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  • 1.
    Aare, Therese
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi.
    Wernh, Weronica
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi.
    Emotionella upplevelser och emotionsreglering i samband med en nedskärningsprocess2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate emotions and emotion regulation of a downsizing in an industrial company. The sample consisted of persons who had experienced a downsizing but have kept the employment, within a same position or being transferred to another one. Data consisted of two focus group interviews, analysed by an inductive thematic analysis. The results have indicated that emotional reactions changed over time as well the emotional regulation did during the different phases. The groups differed in emotional reaction related to the time of decision regarding the retention of employment. One conclusion is that fast and accurate information during the different phases of a downsizing process may lead to more positive emotional reactions, which in consequence may result in a positive experience of the reduction process as a whole. The confidence in management increased across the time, due to its decisiveness during the process of downsizing.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Stephanie
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Hermansson, Matilda
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Vilka faktorer upplevs som begränsande för unga kvinnors sexualitet utifrån ett genuspsykologiskt perspektiv?: En studie med tio intervjuer av kvinnor i åldrarna 25-30 år2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka om och i sådana fall vilka faktorer som unga heterosexuella kvinnor upplevde som begränsande för sin sexualitet. Med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer undersöktes i denna kvalitativa studie hur dessa deltagare upplevde sin sexualitet utifrån tre huvudområden; sociala strukturer, normer samt psykisk hälsa. Teorin “sexual scripting theory” applicerades på de tre huvudområdena, då paralleller drogs mellan dessa och teorins tre huvudbegrepp “cultural scripts”, “interpersonal scripts” och “intrapsychic scripts”. Resultatet av denna studie visade att patriarkala strukturer, samhällsideal, jämförelser med andra, förväntningar och föreställningar om kvinnans utseende samt beteende var hämmande för deltagarnas sexualitet. Resultatet visade även att det fanns tydliga samband mellan sexualiteten och den psykiska hälsan. Negativa sexuella erfarenheter upplevdes påverka deltagarnas psykiska hälsa och blev hämmande för framtida sexuella upplevelser. Många begränsande faktorer identifierades utifrån resultatet i denna studie och en inblick i deltagarnas förhållande till sin sexualitet utforskades. 

  • 3. Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Applying Heidegger's interpretive phenomenology to women's miscarriage experience2010Inngår i: Psychology Research and Behavior Management, ISSN 1179-1578, Vol. 3, 75-79 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Much has been written about measuring the feelings and impressions of women regarding their experience of miscarriage. According to the existential philosopher Heidegger life experiences such as the experience of a woman having a miscarriage can be interpreted and explained only in the context of the totality of the women's experiences in the past, the present, and the future. Thirteen in-depth interviews with women about their experiences of miscarriage were interpreted with respect to Heidegger's "Being and Time". By using his interpretive phenomenology the essence of the miscarriage experience was explored and defined. The women's feelings and impressions were influenced by past experiences of miscarriage, pregnancy, and births. Present conditions in the women's lives contributing to the experience include their relationships, working situation, and living conditions. Each woman's future prospects and hopes have been structurally altered with regard to their aspirations for their terminated pregnancy. The impact of miscarriage in a woman's life was found to be more important than caregiver providers and society have previously attributed to in terms of scale. The results of the interviews reveal that the women believed that only women who had experienced their own miscarriages were able to fully understand this complex womanly experience and its effects on the woman who had miscarried.

  • 4.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Gunnarsson, Helena E. M.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Stening, Kent
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV).
    Does physical pain impair abstract thinking?2017Inngår i: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, 1-7 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to think abstractly constitutes a fundamental dimension of human cognition. Although abstraction has been extensively studied, its emotional and affective antecedents have been largely overlooked. One experiment was conducted to examine whether physical pain affects abstraction. Drawing on Construal Level Theory [Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2010). Construal-level theory of psychological distance. Psychological Review117, 440–463] and Loewenstein’s [(1996). Out of control: Visceral influences on behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes65, 272–292] visceral factors theory, we hypothesised that pain impairs abstraction because pain constricts people’s mental horizons and lead to a concrete, inward-focus toward oneself in the here and now. Physical pain was manipulated between subjects (N = 150). The participants either kept their left hand immersed in cold (painful) water or neutral (painless) water while we measured abstract versus concrete behaviour identification, categorisation, and perceptual processing. Bayesian statistical analyses indicate substantial evidence against the hypothesis that pain impairs abstraction. In contrast to many other previously studied cognitive outcomes (e.g. attention), abstraction appears to be largely immune to acute, experimentally induced pain.

  • 5.
    Agnemo, Maja
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Skogen i våra hjärtan: Erfarenheter, emotionella band, värderingar och attityder till skog, natur och allemansrätten2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    En betydande del av Sveriges yta är täckt av skog och det finns många olika viljor finns rörande vilka värden skogen ska erbjuda. Syftet med studien var att undersöka människors erfarenheter, emotionella band och värderingar av skog och natur, samt attityder till naturresursutnyttjande och allemansrätt, inklusive samband dem emellan. Syftet var även att diskutera resultatet i förhållande till politiska mål rörande skog och natur. Totalt deltog 663 universitetsstudenter med medelåldern 24 år, varav 254 kvinnor och 401 män, i en enkätundersökning. Resultatet visade genom korrelationsanalys samband mellan samtliga variabler. Attityden att allemansrätten är viktig förklarades främst av starkare emotionella band och att oftare vistas i skogen. Attityden att allemansrätten bör begränsas förklarades av en högre värdering av virkesproduktion. Den var också vanligare hos de vars familj äger skog. Resultatet diskuterades i relation till miljömålsuppfyllelse och allemansrätten: emotionella band, som föds av erfarenheter, är incitament för agerande. För att uppfylla politiska mål bör emotioner beaktas och miljöer som ger förutsättning för erfarenhetsskapande erbjudas. Allemansrätten ger förutsättningar för dessa erfarenheter. 

  • 6.
    Agritellis, Ioannis
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Social media as the Cosmo Neighborhood2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The world has been transformed through the internet into a "global village",and social media platforms have possibly transformed the world into a larger neighborhood covering many regions of the world. Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter came into people’s lives through the Internet, growing daily at a large rate, and it has been proven that they are very popular. This study examines links between different phenomena through social media platforms (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, blogs, etc.). It is discusses cohesiveness, desire to belong, sense of community, beliefs and opinions about different forms of these phenomena in popular virtual platforms in correlation with trust in social media, criticism of information that is spread by these virtual platforms, and if people are influenced in consumer decision making. A questionnaire has been distributed to a convenient sample of 159 international and Swedish students in Sweden in October-November 2012 in both English and Swedish versions. According to the peoples’ answers, tendencies were observed such as to not trust the platforms, and also the information received, beliefs such that social media are "controlled", negative critique, but also an expression for a need for ‘membership’.

