over 10 years, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is considered an innovative and successful mitigation initiative. CDM has the dual aims of helping industrialised countries achieve compliance with their emission limitation and reduction commitments in a cost-effective way, while simultaneously assisting developing countries in sustainable development. This thesis does a comprehensive analysis of the dual aims of CDM and is intended to assist in discussions about the post-2012 regime regarding CDM.

    To analyse the aim of assisting mitigation in a cost-effective way, the prices of certified emission reductions (CERs) on the international carbon market was studied and the provision of CDM was tested by comparing the amount of CERs with the mitigation commitments of the Annex I countries. It was found that CDM plays an important role in maintaining the international carbon price at a low level and that the total amount of CERs alone had already reached up to 52.70% of the entire mitigation commitments of industrialized countries by the end of 2010 and was continuing to grow before 2012.

    A theoretical analysis of the impacts of CDM showed that CDM has a double mitigation effect in both developing countries and industrialised countries, without double counting at present. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of China’s CDM projects on China’s total emissions showed that the contribution of CDM projects to limiting total emissions is small due to the dominance of fossil fuels, but CDM’s role in stimulating renewable energy is significant, e.g. about 11% of hydropower and 93% of wind power was generated by CDM projects in 2010. The results provide strong evidence in support of CDM’s contribution under the current Kyoto Protocol mitigation regime.

    To analyse the aim of promoting sustainable development in developing countries, popular methods such as checklist, Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) and Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) were reviewed, a CBA of co-benefits of China’s CDM projects was carried out, and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was applied in an experimental study. The results showed that every method has its own advantages and problems. In other words, neither the CBA of co-benefits nor the AHP method alone is able to assess sustainable development in a completely satisfactory way. Currently, a bottom-up approach through engaging local stakeholders in CDM design and approval, combining a mandatory monitoring and evaluation of co-benefits, could be more effective for safeguarding local sustainable development than any consolidated standards.

    The future of the CDM is still unclear mainly due to uncertainties about the post-2012 regime. This thesis shows that there is more than sufficient reason for CDM to continue after 2012. Industrialised countries in general should make more substantial efforts to reduce their domestic emissions rather than blaming developing countries. For developing countries, learning from the CDM projects and further applying the knowledge, technology and experiences to their domestic development agenda could be more valuable than the present CER revenues. CDM can be an important starting point for developing countries to gradually make incremental greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and limitation efforts.

  • 12.
    Svensson, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Wind and atmospheric stability characteristics over the Baltic Sea2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been an increase in offshore wind energy, which poses the need for accurate wind speed estimates in the marine environment, especially in coastal areas where most wind turbines will be placed. This thesis is focused on the Baltic Sea, which is a small, semi-enclosed sea where land-sea interaction play an important role in explaining the wind patterns.

    Mesoscale model simulations can be used to study the marine environment, where observations are often scarce. In this thesis the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used. In the first study simulations show that stable stratification over sea is very common in spring and summer and is associated with an increase in low-level jet occurrence and increased wind shear below 200 m, at heights where wind turbines are erected. The model performance in stable conditions is evaluated against aircraft measurements using several boundary layer parametrization schemes, and it is shown that the low-level jet height and strength is not accurately captured with any of the parametrizations.

    In the second study the advection of land features is investigated. From simulations, aircraft observations and satellite images it is shown that boundary layer rolls are created in the convective boundary layer over land, and advected several tens of kilometres out over sea surface, despite the stable stratification, where convective turbulence dissipates quickly. The occurrence of boundary layer rolls gives rise to horizontal wind speed variations of several meters per second over distances of kilometres, which can increase the uncertainty of short term wind speed forecasts in coastal areas with offshore flow.

    It is shown that mesoscale processes in and above the marine boundary layer are important in modifying the wind field in distances of at least 100 km from the coast and that models still need to be improved in order to capture these conditions.

  • 13.
    Yunkai, Yang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Numerical study on flow and pollutant dispersion inside street canyons2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyzes the characteristics of flow pattern and vehicle-emitted pollutant dispersion in roughness surface layer. In an urban environment, wind flow and transported-pollutant source interfere strongly with buildings and other roughness elements on the surface ground, which results in complex characteristics of flow pattern and pollutant dispersion in 3D circumstances. The present study intends to simplify the research domain and investigate the fundamental modeling problems that exist in the field. The current physical research topic is restricted to 2D street canyon in equilibrium conditions. The study is motivated by the fact that characteristics of flow pattern and pollutant distribution inside street canyons are important for public health. The research has applied the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology. To date, insights have typically focused on idealized street canyons without strictly limited boundary conditions and turbulence models. Those approaches face challenges related to their applicability to real urban scenarios or the reliability of prediction results.

    The thesis examines the influence of grid density, turbulence models and turbulent Schmidt number on pollutant distribution at windward and leeward surfaces of street canyon. Since numerical results usually are validated with wind-tunnel measurement data, the results between full-size model and wind-tunnel model are compared in order to test the Reynolds number effect. The lack of measurement data means that the morphometric method is used to generate upcoming wind profile, including the mean vertical velocity and turbulence parameters. The thesis also analyzes the potential errors brought by the method (Scenario A).

    Based on the evaluated numerical model, the thesis continues to study the impacts of surrounding buildings and geometry of street canyon on flow and pollutant distribution inside street canyons. The effect of wind on pollutant distribution inside street canyons was also investigated (Scenario A). Furthermore, the influence of roof shape and configuration of street canyon on characteristics of flow and pollutant distribution is also systematically studied, with the results shown in scenario B.

    The main conclusions of the thesis are that the uncertainty of numerical results derives from different aspects. Wind profile in the inlet profile generated by morphometric method brings major error to the simulation results. Current turbulence models cannot compromise the simulation results between flow field and pollutant distribution field. Ignored small-scale obstacles also need to be handled carefully. Numerical results revealed that flow and pollutant distribution inside street canyons are mainly dominated by the geometry of the street canyon itself. Medium-spaced surrounding buildings are also better able to transport pollutant out of the street canyon. Through systematic analysis, roof shape is proven to have a significant effect on flow and pollutant distribution inside a street canyon. The major impact is altered turbulence intensity depth and strength of shear layer inside the street canyon, which is important for pollutant removal process out of the street canyon.

    In the future, advanced turbulence models accompanied by small-obstacle effect models need to be developed in order to reliably simulate flow and pollutant dispersion simultaneously. Based on the advanced turbulence model, simulation of flow and pollutant dispersion in a complex 3D environment is essential in the next steps for the purpose of engineering application. Accurate vertical wind profile provided for inlet profile is another interesting direction for further development.

    Keywords: Flow; Pollutant dispersion; CFD; Street canyon; Reliability

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