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  • 1.
    Aasa, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne
    National Food Agency.
    Carlsson, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    The genotoxic potency of glycidol established from micronucleus frequency and hemoglobin adduct levels in mice2017Inngår i: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 100, 168-174 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Glycidol is a genotoxic animal carcinogen that has raised concern due to its presence in food, as glycidyl fatty acid esters. Here we investigated the genotoxicity of glycidol in BalbC mice (0-120 mg/kg) by monitoring the induction of micronuclei in peripheral blood as a marker of chromosomal damage. The scoring of the micronuclei was assessed by flow cytometry. In the treated mice, the internal dose of glycidol, expressed as area under the concentration-time curve, AUC (mol x L-1 x h; Mh), was measured by dihydroxypropyl adducts to hemoglobin (Hb). The study showed that glycidol induced linear dose dependent increases of Hb adducts (20 pmol/g Hb per mg/kg) and of micronuclei frequencies (12 parts per thousand per mMh). Compared to calculations based on administered dose, an improved dose-response relationship was observed when considering internal dose, achieved through the applied combination of sensitive techniques used for the scoring of micronuclei and AUC estimation of glycidol in the same mice. By comparing with earlier studies on micronuclei induction in mice exposed to ionizing radiation we estimated the radiation dose equivalent (rad-eq.) of glycidol to be ca 15 rad-eq./mMh.

  • 2.
    Abolhosseini, Shahrouz
    et al.
    College of Engineering, TEMEP, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    The main support mechanisms to finance renewable energy development2014Inngår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 40, 876-885 s.Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering that the major part of greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide, there is a global concern aimed at reducing carbon emissions. In addition, major consumer countries are looking for alternative sources of energy to avoid the impact of higher fossil fuel prices and political instability in the major energy supplying countries. In this regard, different policies could be applied to reduce carbon emissions, such as enhancing renewable energy deployment and encouraging technological innovation and the creation of green jobs. This study compares three main support mechanisms employed by governments to finance renewable energy development programs: feed-in-tariffs, tax incentives, and tradable green certificates. Considering that many of the promising technologies to deploy renewable energy require investment in small-scale energy production systems, these mechanisms could be used to enhance renewable energy development at the desired scale. Employing a carbon emission tax or emission trading mechanism could be considered ideal policies to mitigate emissions at the lowest cost. The comparison of feed-in-tariffs and renewable portfolio standard policies showed that the former is good when a policy to develop renewable energy sources with a low level of risk for investors is considered. However, the latter is an appropriate policy when a market view policy is applied by the government. Finally, considering technological progress and the cost reduction for power generation by renewable energy sources, we suggest that support mechanism policies should be reconsidered from the financial point of view. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Abong'o, Deborah
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, Shem
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Jumba, Isaac
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Madadi, Vincent
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Impacts of pesticides on human health and environment in the River Nyando catchment, Kenya2014Inngår i: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences, ISSN 2348-0521, Vol. 2, nr 3, 1-14 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The population of the River Nyando catchment largely relies on rain fed agriculture for their subsistence.

    Important crops grown include cereals, cash crops fruits and vegetables. Farming is one of the contributors of pollution to Lake Victoria. Organophosphates and other banned organochlorine pesticides such as lindane, aldrin and dieldrin were used by farmers. The pesticides transport was by storm water run-off and air drift into the lake. Environmental risk assessment background information was collected through questionnaire and interviews of farmers to determine knowledge and safe use of pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were identified as commonly used of which four are toxic to bees and five to birds. The farmers identified declines in the number of pollinating insects, the disappearance of Red-billed Oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorthynchus) and wild bird’s fatalities. The general knowledge among farmers about chemicals risks, safety, and chronic illnesses was low. Activities that increases environmental awareness and safety of pesticides should be initiated by the agrochemical firms and government.