  • 7.
    Ahlenius, Sven
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Larsson, Knut
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Prolongation of the ejaculation latency in the male rat by thioridazine and chlorimipramine.1979Inngår i: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 65, nr 2, 137-140 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thioridazine (3 mg/kg) and chlorimipramine (1.5–6.0 mg/kg) prolonged the ejaculation latency and increased the number of mounts but did not change the number of intromissions preceding ejaculation. Blockade of peripheral and central noradrenaline receptors by phentolamine and phenoxybenzamine respectively resulted in a suppression of all aspects of the sexual behavior with increasing doses. dl-5-HTP (25–100 mg/kg) in combination with an inhibitor of peripheral 5-HTP decarboxylase (benserazide, 25 mg/kg) produced, like chlorimipramine and thioridazine, a prolongation of ejaculation latency and an increase in the number of mounts preceding ejaculation. Selective inhibition of 5-HT reuptake however, by zimelidine (0–20 mg/kg) or alaproclate (0–20 mg/kg) did not affect the mating behavior. At higher doses of these drugs some animals failed to initiate sexual activities. There was an increase in the postejaculatory interval but no change in the ejaculatory latency.It is concluded that the prolonged ejaculation latencies observed following treatment with thioridazine or chlorimipramine is not due to a blockade of central or peripheral adrenergic -receptors.

  • 8.
    Ahlforn, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Kommunicera och rapportera: En undersökning av sjukvårdsrådgivares syn på patientsäkerhet och inflytandet på verksamhetens säkerhetskultur2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjukvårdsrådgivning via telefon har kommit att bli ett allt vanligare sätt att kontakta vården. Det är också ett smidigt sätt att i dagens mobila samhälle utnyttja tiden effektivt. Denna typ av sjukvårdsrådgivning skiljer sig från det annars traditionella sättet där sjuksköterskan fysiskt möter patienten till exempel på en vårdcentral. I anslutning till den tidigare sjukvården finns också etablerade metoder och riktlinjer för patientsäkerhet, vilket bidrar till att kontinuerligt sträva efter att upprätthålla god vårdkvalitet och trygghet för patienten. En metod är exempelvis det avvikelserapporteringssystem som sedan tidigare används inom bland annat Landstinget i Östergötland, vilket också har kommit att användas på Sjukvårdsrådgivningen i Linköping.

    Syftet med denna studie var att inom en verksamhet för sjukvårdsrådgivning via telefon undersöka vilka attityder personalen har till patientsäkerhet, samt hur de själva beskriver sina åsikter angående detta ämne. Baserat på tidigare forskning relateras resultaten till vilken påverkan de uppskattas ha på verksamhetens säkerhetskultur.

    En webbenkät användes som instrument i studiens datainsamling. Frågorna var sedan tidigare framtagna för att mäta patientsäkerhet inom traditionell sjukvård, vilka grundade sig på element från säkerhetskulturforskning. En av studiens centrala upptäckter tyder på att personalen tycker att det är svårt att hinna med att rapportera avvikelser. Det fanns också en tendens att flera sjukvårdsrådgivare berättar om avvikelser för arbetskamrater när de väl upptäcks, än antal som avvikelserapporterar på formellt vis. Vidare påträffades också att respondenterna inte är rädda för att be om hjälp när oklarheter i arbetet uppstår. En av studiens slutsatser var att sjukvårdsrådgivarna behöver mer tid till att kunna prioritera att rapportera avvikelser som upptäcks för att minimera informationsbortfall.

  • 9.
    Ahlin, Eva
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Tjäder, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    "Jag trivs bäst i öppna landskap...": Om naturmiljöers påverkan på oss människor2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    En kvantitativ studie med experimentell design har genomförts i syfte att jämföra natur- respektive urbanmiljöers påverkan på känslomässig och fysiologisk återhämtning efter en stressupplevelse, samt utslag på kognitiv prestation. Hypotesen var att naturstimuli genererar högre grad av känslomässig och fysiologisk återhämtning än urbanstimuli. Frågeställningen var om vi kunde se någon skillnad mellan gruppernas prestationsförmåga efter genomförd återhämtning, vad gäller riktad uppmärksamhet. Återhämtningsgrad har mätts i förändring i blodtryck, puls och självskattning av känslor.  Resultatet visade att naturmiljön genererar en högre nivå återhämtning med avseende på sänkt diastoliskt blodtryck, ökade positiva känslor samt minskad oro. Däremot visades ingen skillnad i kognitiv prestationsförmåga mellan grupperna. Slutsatsen är att känslomässig samt fysiologisk återhämtning kan underlättas i naturmiljö jämfört med urbanmiljö och att detta även kan ske med hjälp av naturbilder. Däremot är det inte är självklart att man får större kapacitet riktad uppmärksamhet efter exponering av naturbilder jämfört med stadsbilder.

  • 10.
    Ahlin, Klas
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Prerequisites for teaching mindfulness and meditation: Experienced teachers from different traditions share their insights2016Inngår i: Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy, E-ISSN 2157-7595, Vol. 6, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Several authors have suggested demands and requirements for teaching mindfulness and meditation. In the scientific literature there is however a lack of evaluation of mindfulness teachers and how to teach mindfulness meditation effectively. This study aims at providing deeper insight of the importance of the teachers in the field of mindfulness and meditation and it investigates how mindfulness and meditation teachers describe the prerequisites for teaching mindfulness and meditation.

    Method: The method of Thematic Analysis, TA, was utilized to analyse the data from semi-structured interviews conducted with twelve experienced teachers, from different mindfulness and meditation traditions. The participants are mindfulness and meditation teachers from either within the Buddhist, secular or both Buddhist and secular contexts.

    Results: The analysis resulted in three main themes and nine subthemes, such as for example the main theme; Teacher qualification with subthemes; Becoming teacher, Being teacher, Pedagogic skills and Social skills. The results suggest a flexible and pragmatic view on how mindfulness and meditation teaching should be provided. Instead of a fixed set of requirements for the teacher and the student, what makes mindfulness and meditation teaching effective has to do with the ability to recognize the potential in every unique situation with an understanding of the impermanent and interdependent relationship between teacher, student and context.

    Conclusion: Being and becoming a teacher is a continuous process and anyone can assume the role of mindfulness and meditation teacher. It is dependent on the students and the context. A formalized education is not a prerequisite but what is required is sufficient compassion and insight. For the teacher’s compassion and insight to ripen and for the student to learn, non-ideal conditions and suffering, is required and it is helpful with supportive fellow practitioners, teachers, especially if they themselves practice what they teach and share what they know.

  • 11.
    Ahlström, Richard
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Debt2011Inngår i: Encyclopedia of consumer culture / [ed] Southerton, Dale, New York: Sage Publications, 2011, 1Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Perceptions of gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence among undergraduates in Sweden2013Inngår i: International Journal of Conflict and Violence, ISSN 1864-1385, Vol. 7, nr 2, 249-260 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study of perceptions about gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence in Sweden. Undergraduate students (N = 1009) read one of eight fictitious scenarios of domestic violence in married couple relationships, where sexual orientation, sex of victim and batterer, and severity of violence were varied. Perceptions of seriousness of the described incident and attitudes toward women, gays and lesbians were measured. Domestic violence was perceived as more serious in cases where: the respondent was a woman, the batterer was a man, the victim was a woman, or the battering was severe. Wife-battering in a heterosexual relationship was considered the most serious case in both the less and more severe battering scenario. Where battering was less severe, domestic violence in gay and lesbian relationships was perceived as more serious than heterosexual husband-battering; this difference disappeared in the severe battering scenario. Negative attitudes toward gays, lesbians, and women were associated with less concern about domestic violence in all types of relationships. The findings suggest that stereotypes about gays, lesbians, and women affect perceptions of domestic violence, but mainly when violence is less severe.

  • 13.
    Ahola, Angela S.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Justice needs a blindfold: Effects of defendants’ gender and attractiveness on judicial evaluation2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender and appearance affect our judgments regarding an individual’s personality, profession, and morality, and create a reference frame within which to act toward that person. The main question of the present thesis is whether these kinds of stereotypical conceptions have implications for the judicial process: how professionals within the judicial process evaluate and judge a defendant, and how and what eyewitnesses remember. Expressed in other words: Is justice blind or do gender and appearances affect the treatment we receive in a judicial process?

    The main purpose of the present thesis was to study the effects of gender and attractiveness on evaluations of defendants accused of crimes of varying seriousness and type. The second theme was to study under what circumstances these effects are particularly strong; emotionality, retention interval, as well as gender and profession of evaluators, were controlled for.

    Study 1 aimed at investigating “pure” gender and attractiveness effects, with psychology students as participants. Study II added the variable of emotionality, as well as six groups of evaluators. Emotionality was studied by including emotional photographs of crime victim injury as well as two levels of vividness in the written description the evaluator was to read. The evaluators were professionals working within the judicial process in Sweden–judges, jury members, counsels for the defence, prosecutors, and police officers–as well as law students. Study 1 showed that a male defendant was evaluated more negatively than a female. Study II showed two main tendencies: (i) “same-sex penalty effect”: Sentencing evaluators (judges, jurors) evaluated a defendant of their own gender more harshly than one of the opposite gender; (ii) “male penalty effect”: Nonsentencing evaluators (police officers, counsels for the defence, prosecutors, and law students) evaluated and judged a male defendant more harshly than a female. Study III focused on exploring effects of violence (emotionality) and retention interval in the context of gender differences to investigate under which circumstances gender differences might be especially strengthened. Violence was manipulated using two acts: one neutral (walking in a store) and one violent (robbing the same store). Retention interval was of two lengths: 10 minutes and 1-3 weeks. Results revealed a gender-stereotype-enhancement effect, in which the evaluator evaluated the male defendant more harshly with the longer retention interval as well as in the violent act condition. The results of the present studies may have practical implications for the functioning of the judicial process; on the eyewitness hearing level (Study III) as well as on the evidence evaluation-, guilt-, and punishment assessment levels (Studies I and II).

  • 14. Ahtinen, Aino
    et al.
    Mattila, Elina
    Välkkynen, Pasi
    Kaipainen, Kirsikka
    Vanhala, Toni
    Ermes, Miikka
    Sairanen, Essi
    Myllymäki, Tero
    Lappalainen, Raimo
    Mobile mental wellness training for stress management: feasibility and design implications based on a one-month field study.2013Inngår i: JMIR mHealth and uHealth, ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 1, nr 2, e11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Prevention and management of work-related stress and related mental problems is a great challenge. Mobile applications are a promising way to integrate prevention strategies into the everyday lives of citizens.

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study was to study the usage, acceptance, and usefulness of a mobile mental wellness training application among working-age individuals, and to derive preliminary design implications for mobile apps for stress management.

    METHODS: Oiva, a mobile app based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), was designed to support active learning of skills related to mental wellness through brief ACT-based exercises in the daily life. A one-month field study with 15 working-age participants was organized to study the usage, acceptance, and usefulness of Oiva. The usage of Oiva was studied based on the usage log files of the application. Changes in wellness were measured by three validated questionnaires on stress, satisfaction with life (SWLS), and psychological flexibility (AAQ-II) at the beginning and at end of the study and by user experience questionnaires after one week's and one month's use. In-depth user experience interviews were conducted after one month's use to study the acceptance and user experiences of Oiva.

    RESULTS: Oiva was used actively throughout the study. The average number of usage sessions was 16.8 (SD 2.4) and the total usage time per participant was 3 hours 12 minutes (SD 99 minutes). Significant pre-post improvements were obtained in stress ratings (mean 3.1 SD 0.2 vs mean 2.5 SD 0.1, P=.003) and satisfaction with life scores (mean 23.1 SD 1.3 vs mean 25.9 SD 0.8, P=.02), but not in psychological flexibility. Oiva was perceived easy to use, acceptable, and useful by the participants. A randomized controlled trial is ongoing to evaluate the effectiveness of Oiva on working-age individuals with stress problems.

    CONCLUSIONS: A feasibility study of Oiva mobile mental wellness training app showed good acceptability, usefulness, and engagement among the working-age participants, and provided increased understanding on the essential features of mobile apps for stress management. Five design implications were derived based on the qualitative findings: (1) provide exercises for everyday life, (2) find proper place and time for challenging content, (3) focus on self-improvement and learning instead of external rewards, (4) guide gently but do not restrict choice, and (5) provide an easy and flexible tool for self-reflection.

  • 15. Airaksinen, Eija
    et al.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Kognitiv psykologi.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Low episodic memory performance as a premorbid marker of depression:: Evidence from a 3-year follow-up2007Inngår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 115, nr 6, 458-465 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine low episodic memory scores as a potential risk factor for depression.

    Method: A population-based sample of non-depressed individuals (20–64 years) were re-examined 3 years after an initial screening (n ¼ 708). At baseline, information on episodic memory scores, demographic and socioeconomic factors, alcohol use and anxiety diagnoses was collected. The data for depression diagnoses were collected at both baseline and follow-up.

    Results: Logistic regressions, conducted on three separate study groups that were defined according to three assessments of episodic memory (i.e. free + cued recall, free recall, cued recall) among individuals who scored in the 25 lowest or highest percentiles in the memory tests, revealed that low episodic memory performance defined as the sum of free and cued recalls of organizable words constitutes a risk of depression diagnosis 3 years later.