  • 4. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Djodjic, Faruk
    Borjesson, G.
    Mattsson, L.
    Identification and quantification of organic phosphorus forms in soils from fertility experiments2013Inngår i: Soil use and management, ISSN 0266-0032, E-ISSN 1475-2743, Vol. 29, 24-35 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of soil type, crop rotation, fertilizer type and application rate on the composition of organic phosphorus (P) compounds in soils from four sites in a Swedish long-term fertilizer experiment were investigated with 31P-NMR. Soil textures investigated were loamy sand, sandy loam, silty clay loam and clay. Phosphorus has been added to the soils since the 1950s and 1960s at four different rates in the form of either mineral fertilizer or a combination of manure and mineral fertilizer. Results show that in soils receiving no P addition, most of the soil P was present in the form of phosphate monoesters (6070%, depending on soil type). However, a P addition equivalent to the amount of P removed annually by harvest altered this relationship so that the soils were dominated by orthophosphate instead. This trend became more obvious with increasing P addition. At the greatest P application rate, orthophosphate comprised 70% or more of the total extracted P in all the soils. These changes in the soil were due entirely to increase in orthophosphate, because the amounts of monoesters did not change with increasing P additions. This was true both for mineral fertilizer and the combination of manure and mineral fertilizer P. Soil type and crop rotation did not influence the results. The results indicate that there is no apparent build-up of organic P in the soils, but that P addition mainly affects the orthophosphate amounts in the soils regardless of form or amount of fertilizer.

  • 5. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Djodjic, Faruk
    Wallin, Mats
    Barium as a Potential Indicator of Phosphorus in Agricultural Runoff2012Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 41, nr 1, 208-216 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In many catchments, anthropogenic input of contaminants, and in particular phosphorus (P), into surface water is a mixture of agricultural and sewage runoff. Knowledge about the relative contribution from each of these sources is vital for mitigation of major environmental problems such as eutrophication. In this study, we investigated whether the distribution of trace elements in surface waters can be used to trace the contamination source. Water from three groups of streams was investigated: streams influenced only by agricultural runoff, streams influenced mainly by sewage runoff, and reference streams. Samples were collected at different flow regimes and times of year and analyzed for 62 elements using ICP-MS. Our results show that there are significant differences between the anthropogenic sources affecting the streams in terms of total element composition and individual elements, indicating that the method has the potential to trace anthropogenic impact on surface waters. The elements that show significant differences between sources are strontium (p < 0.001), calcium (p < 0.004), potassium (p < 0.001), magnesium (p < 0.001), boron (p < 0.001), rhodium (p = 0.001), and barium (p < 0.001). According to this study, barium shows the greatest potential as a tracer for an individual source of anthropogenic input to surface waters. We observed a strong relationship between barium and total P in the investigated samples (R-2 = 0.78), which could potentially be used to apportion anthropogenic sources of P and thereby facilitate targeting of mitigation practices.

  • 6. Ahlgren, S.
    et al.
    Röös, E.
    Di Lucia, L.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Hansson, P. -A
    EU sustainability criteria for biofuels: Uncertainties in GHG emissions from cultivation2012Inngår i: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 3, nr 4, 399-411 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cultivation of raw material represents a large proportion of biofuelś GHG emissions. The EU renewable energy directive 2009/28/EC specifies a GHG emission default value for cultivation of biofuel raw material (23 g CO2-e/MJ ethanol for wheat). The aim of this study was to quantify the uncertainty in GHG emissions for wheat cultivation in Sweden, considering uncertainty and variability in data at farm level. Results: Two levels of data collection at farm level were analyzed; simple (only yield and amount of N) and advanced (also including amounts and types of energy). The 2.5-97.5 percentile uncertainty for Swedish winter wheat was 20-27 g CO 2-e/MJ, which can be considered large in the context of the Directives threshold of 23 g (to two significant figures). Conclusion: It is concluded that quantifying GHG emissions in order to regulate biofuels is a difficult task, especially emissions from cultivation, since these are biological systems with large variability.