    Conclusion: Low episodic memory performance predated depressive diagnosis and might be considered as a premorbid marker of depression.

  • 16.
    Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Evaluation of Insight Training of Ambulance Drivers in Sweden Using DART: a New E-learning Tool2011Inngår i: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, Vol. 12, nr 6, 621-629 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a new e-learning tool for insight training of ambulance drivers can have an effect on drivers’ driving behaviors, perceived driving competence, competence to assess risks, self-reflection, and safety attitudes.

    Methods: A quasi-experimental study design, with participants nonrandomly assigned into a control and intervention group, was used. The intervention group participated in the insight-training course and the control group did not. Both groups completed a self- and peer assessment online questionnaire before and after the training.

    Results: The main finding is that the ambulance drivers assessed themselves through the instruments after the training, with the e-learning tool Driver Access Recording Tool (DART), as safer drivers in the areas of speed adaptation, closing up, and overtaking. In the answers from the group-based evaluation, the ambulance drivers responded that they were more reflective/analytical, had increased their risk awareness, and had changed their driving behaviors.

    Conclusions: After insight training, the ambulance drivers in this study assessed themselves as safer drivers in several important areas, including speed adaptation, closing up, and overtaking. In future training of ambulance drivers there should be more focus on insight training instead of previous training focusing on maneuvering capabilities.

  • 17.
    Alfermann, Dorothee
    et al.
    Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS), Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI), Idrott, hälsa och fysisk aktivitet.
    Sport psychology in Europe – Women’s perspective2013Inngår i: Abstracts of the ISSP 13th World Congress of Sport Psychology: July 21-26, 2013, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China, Beijing, 2013, 55-55 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to other disciplines of psychology, sport and exercise psychology is a very young field. Sport psychology associations were founded in a variety of countries (particularly in Europe and North America) in the 1960es and later, after the first World Congress of Sport Psychology had taken place in Rome in 1965. Despite the fact that even in those ages quite a few women were studying psychology and afterwards starting a scientific career, females in sport psychology were extremely underrepresented. One of the reasons could lie in the fact that sport, much more than psychology, was a stereotypically male field, with only a few opportunities available to women. Making a career in sport psychology was then a double contradiction for women. First, making a career in general contradicted the typical female role, and second, making a career in sport meant an untypical field for women.

    The presentation will be structured as a dialogue between the two presenters – female sport psychologists working in the field for more than 30 years. Both were born and started their careers during the period of the Cold War: Dorothee Alfermann in the Federal Republic of Germany, and Natalia Stambulova in the Soviet Union. Both countries do not exist on the European map any more reflecting dramatic political, social and economic changes in Europe during the last two decades. All the changes in the European context put their impacts on the development of sport and exercise psychology in Europe including overall organizational development, as well as female careers and their contributions to European Federation of Sport Psychology (FEPSAC), other international sport psychology organizations (e.g., ISSP, AASP) and international sport psychology events (e.g., Congresses). The dialogue will be structured around the following three themes: (a) the presenters’ own careers analyzed from the point of gender issues (e.g., female professional role models and mentors), (b) history of European sport and exercise psychology, foundation of FEPSAC and contribution of its first President Ema Geron (1969-1973), and (c) female sport psychology professionals’ role in today’s European sport psychology and their contributions to FEPSAC, ISSP, AASP, national sport psychology associations, the editorial board of Psychology of Sport and Exercise, the European Forum of Applied Sport Psychologists, the European Master’s Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology (EMSSEP), and the recent European Master’s (Mundus) Program in Sport and Exercise Psychology (EMPSEP).

  • 18.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Olsson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Motivation and Treatment Credibility Predicts Dropout, Treatment Adherence, and Clinical Outcomes in an Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.2016Inngår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 18, nr 3, e52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In previous research, variables such as age, education, treatment credibility, and therapeutic alliance have shown to affect patients' treatment adherence and outcome in Internet-based psychotherapy. A more detailed understanding of how such variables are associated with different measures of adherence and clinical outcomes may help in designing more effective online therapy.

    Objective: The aims of this study were to investigate demographical, psychological, and treatment-specific variables that could predict dropout, treatment adherence, and treatment outcomes in a study of online relaxation for mild to moderate stress symptoms.

    Methods: Participant dropout and attrition as well as data from self-report instruments completed before, during, and after the online relaxation program were analyzed. Multiple linear and logistical regression analyses were conducted to predict early dropout, overall attrition, online treatment progress, number of registered relaxation exercises, posttreatment symptom levels, and reliable improvement.

    Results: Dropout was significantly predicted by treatment credibility, whereas overall attrition was associated with reporting a focus on immediate consequences and experiencing a low level of intrinsic motivation for the treatment. Treatment progress was predicted by education level and treatment credibility, whereas number of registered relaxation exercises was associated with experiencing intrinsic motivation for the treatment. Posttreatment stress symptoms were positively predicted by feeling external pressure to participate in the treatment and negatively predicted by treatment credibility. Reporting reliable symptom improvement after treatment was predicted by treatment credibility and therapeutic bond.

    Conclusions: This study confirmed that treatment credibility and a good working alliance are factors associated with successful Internet-based psychotherapy. Further, the study showed that measuring adherence in different ways provides somewhat different results, which underscore the importance of carefully defining treatment adherence in psychotherapy research. Lastly, the results suggest that finding the treatment interesting and engaging may help patients carry through with the intervention and complete prescribed assignments, a result that may help guide the design of future interventions.

  • 19.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden; Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Spännargård, Åsa
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Parling, Thomas
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tobias
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    The effects of clinical supervision on supervisees and patients in cognitive-behavioral therapy: a study protocol for a systematic review.2017Inngår i: Systematic Reviews, E-ISSN 2046-4053, Vol. 6, nr 1, 94Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Clinical supervision by a senior therapist is a very common practice in psychotherapist training and psychiatric care settings. Though clinical supervision is advocated by most educational and governing institutions, the effects of clinical supervision on the supervisees' competence, e.g., attitudes, behaviors, and skills, as well as on treatment outcomes and other patient variables are debated and largely unknown. Evidence-based practice is advocated in clinical settings but has not yet been fully implemented in educational or clinical training settings. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize and present the empirical literature regarding effects of clinical supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    METHODS: This study will include a systematic review of the literature to identify studies that have empirically investigated the effects of supervision on supervised psychotherapists and/or the supervisees' patients. A comprehensive search strategy will be conducted to identify published controlled studies indexed in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases. Data on supervision outcomes in both psychotherapists and their patients will be extracted, synthesized, and reported. Risk of bias and quality of the included studies will be assessed systematically.

    DISCUSSION: This systematic review will rigorously follow established guidelines for systematic reviews in order to summarize and present the evidence base for clinical supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy and may aid further research and discussion in this area.

    SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016046834.

  • 20.
    Alfredsson, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    INNOVATIVE TOOL-MODIFICATIONS AND TOOL SELECTIVITY IN NEW CALEDONIAN CROWS (CORVUS MONEDULOIDES)2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Tool-use and tool-manufacture are thought to require high cognitive skills and have been considered as an exclusive attribute to primates. Recent observations of New Caledonian crows (NCCs) challenge this assumption. In this study 13 NCCs were tested with two different tool production tasks. The NCC either had to straighten a hook or bend a stick to retrieve food from two different kinds of tree trunks. The result showed that 3/5 birds bent sticks and used them to retrieve food and 1/5 birds straightened hooks to retrieve food. The birds managed to solve both tasks but not the birds in the control group. This indicates that NCC's tool making is a flexible innovative act and not just an innate predisposition to bend flexible material. This finding is interesting given that recent studies on human children show that below 8 years of age children fail in similar innovative tool making tasks.

  • 21.
    Allertz, Frida
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Att motivera och/eller manipulera: En begreppsutredande litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to theoretically investigate the concepts of the interpersonal actions 'to motivate' and 'to manipulate' and also to examine possible differences and similarities between the two. The method used is a conceptual review based on the Self-Determination Theory, related to the concept of motivation, and Machiavellianism, related to the concept of manipu-lation. The results show that 'to motivate', according to Self-Determination Theory, concerns influencing the intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, where intrinsic motivation is related to the feeling of self-determination, inner locus of causality, being or feeling competent and exercise activities for the pleasure of it, whilst extrinsic motivation is related to external locus of cau-sality, external pressure and engaging in activities for the purpose of reaching a goal or re-ward. 'To manipulate' is according to Machiavellianism based on the manipulator doing whatever it takes to reach a certain goal and gain something for himself with no regard of what methods being used. The comparative analysis showed that the crucial difference in how an behaviour is interpreted as either, or both, motivating and manipulative is based on who is doing the interpretation, what information she has and which aspects that are focused on.

  • 22.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Goals and values in school: A model developed for describing, evaluating and changing the social climate of learning environments2010Inngår i: Social Psychology of Education, ISSN 1381-2890, E-ISSN 1573-1928, Vol. 13, nr 2, 207-235 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper defines a broad model of the psychosocial climate in educational settings. The model was developed from a general theory of learning environments, on a theory of human values and on empirical studies of children's evaluations of their schools. The contents of the model are creativity, stimulation, achievement, self-efficacy, creativity, safety, control, helpfulness, participation, responsibility and influence; they are hypothesised to be structured in a circular model. The contents are defined and related to existing theories and research in education, special education, educational psychology and sociology, on the basis of reviews of literature. The model underlies the Goals, Attitudes and Values in School questionnaire, developed to assess the characteristics ofeducational settings. The model can be a practical tool in understanding and appreciating differences between learning environments in research and assessment and it could represent a guideline for interventions aimed to analyse and improve the social climate of learning environments.

  • 23.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Innes-Ker, Åse Helene
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Fredin, Gunilla
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Children's and adults' realism in their event-recall confidence in responses to free recall and focussed questions2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Innes-Ker, Åse
    Lunds universitet.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    Lunds universitet.
    Fredin, Gunilla
    Lunds universitet.
    Children's and adults' realism in their event-recall confidence in response to free recall and focussed questions.2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25.
    Alm, Annelie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Förmågan att spegla känslor, avslöja lögner och gradera säkerhet: finns det ett samband dem emellan?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Underlättar kongruens mellan sinnestillstånd och påstående (vad gäller dess värdeladdning) vid bedömning av ett påståendes sanningshalt? Denna fråga uppkom via studier av embodiment och lögner, forskning från de båda områdena påvisar nämligen att olika ”kroppsliga signaler” kan hjälpa oss att avslöja om andra människor ljuger. Frågan har undersökts via en faktoriell design med repeterade mätningar där deltagarna försattes i olika sinnestillstånd varpå de utsattes för olika stimuli och fick göra olika bedömningar. Resultatet visade att kongruenta betingelser varken underlättar eller påskyndar vid bedömning av ett påståendes sanningshalt, däremot erhölls ett signifikant resultat som indikerade att kongruenta betingelser ökar människans konfidensnivå (högre grad av säkerhet vad gäller att en korrekt bedömning gjorts) vid bedömning av falska påståenden.

  • 26.
    Alm, Per A
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Division of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Stuttering, emotions, and heart rate during anticipatory anxiety:: a critical review2004Inngår i: Journal of fluency disorders, ISSN 0094-730X, E-ISSN 1873-801X, Vol. 29, nr 2, 123-133 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Persons who stutter often report their stuttering is influenced by emotional reactions, yet the nature of such relation is still unclear. Psychophysiological studies of stuttering have failed to find any major association between stuttering and the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. A review of published studies of heart rate in relation to stressful speech situations indicate that adults who stutter tend to show a paradoxical reduction of heart rate compared with nonstuttering persons. Reduction of heart rate has also been observed in humans and mammals during anticipation of an unpleasant stimulus, and is proposed to be an indication of anticipatory anxiety resulting in a “freezing response” with parasympathetic inhibition of the heart rate. It is suggested that speech-related anticipatory anxiety in persons who stutter is likely to be a secondary, conditioned reaction based on previous experiences of stuttering.

  • 27.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Stability and change in engagement of young children with and without developmental delay2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Sjöman, Madeleine
    Jönköping university, Sweden.
    Golsäter, Marie
    Jönköping university, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping university, Sweden.
    Children's behavior problems as a predictor of staff implemented intervention in preschool and engagement outcomes.2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 29.
    Alphonse, Nshimiyimana
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Development of Violent Behavior and Adolescents’ Appraisal and Coping Strategies related to Inter-parental Violence2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present review focuses on understanding the explanatory mechanisms behind the use of violence within intimate relationships, highlighting the consequences of adolescents’ exposure to Inter-parental violence and gauging the role of their (adolescents) appraisal and coping strategies. The theories reviewed stress the significant impact of close figures’ behaviors on the developing child and adolescent trough observational and imitational processes, secure and insecure attachment patterns and related internal working models as well as trough building own understanding of the world and human interrelations. The review revealed also that adolescents’ exposure to Inter-parental violence constituted an unequivocal risk factor leading to a range of consequences categorized as internalizing and externalizing problems. It however indicates that the outcome behaviors are not a result of a linear process because there is range of mediating factors that explain the association between adolescents’ exposure to Inter-parental violence and outcome behaviors. Finally, appraisal of Inter-parental violence was identified as a central mechanism that impacts both the magnitude of the consequences of exposure and the adolescents’ conception and execution of coping strategies.