  • 7.
    Ahlqvist, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Geography, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Wästfelt, Anders
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Formalized interpretation of compound land use objects – Mapping historical summer farms from a single satellite image2012Inngår i: Journal of Land Use Science, ISSN 1747-423X, Vol. 7, nr 1, 89-107 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Notions of land cover relating to physical landscape characters are readily captured by satellite imagery. Land use on the other hand relates more to the societal aspects of a landscape. We argue that much of the spatial configuration of landscape characters is related to land use and that satellite data can be used to represent and investigate interpretations of land use. We propose and demonstrate the joint use of a novel SRPC procedure for satellite imagery together with an explicit representation of category semantics. We use these two mechanisms to identify a collection of conceptual spaces related to land use on Swedish historic summer farms. We also outline a framework for analysis of the relations between two separate ways of knowing: the machine-based knowledge and the human, mental knowledge. An evaluation demonstrates that satellite images can be used to identify land use processes as a mixture of land cover objects occurring in particular spatial contextual relationships closely tied to the land use category semantics. This opens up an unexplored possibility for research on vague spatial ontologies and questions on how to formally articulate different interpretations of space, land use, and other branches of spatial social science.

  • 8.
    Ahnström, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden; Länsstyrelsen i Uppsala län, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Jan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berg, Åke
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, The Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Lars
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Boonstra, Wijnand J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Uppsala, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Farmers' Interest in Nature and Its Relation to Biodiversity in Arable Fields2013Inngår i: International Journal of Ecology, ISSN 1687-9708, E-ISSN 1687-9716, 617352Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity declines in farmland have been attributed to intensification of farming at the field level and loss of heterogeneity at the landscape level. However, farmers are not solely optimizing production; their actions are also influenced by social factors, tradition and interest in nature, which indirectly influence biodiversity but rarely are incorporated in studies of farmland biodiversity. We used social science methods to quantify farmers’ interest in nature on 16 farms with winter wheat fields in central Sweden, and combined this with biodiversity inventories of five organism groups (weeds, carabid beetles, bumblebees, solitary bees, and birds) and estimates of landscape composition andmanagement intensity at the field level.Agricultural intensity,measured as crop density, and farmers’ interest in nature explained variation in biodiversity, measured as the proportion of the regional species richness found on single fields. Interest in nature seemed to incorporate many actions taken by farmers and appeared to be influenced by both physical factors, for example, the surrounding landscape, and social factors, for example, social motivations.This study indicates that conservation of biodiversity in farmland, and design of new agri-environmental subsidy systems, would profit from taking farmers’ interest in nature and its relation to agricultural practices into account.

  • 9.
    Ajjan Godoy, Fátima Nadia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Biohybrid Polymer Electrodes for Renewable Energy Storage2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Daily and seasonally fluctuating energy supply and demand requires adequate energy storage solutions. In recent years electrochemical supercapacitors have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to both store and deliver electrical energy efficiently. Our efforts are focused on developing and optimizing sustainable organic electrode materials for supercapacitors based on renewable bioorganic materials, offering a cheap, environmentally friendly and scalable alternative to store energy. In particular, we are using the second most abundant biopolymer in nature, lignin (Lig), which is an insulating material. However, when used in combination with electroactive and conducting polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), the biohybrid electrodes PPy/Lig and PEDOT/Lig display significantly enhanced energy storage performance as compared to the pristine conducting polymers without the lignin. Redox cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements indicate that the enhanced performance is due to the additional pseudocapacitance generated by the quinone moieties in lignin. Moreover, a conjugated redoxpolymer poly(aminoanthraquinone) PAAQ, with intrinsic quinone functions and excellentstability, has been combined with lignin and PEDOT resulting in a trihybrid bioelectrode. PEDOT compensates the low conductivity of PAAQ and provides electrical pathways to the quinone groups. The electrochemically generated quinones undergo a two electron, two protonredox process within the biohybrid electrodes as revealed by FTIR spectroelectrochemistry.These remarkable features reveal the exciting potential of a full organic energy storage device with long cycle life. Therefore, supercapacitor devices were designed in symmetric or asymmetric two electrode configuration. The best electrochemical performance was achieved by the asymmetric supercapacitor based on PEDOT+Lignin/PAAQ as the positive electrode and PEDOT/PAAQ as the negative electrode. This device exhibits superior electrochemical performance and outstanding stability after 10000 charge/discharge cycles due to the synergistic effect of the two electrodes. Finally, we have characterized the response of this supercapacitor device when charged with the intermittent power supply from an organic photovoltaic module. We have designed charging/discharging conditions such that reserve power was available in the storage device at all times. This work has resulted in an inexpensive fully organic system witht he dual function of energy conversion and storage.