  • 30.
    Alvarsson, Jesper
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Psykologi. KTH.
    Imamovic, Amra
    KTH.
    Bolin, Karl
    KTH.
    Buller i Silverdal 20162016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar att buller orsakar ohälsa för många medborgare både i Europa generellt, och i Sverige. De två viktigaste negativa hälsoeffekterna av buller är försämrad sömn och bullerstörning. Trafikbuller är den främsta orsaken till dessa effekter.

    I denna studie användes enkäter samt data från bullerkartor för att undersöka bullerstörning från trafik. Av de 1168 personerna i urvalet deltog 678 personer. Deltagarna svarade på 39 frågor rörande: buller, hälsa, rekreationsbeteende, luftkvalitéupplevelse samt demografi.

    Studiens första syfte var att undersöka bullerstörning från vägtrafik och spårtrafik, hos boende i Silverdal. Resultatet visade att de boende i Silverdal är mer störda av buller än genomsnittet i Sverige, men även jämfört med de beräknade störningsnivåerna från bullerkartorna. Faktorerna som starkast påverkade störning från vägtrafik var: upplevda vibrationer, den upplevda luftkvalitén hemma, utbildningsnivå, om sovrumsfönstret vette mot en lokalgata samt attityd till vägtrafik. Motsvarande faktorer för spårtrafik var: upplevda vibrationer, sovrumsfönster mot spår samt utbildningsnivå.

    Studiens andra syfte undersökte upplevelse av rekreationsmöjligheter och rekreationsbeteende. Resultatet visade att majoriteten av deltagarna upplever mycket bra möjligheter till rekreation. Områden, nära hemmet, med natur samt med lägre nivåer av bullernivåer, var mest besökta.

    Studiens tredje syfte var att undersöka hur boende i Silverdal upplevde luftkvalitén. Resultatet visar att utomhusluften är det som upplevs mest problematiskt, medan färre upplever inomhusluften som dålig.

    Studien visar att många boende i Silverdal är störda av buller, både jämfört med nationella undersökningar, men även i relation till den beräknade bullerstörningsnivån från bullerkartor. Rekreationsmiljön i området upplevs som relativt god och lufkvalitén upplevs som ett relativt mindre problem jämfört med bullret. Utomhusmiljön är den miljö som upplevs som är mest problematiskt för boende. Bulleråtgärder utomhus längs bullerkällornas sträckning rekommenderas, dels eftersom de efterfrågas av de boende, del för att de  minskar bullret både utomhus och inomhus.

  • 31.
    Alvarsson, Jesper J.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Aircraft noise and speech intelligibility in outdoor living spacesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32.
    Alvarsson, Jesper J.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Perspectives on wanted and unwanted sounds in outdoor environments: Studies of masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An acoustic environment contains sounds from various sound sources, some generally perceived as wanted, others as unwanted. This thesis examines the effects of wanted and unwanted sounds in acoustic environments, with regard to masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility.

    In urban settings, masking of unwanted sounds by sounds from water structures has been suggested as a way to improve the acoustic environment. However, Study I showed that the unwanted (road traffic) sound was better at masking the wanted (water) sound than vice versa, thus indicating that masking of unwanted sounds with sounds from water structures may prove difficult. Also, predictions by a partial loudness model of the auditory periphery overestimated the effect of masking, indicating that centrally located informational masking processes contribute to the effect. Some environments have also been shown to impair stress recovery; however studies using only auditory stimuli is lacking. Study II showed that a wanted (nature) sound improve stress recovery compared to unwanted (road traffic, ambient) sounds. This suggests that the acoustic environment influences stress recovery and that wanted sounds may facilitate stress recovery compared to unwanted sounds. An additional effect of unwanted sounds is impeded speech communication, commonly measured with speech intelligibility models. Study III showed that speech intelligibility starts to be negatively affected when the unwanted (aircraft sound) masker have equal or higher sound pressure level as the speech sound. Three models of speech intelligibility (speech intelligibility index, partial loudness and signal–to–noise ratio) predicted this effect well, with a slight disadvantage for the signal–to–noise ratio model. Together, Study I and III suggests that the partial loudness model is useful for determining effects of wanted and unwanted sounds in outdoor acoustic environments where variations in sound pressure level are large. But, in environments with large variations in other sound characteristics, models containing predictions of central processes would likely produce better results.

    The thesis concludes that wanted and unwanted characteristics of sounds in acoustic environments affect masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility, and that auditory perception models can predict these effects.

  • 33.
    Alvarsson, Jesper J.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Perspectives on wanted and unwanted sounds in outdoor environments: Studies of masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An acoustic environment contains sounds from various sound sources, some generally perceived as wanted, others as unwanted. This thesis examines the effects of wanted and unwanted sounds in acoustic environments, with regard to masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility.

    In urban settings, masking of unwanted sounds by sounds from water structures has been suggested as a way to improve the acoustic environment. However, Study I showed that the unwanted (road traffic) sound was better at masking the wanted (water) sound than vice versa, thus indicating that masking of unwanted sounds with sounds from water structures may prove difficult. Also, predictions by a partial loudness model of the auditory periphery overestimated the effect of masking, indicating that centrally located informational masking processes contribute to the effect. Some environments have also been shown to impair stress recovery; however studies using only auditory stimuli is lacking. Study II showed that a wanted (nature) sound improve stress recovery compared to unwanted (road traffic, ambient) sounds. This suggests that the acoustic environment influences stress recovery and that wanted sounds may facilitate stress recovery compared to unwanted sounds. An additional effect of unwanted sounds is impeded speech communication, commonly measured with speech intelligibility models. Study III showed that speech intelligibility starts to be negatively affected when the unwanted (aircraft sound) masker have equal or higher sound pressure level as the speech sound. Three models of speech intelligibility (speech intelligibility index, partial loudness and signal–to–noise ratio) predicted this effect well, with a slight disadvantage for the signal–to–noise ratio model. Together, Study I and III suggests that the partial loudness model is useful for determining effects of wanted and unwanted sounds in outdoor acoustic environments where variations in sound pressure level are large. But, in environments with large variations in other sound characteristics, models containing predictions of central processes would likely produce better results.

    The thesis concludes that wanted and unwanted characteristics of sounds in acoustic environments affect masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility, and that auditory perception models can predict these effects.

  • 34.
    Anclair, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Hiltunen, Arto Juhani
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Cognitive behavioural therapy and mindfulness for health-related quality of life: Comparing treatments for parents of children with chronic conditions: A pilot feasibility study2017Inngår i: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, ISSN 1745-0179, E-ISSN 1745-0179, Vol. 13, nr 1, 1-9 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research on parents of children with chronic conditions has shown that this parent group frequently suffers from psychological problems such as deteriorating life quality and stress-related disorders. Objective: The present feasibility study focuses on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and life satisfaction of parents of children with chronic conditions. Method: The study was conducted using a repeated measures design and applied either group-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT; n = 10) or a group-based mindfulness programme (MF; n = 9). The study participants were wait-listed for six months. Results:The results indicate improvements for participants in both treatment groups regarding certain areas of HRQOL and life satisfaction. After eight group therapy sessions, parents in the two treatment groups significantly improved their Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores as well as their scores on the mental subscales Vitality, Social functioning, Role emotional and Mental health. In addition, some of the physical subscales, Role physical, Bodily pain and General health, showed considerable improvement for the MF group. When testing for clinical significance by comparing the samples with mean values of a norm population, the MCS scores were significantly lower at pre-measurements, but no significant differences were observed post-measurement. For the Physical component summary (PCS) scores, a significantly higher score was observed at post-measurement when compared to the norm population. Moreover, the results indicate improvement in life satisfaction regarding Spare time, Relation to child and Relation to partner. Conclusion: The study concludes that CBT and mindfulness may have a positive effect on areas of HRQOL and life satisfaction.

  • 35.
    Anclair, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Lappalainen, Raimo
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Muotka, Joona
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Cognitive behavioural therapy and mindfulness for stress and burnout: a waiting list controlled pilot study comparing treatments for parents of children with chronic conditions2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Parents of children with chronic conditions often experience a crisis with serious mental health problems for themselves as a consequence. The healthcare focus is on the children; however, the parents often worry about their children's health and future but are seldom offered any counselling or guidance.

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two group-based behavioural interventions on stress and burnout among parents of children with chronic conditions.

    Design, participants and setting

    After a waiting list control period (n = 28), parents were offered either a cognitive behavioural (CBT, n = 10) or a mindfulness program (MF, n = 9).

    Results

    Both interventions decreased significantly stress and burnout. The within-group effect sizes were large in both interventions (CBT, g = 1.28–1.64; MF, g = 1.25–2.20).

    Conclusions

    Hence, the results of this pilot study show that treating a group using either CBT or mindfulness can be an efficient intervention for reducing stress levels and burnout in parents of children with chronic conditions.

  • 36.
    Ander, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Grönqvist, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Cernvall, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Engvall, Gunn
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Pediatrik.
    Hedström, Mariann
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Vårdvetenskap.
    Ljungman, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Pediatrik.
    Lyhagen, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Mattsson, Elisabet
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    von Essen, Louise
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Development of health-related quality of life and symptoms of anxiety and depression among persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence: a 10-year follow-up study2016Inngår i: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 25, nr 5, 582-589 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The main aim was to investigate the development of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in a cohort diagnosed with cancer during adolescence from shortly after up to 10 years after diagnosis.

    Methods: Participants (n = 61) completed the SF-36 and the HADS shortly; six, 12, and 18 months; and two, three, four, and 10 years (n = 28) after diagnosis. Polynomial change trajectories were used to model development.

    Results: Polynomial change trajectories showed an initial increase which abated over time into a decrease which abated over time for the SF-36 subscales Mental Health and Vitality; an initial decline which abated over time into an increase for HADS anxiety; and an initial decline which abated over time into an increase which abated over time for HADS depression. The SF-36 mental component summary showed no change from two to 10 years after diagnosis whereas the SF-36 physical component summary showed an increase from two years after diagnosis which declined over time. Ten years after diagnosis 29% reported possible anxiety.

    Conclusions: Development of HRQOL and symptoms of anxiety and depression appears to be nonlinear among persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence. Well into permanent survivorship an increase in symptoms of anxiety is shown and approximately a third of the participants report possible anxiety. The findings indicate the need for: studies designed to pinpoint the times of highest psychological risk, clinical follow-up focusing on psychological problems, and development of effective psychological interventions for survivors of adolescent cancer

  • 37.
    Andersen Helland, Wenche
    et al.
    Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Pragmatiske språkvansker og barnepsykiatri2004Inngår i: Spesialpedagogikk, ISSN 0332-8457, nr 7, 14-19 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [no]

    Det har dei siste åra vore ei aukande merksemd omkring språkfunksjonen til barn som er tilviste det psykiatriske behandlingsapparatet. I artikkelen er det gjort greie for reultata frå ein pilotstudie som viser komobiditet mellom psykiatriske vanskar og kommunikasjonsvanskar.

  • 38.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Girls at risk : Swedish longitudinal research on adjustment2012Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 39.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Girls at risk in their own right2012Inngår i: Girls at risk: Swedish longitudinal research on adjustment / [ed] Andershed, Anna-Karin, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2012, 1-8 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 40.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Andershed, HenrikÖrebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Att studera människors utveckling : resultat från forskningsprogrammet IDA1965-20132013Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 41.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Improving evidence-based social work practice with youths exhibiting conduct problems through structured assessment2016Inngår i: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, Vol. 19, nr 6, 887-900 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A key task in evidence-based case management of youth is the assessment of research-based risk and protective factors. In the present study we compare assessments of social workers using a structured assessment instrument with assessments of social workers not using such an instrument. Assessments of the exact same case—a vignette about a 14-year-old boy—conducted by 30 social workers using a structured assessment instrument and 30 social workers not using such an instrument were compared. The 60 assessments were also rated by independent researchers and senior social services managers, blind to whether an instrument had been used in the assessments or not. As hypothesized, using a structured assessment instrument resulted in the identification of a greater number of research-based risk and protective factors, and the assessments were rated as better in terms of general adequacy, quality, accuracy and potential treatment effectiveness, than when an instrument was not used. The present study demonstrates that social workers’ assessments of youth become more evidence-based, adequate and potentially more treatment effective when a structured assessment instrument is used as compared to when it is not.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Adam
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    Condric, Mateo
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation.
    Avgående högskolestudenters upplevelser av sin anställningsbarhet: En kvalitativ intervjustudie av avgångsstudenter vid Högskolan för Lärande och Kommunikation, Jönköping University.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Anställningsbarhet är ett begrepp som avser en individs faktiska eller upplevda kunskap, dennes kompetenser, egenskaper och erfarenheter som sedan är avgörande i frågan om att få, behålla eller byta anställning. I denna kandidatuppsats var syftet att undersöka avgångsstudenters upplevelser av sin anställningsbarhet vid Högskolan för Lärande och Kommunikation, en del av Jönköping University, vårterminen 2016. En kvalitativ undersökning med abduktiv ansats har genomförts, där nio intervjupersoner ingått. Intervjuerna som genomfördes var semistrukturerade och samtliga intervjuer spelades in samt transkriberades, för att därefter analyseras med ”Constant comparative method”. Resultatet visade att intervjupersonerna till stor del resonerar och diskuterar kring samma teman nämligen, utbildning, arbetslivserfarenhet och personliga egenskaper, då de beskriver sina upplevelser kring anställningsbarhet. Utöver detta anser intervjupersonerna att det är individen som har det största ansvaret gällande den egna anställningsbarheten.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Håkan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Grabell, Adam
    Department of clinical and developmental psychology, University of Michigan, MI, United States.
    Chang, Hyein
    Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Lovén, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Olson, Sheryl
    Department of clinical and developmental psychology, University of Michigan, MI, United States.
    The Contribution of Hot and Cool Self-Regulation in Early Childhood to Later Academic AchievementManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of hot (emotional/motivational) and cool (cognitive) self-regulation in early childhood to lateracademic achievement in kindergarten (math) and late elementary school (math andlanguage). In a sample of 235 preschoolers, higher levels of cool self-regulation predicted better math achievement in kindergarten and this head-start effect persisted into late elementary school. In contrast, higher levels of hot self-regulation predicted better language but not math achievement in late elementary school. These findings support the notion that cool self-regulation is important for the development of academic skills already inkindergarten, whereas the effects on academic achievement of hot self-regulation are delayed, which may be a result of increasing demands through elementary school.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Isabell E. K.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Realism of confidence and phenomenological reports are not congruent indicators of mode of apprehension in visual discrimination of relative mass2009Inngår i: Ecological psychology, ISSN 1040-7413, Vol. 21, nr 3, 218-244 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In visual judgments of relative mass of colliding objects observers may function in either a perceptual or an inferential mode of apprehension (Runeson, Juslin, & Olsson, 2000). This finding was based on participants’ over/underconfidence in their judgments. Also phenomenological mode reports, for which participants indicated whether they “saw” or “inferred” the relative mass in each trial, have been used as mode indicators (Andersson, Kreegipuu, Allik, & Runeson, 2009). The present study showed that over/underconfidence and mode reports are not congruent as mode indicators: in Experiments 1 and 2, participants’ over/ underconfidence was about the same in “saw” and “inferred” trials. Furthermore, in Experiment 3, unexpectedly judgments of relative exit-speed did not engender underconfidence. Hence, one or both indicators do not well enough distinguish the modes of apprehension.