  • 10.
    al Rawaf, Rawaf
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-Ecological Urbanism: Lessons in Design from the Albano Resilient Campus2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is a demand for practical ways to integrate ecological insights into practices of design, which previously have lacked a substantive empirical basis. In the process of developing the Albano Resilient Campus, a transdisciplinary group of ecologists, design scholars, and architects pioneered a conceptual innovation, and a new paradigm of urban sustainability and development: Social-Ecological Urbanism.  Social-Ecological Urbanism is based on the frameworks of Ecosystem Services and Resilience thinking. This approach has created novel ideas with interesting repercussions for the international debate on sustainable urban development. From a discourse point of view, the concept of SEU can be seen as a next evolutionary step for sustainable urbanism paradigms, since it develops synergies between ecological and socio-technical systems. This case study collects ‘best practices’ that can lay a foundational platform for learning, innovation, partnership and trust building within the field of urban sustainability. It also bridges gaps in existing design approaches, such as Projective Ecologies and Design Thinking, with respect to a design methodology with its basis firmly rooted in Ecology.

  • 11.
    Ali, Muatasem Latif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Riskkommunikation generellt exemplifierat genom branden i Halmstad 20122017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A chemical accident can cause damage in individuals, groups or entire communities. The injury may concern human life, property or the environment. An accident can affect a large part of society and requires cooperation between the actors involved. Different stakeholders need to be informed, but it is not certain how a message should be delivered and who should do it.

    The study's purpose is to study risk communication generally, as exemplified by the accident in Halmstad September 21, 2012, when a fire broke out in a warehouse in Halmstad harbor. How the involved persons experienced communication,

    What factors could affect the communication at such types of critical situations.

    In the study, two methods have been used. The first used method was a web-survey of people working in civil protection in Halmstad municipality, environmental office in Halmstad, the public living in the municipality, police, Coast Guard, industries and media. The second method was semi-structured interviews addressed to some of those affected who worked in media, police, coast guard, the company, emergency services and the local authority.

    This study showed that there were differences between the respondents' answers on how respondents perceived that there were risks to human health or the environment in this accident. Many of the respondents who responded to the survey felt that the risk communication worked well after the fire. This survey and semi- structured interviews showed that respondents felt that the municipality's website was a good information channel and the internet and social media could be a good source for the responsible authorities to quickly disseminate information to the public. This study showed that the municipality and emergency services were actors most concerned in this context when it came to communicating risks in major accidents where chemicals were involved and all respondents had great confidence to the emergency services and municipality. 

  • 12.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Borén, HansLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.Grimvall, AndersLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 19891991Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The state of the art on isolation techniques, ion binding theory, biologic activity in the aquatic environment as well as the formation of mutagenic compounds from chlorination is reviewed by worldwide-known experts. Additional papers describe current research on the topics: isolation, fractionation and characterization; biological and chemical transformation and degradation; complex formation and interactions with solids; biologic activity, halogenation of humic substances.

  • 13.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Henning, Dag
    Optensys Energianalys, Linköping, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Björn G.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Simulation and introduction of a CHP plant in a Swedish biogas system2013Inngår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 49, 242-249 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study are to present a model for biogas production systems to help achieve a more cost-effective system, and to analyse the conditions for connecting combined heat and power (CHP) plants to the biogas system. The European electricity market is assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of CHP. increased electricity and heat production, electricity prices, and electricity certificate trading is investigated. A cost-minimising linear programming model (MODEST) is used. MODEST has been applied to many energy systems, but this is the first time the model has been used for biogas production. The new model, which is the main result of this work, can be used for operational optimisation and evaluating economic consequences of future changes in the biogas system. The results from the case study and sensitivity analysis show that the model is reliable and can be used for strategic planning. The results show that implementation of a biogas-based CHP plant result in an electricity power production of approximately 39 GW h annually. Reduced system costs provide a profitability of 46 MSEK/year if electricity and heat prices increase by 100% and electricity certificate prices increase by 50%. CO2 emission reductions up to 32,000 ton/year can be achieved if generated electricity displaces coal-fired condensing power.

  • 14.
    Anbalagan, Anbarasan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Toledo-Cervantes, A.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Posadas, E.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Rojo, E. M.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Lebrero, R.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    González-Sánchez, A.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Muñoz, R.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Continuous photosynthetic abatement of CO2 and volatile organic compounds from exhaust gas coupled to wastewater treatment: Evaluation of tubular algal-bacterial photobioreactor2017Inngår i: Journal of CO2 Utilization, ISSN 2212-9820, E-ISSN 2212-9839, Vol. 21, 353-359 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuous abatement of CO2 and toluene from the exhaust gas by an indigenous microalgal-bacterial consortium was investigated in a pilot tubular photobioreactor interconnected to an absorption column using diluted centrate in seawater as a free nutrient source. The removal efficiency of CO2 and toluene was maximised in the vertical absorption column by identifying an optimum liquid to gas (L/G) ratio of 15. The photobioreactor supported steady-state nitrogen and phosphorus removals of 91 ± 2% and 95 ± 4% using 15% diluted centrate at 14 and 7 d of hydraulic retention time (HRT), respectively. A decrease in the removal efficiencies of nitrogen (36 ± 5%) and phosphorus (58 ± 10%) was recorded when using 30% diluted centrate at 7 d of HRT. The volumetric biomass productivities obtained at an HRT of 7 d accounted for 42 ± 11 and 80 ± 3 mg TSS L-1 d-1 using 15 and 30% centrate, respectively. Stable CO2 (76 ± 7%) and toluene removals (89 ± 5%) were achieved at an L/G ratio of 15 regardless of the HRT or centrate dilution. Hence, this study demonstrated the potential of algal-bacterial systems for the continuous removal of CO2 and volatile organic compounds from exhaust gas coupled with the simultaneous treatment of centrate. 