  • 45.
    Andersson, Isabell E. K.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Runeson, Sverker
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Realism of confidence, modes of apprehension, and variable-use in visual discrimination of relative mass2008Inngår i: Ecological psychology, ISSN 1040-7413, Vol. 20, nr 1, 1-31 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In dynamic event perception, one issue is whether direct perception or cue-based inferences explains learning and performance. For visual discrimination of relative mass of colliding objects, Runeson, Juslin, and Olsson (2000) found that observers change from an inferential to a direct-perceptual mode of apprehension during practice, as indicated by lower confidence in their judgments. Unlike Runeson et al. (2000), we scored confidence against the variables used in individual blocks and analyzed collision-subsets, thereby counteracting inflated confidence scores. A majority of 40 novice participants used a nonspecifying variable and functioned inferentially, as indicated by realistic confidence. Five novices used the mass-ratio invariant and were overconfident therein. Ten participants received feedback based on the most-used nonspecifying variable. Despite feedback suggesting specificity of the variable, they continued to use the variable inferentially. After practice based on the invariant, 7 out of 10 used the invariant. An unexpected  dearth of underconfidence for invariant usage is explained by fluctuations in variable usage. Methodological problems in the use of confidence as a mode indicator are discussed.

  • 46.
    Andersson Konke, Linn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Multilingual Multitaskers2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that managing two languages enhances creativity, cognitive flexibility, and divergent thinking. As demands on these and related higher cognitive functions are accentuated in multiple task performance, this study tested the hypothesis that bilinguals are better mulitaskers than monolinguals. Bilinguals were expected to show more efficient executive functioning and spatial ability than monolinguals, which in turn were expected to mediate individual differences in multitasking. A total of 19 bilingual and 18 monolingual undergraduates completed computerized tests of multitasking, executive functioning and spatial ability. Supporting the main hypotheses, bilinguals were better multitaskers than monolinguals (p < .01) and these effects were in part mediated by their superior spatial ability (p < .05).

  • 47. Andersson, L
    Sjuk av lukter2014Inngår i: ALLERGI I PRAKXSIS, Vol. 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 48.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Persson, Mari
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Psychoactive substances as a last resort—a qualitative study of self-treatment of migraine and cluster headaches2017Inngår i: Harm Reduction Journal, ISSN 1477-7517, E-ISSN 1477-7517, Vol. 14, nr 60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Treatment resistant cluster headache and migraine patients are exploring alternative treatments online. The aim of this study was to improve comprehension regarding the use of non-established or alternative pharmacological treatments used by sufferers of cluster headaches and migraines.

    Methods: A qualitative thematic analysis of the users’ own accounts presented in online forum discussions were conducted. The forum boards https://shroomery.org/, http://bluelight.org, and https://clusterbusters.org/ met the inclusion criteria and were used for the study.

    Results: The analysis resulted in six themes: a desperate need for effective treatments; the role of the forum—finding alternative treatments and community support; alternative treatment substances; dosage and regimens; effects and treatment results; and adverse effects. The results provide an insight into why, how, and by which substances and methods sufferers seek relief from cluster headache and migraines.

    Conclusions: These patients are in a desperate and vulnerable situation, and illicit psychoactive substances are often considered a last resort. There appeared to be little or no interest in psychoactive effects per se as these were rather tolerated or avoided by using sub-psychoactive doses. Primarily, psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide, and related psychedelic tryptamines were reportedly effective for both prophylactic and acute treatment of cluster headache and migraines. Treatment results with cannabis were more unpredictable. No severe adverse events were reported, but it was observed how desperation sometimes spurred risky behavior when obtaining and testing various treatment alternatives. The forum discourse mainly revolved around maximizing treatment results and minimizing potential harms. 

  • 49.
    Andersson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Attribution and judgment: examining the relation between attributing capacities and moral judgments about killing animals2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A new operationalization was used to model a schema-based approach to moral judgment, as well as compare it to predictions based on the Social Intuitionist Model. Judgments were made about the moral wrongness of killing different animals. At Time 1, only moral judgments were made. At Time 2 judgments were made again, with questions and scales relating to attributing morally relevant cognitive capacities also included; further, two randomized conditions varied the presentation order of the scales. Differences between Time 1 and 2 indicated a reversed perspective-taking effect, with animals of lower capacities rated less empathically at Time 2. Affective ratings and attributed capacities were compared as different predictors, showing attributed capacities being more powerful. A group comparison was also made between active animal rights proponents and non-proponents, showing differences on several factors. These and other findings are discussed with relation to the Social Intuitionist Model and a schema-based account of morality.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Petter
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH, Belysningslära.
    Petersson, Marcus
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH, Belysningslära.
    En undersökning av projicerat ljus i inomhusmiljö2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
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