  • 15. Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för biologi.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Comparing mail-in, interview and tournament catch rates for a recreational salmonid fisheryManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract
  • 16. Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för biologi.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Su, Zhenming
    Andersson, Magnus
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Estimating effort and catch of a recreational trolling fishery in one of Europe’s largest lakesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract
  • 17.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Barthel, Stephan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Memory carriers and stewardship of metropolitan landscapes2016Inngår i: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 70, 606-614 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    History matters, and can be an active and dynamic component in the present. We explore social-ecological memory as way to diagnose and engage with urban green space performance and resilience. Rapidly changing cities pose a threat and a challenge to the continuity that has helped to support biodiversity and ecological functions by upholding similar or only slowly changing adaptive cycles over time. Continuity is perpetuated through memory carriers, slowly changing variables and features that retain or make available information on how different situations have been dealt with before. Ecological memory carriers comprise memory banks, spatial connections and mobile link species. These can be supported by social memory carriers, represented by collectively created social features like habits, oral tradition, rules-in-use and artifacts, as well as media and external sources. Loss or lack of memory can be diagnoses by the absence or disconnect between memory carriers, as will be illustrated by several typical situations. Drawing on a set of example situations, we present an outline for a look-up table approach that connects ecological memory carriers to the social memory carriers that support them and use these connections to set diagnoses and indicate potential remedies. The inclusion of memory carriers in planning and management considerations may facilitate preservation of feedbacks and disturbance regimes as well as species and habitats, and the cultural values and meanings that go with them.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet.
    Ahrné, K
    SLU.
    Measuring social–ecological dynamics behind the generation of ecosystem services2007Inngår i: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 17, nr 5, 1267-1278 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The generation of ecosystem services depends on both social and ecological features. Here we focus on management, its ecological consequences, and social drivers. Our approach combined (1) quantitative surveys of local species diversity and abundance of three functional groups of ecosystem service providers (pollinators, seed dispersers, and insectivores) with (2) qualitative studies of local management practices connected to these services and their underlying social mechanisms, i.e., institutions, local ecological knowledge, and a sense of place. It focused on the ecology of three types of green areas (allotment gardens, cemeteries, and city parks) in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. These are superficially similar but differ considerably in their management. Effects of the different practices could be seen in the three functional groups, primarily as a higher abundance of pollinators in the informally managed allotment gardens and as differences in the composition of seed dispersers and insectivores. Thus, informal management, which is normally disregarded by planning authorities, is important for ecosystem services in the urban landscape. Furthermore, we suggest that informal management has an important secondary function: It may be crucial during periods of instability and change as it is argued to promote qualities with potential for adaptation. Allotment gardeners seem to be the most motivated managers, something that is reflected in their deeper knowledge and can be explained by a sense of place and management institutions. We propose that co-management would be one possible way to infuse the same positive qualities into all management and that improved information exchange between managers would be one further step toward ecologically functional urban landscapes.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Nordberg, Åke
    SLU, Sweden.
    Westin, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Processum.
    Askfilter för rening av svavelväte i deponigas2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Deponigas bildas under syrefria förhållanden i deponier genom mikrobiell nedbrytning av organiskt material. Gasens sammansättning kan variera mycket, men från svenska deponier brukar den generellt bestå av 40-60 % metan, 30-40 % koldioxid och 5-20 % kvävgas. Svavelväte (H2S) är en mycket giftig och korrosiv gas som finns i deponigas i varierande omfattning, från 10 till 30 000 ppm (motsvarar 0,001-3,0 %). Det är önskvärt att deponigas används för el och/eller värmeproduktion, men för att detta ska vara möjligt behöver H2S-halten renas till låga nivåer (< 200 ppm). Höga halter H2S ökar slitaget på motor/panna och därmed frekvensen på servicetillfällen. Det leder till dyra underhållskostnader och i slutändan till förkortad livslängd för anläggningen. För att minska korrosionen är det vanligt att rökgastemperaturen justeras upp, men det leder samtidigt till lägre verkningsgrad och därmed till sämre energiutnyttjande av gasen. I en del fall bedöms gasens innehåll av H2S vara för högt för att kunna användas för energiproduktion. Under 2015 facklades 53 GWh deponigas i Sverige, vilket i många fall beror på problem med höga halter H2S.

     

    Rening av deponigas från H2S leder således till flera nyttigheter; gasens energiinnehåll används effektivare, underhålls- och servicekostnaderna för förbränningsanläggningarna minskar och utsläpp av försurande svaveldioxid från förbränning av deponigas reduceras. Det finns kommersiell reningsteknik för H2S men den är dyr, både vad gäller kapitalkostnad och driftkostnad. Därmed finns ett behov av att ta fram nya billigare reningstekniker som förbättrar driftekonomin vid deponierna och som möjliggör att även deponigas med höga H2S-halter kan utnyttjas för nyttig energiomvandling.

     

    RISE (f.d. JTI - Inst. för jordbruks och miljöteknik) utvecklar tillsammans med SLU nya, potentiellt kostnadseffektiva metoder för att uppgradera biogas till drivmedelskvalité. En av metoderna baseras på att gasen får passera en bädd av fuktig aska (ett s.k. askfilter) varvid koldioxid och H2S fixeras. Hypotesen i det här projektet var att askor med ursprung från förbränning av avfall, RT-flis eller liknande kan användas för att rena bort höga halter H2S från deponigas. Denna typ av askor ska i regel ändå avsättas på deponier och om reningseffekten är god skulle det ge synergieffekter i form av att askan först används för att rena deponigas från svavel innan den avsätts som konstruktionsmaterial på deponier.

     

    I det här projektet utfördes två försök i pilotskala vid en svensk deponi med mycket höga halter H2S, ca 15 000 ppm. Olika gasflöden studerades (0,7-7,6 m3/h) medan askvolymen var lika i de båda försöken, 0,37 m3. Halten H2S i den renade gasen var genomgående mycket låg under behandling, < 10 ppm vid låga gasflöden och < 200 ppm vid höga gasflöden. Två asktyper undersöktes och båda visade sig ha mycket god förmåga att fixera H2S, 44-61 g H2S/kg torr aska. Vid jämförelse med litteraturvärden är det bara en studie som visar upptag i samma storleksordning, övriga studier ligger ca en tiopotens lägre i upptag.

     

    Utifrån försöksresultaten bestämdes den tekniska och ekonomiska potentialen för askfilter som reningsmetod. Beräkningarna gjordes för olika typanläggningar för att på så sätt täcka in vanligt förekommande deponier. För normalstora deponier med gasflöden på 100-1 000 m3/h och H2S-halter mellan 100 och 1 000 ppm uppgår askbehovet till 10-130 ton torr aska per år. För specialfallet där halten H2S är extremt hög ökar askbehovet och för en anläggning med 15 000 ppm H2S och ett gasflöde på 200 m3/h krävs det ca 800 ton torr aska per år. Överlag är det emellertid beskedliga mängder aska som krävs och skulle t.ex. samtliga svenska deponier använda aska för gasrening skulle askbehovet endast vara 0,2-0,3 % av den årliga svenska askproduktionen.

     

    De ekonomiska beräkningarna visar att askfilter är en konkurrenskraftig metod för att rena bort H2S. För specialfallet med extremt höga halter H2S visade det sig att kostnaden för askfilter är drygt 20 % lägre jämfört med den för ändamålet billigaste konventionella reningstekniken på marknaden. Även vid rening av deponigas med mer normala halter H2S står sig askfilter väl. Vid låga flöden kring 100 m3/h är askfilter klart billigare jämfört med litteraturvärden för konventionell reningsteknik. Skalfördelarna tycks dock vara större för de konventionella reningsteknikerna och därför blir skillnaden mellan reningskostnaden för askfilter jämfört med annan teknik mindre vid högre gasflöden.

     

    De låga reningskostnaderna för askfilter kan öppna upp möjligheter för deponier som idag inte renar gas från H2S. Under projektet kontaktades 15 svenska deponier och ingen av dessa hade någon form av H2S-rening. Med rening kan deponigas däremot användas effektivare, t.ex. genom minskad fackling, ökad verkningsgrad för el- och värmeproduktion samt minskat slitage på pannor och förbränningsutrustning. Dessutom minskar emissioner av svavel till atmosfären, vilket även minskar potentiella luktproblem kring deponin.

     

    För fortsatt utveckling är utformning och design av en prototyp av en askfiltermodul i fullskala en central del. Vidare måste den behandlade askan undersökas vad gäller urlakningsegenskaper, lagringsbarhet och användbarhet som konstruktionsmaterial på deponier tillsammans med en bedömning av de samlade miljökonsekvenserna. Försök i fullskala bör även göras vid fler deponier med olika gasflöden och H2S-halter i deponigasen för att verifiera prestanda från de genomförda pilotförsöken.

    Deponigas bildas under syrefria förhållanden i deponier genom mikrobiell nedbrytning av organiskt material. Gasens sammansättning kan variera mycket, men från svenska deponier brukar den generellt bestå av 40-60 % metan, 30-40 % koldioxid och 5-20 % kvävgas. Svavelväte (H2S) är en mycket giftig och korrosiv gas som finns i deponigas i varierande omfattning, från 10 till 30 000 ppm (motsvarar 0,001-3,0 %). Det är önskvärt att deponigas används för el och/eller värmeproduktion, men för att detta ska vara möjligt behöver H2S-halten renas till låga nivåer (< 200 ppm). Höga halter H2S ökar slitaget på motor/panna och därmed frekvensen på servicetillfällen. Det leder till dyra underhållskostnader och i slutändan till förkortad livslängd för anläggningen. För att minska korrosionen är det vanligt att rökgastemperaturen justeras upp, men det leder samtidigt till lägre verkningsgrad och därmed till sämre energiutnyttjande av gasen. I en del fall bedöms gasens innehåll av H2S vara för högt för att kunna användas för energiproduktion. Under 2015 facklades 53 GWh deponigas i Sverige, vilket i många fall beror på problem med höga halter H2S.

     

    Rening av deponigas från H2S leder således till flera nyttigheter; gasens energiinnehåll används effektivare, underhålls- och servicekostnaderna för förbränningsanläggningarna minskar och utsläpp av försurande svaveldioxid från förbränning av deponigas reduceras. Det finns kommersiell reningsteknik för H2S men den är dyr, både vad gäller kapitalkostnad och driftkostnad. Därmed finns ett behov av att ta fram nya billigare reningstekniker som förbättrar driftekonomin vid deponierna och som möjliggör att även deponigas med höga H2S-halter kan utnyttjas för nyttig energiomvandling.

     

    RISE (f.d. JTI - Inst. för jordbruks och miljöteknik) utvecklar tillsammans med SLU nya, potentiellt kostnadseffektiva metoder för att uppgradera biogas till drivmedelskvalité. En av metoderna baseras på att gasen får passera en bädd av fuktig aska (ett s.k. askfilter) varvid koldioxid och H2S fixeras. Hypotesen i det här projektet var att askor med ursprung från förbränning av avfall, RT-flis eller liknande kan användas för att rena bort höga halter H2S från deponigas. Denna typ av askor ska i regel ändå avsättas på deponier och om reningseffekten är god skulle det ge synergieffekter i form av att askan först används för att rena deponigas från svavel innan den avsätts som konstruktionsmaterial på deponier.

     

    I det här projektet utfördes två försök i pilotskala vid en svensk deponi med mycket höga halter H2S, ca 15 000 ppm. Olika gasflöden studerades (0,7-7,6 m3/h) medan askvolymen var lika i de båda försöken, 0,37 m3. Halten H2S i den renade gasen var genomgående mycket låg under behandling, < 10 ppm vid låga gasflöden och < 200 ppm vid höga gasflöden. Två asktyper undersöktes och båda visade sig ha mycket god förmåga att fixera H2S, 44-61 g H2S/kg torr aska. Vid jämförelse med litteraturvärden är det bara en studie som visar upptag i samma storleksordning, övriga studier ligger ca en tiopotens lägre i upptag.

     

    Utifrån försöksresultaten bestämdes den tekniska och ekonomiska potentialen för askfilter som reningsmetod. Beräkningarna gjordes för olika typanläggningar för att på så sätt täcka in vanligt förekommande deponier. För normalstora deponier med gasflöden på 100-1 000 m3/h och H2S-halter mellan 100 och 1 000 ppm uppgår askbehovet till 10-130 ton torr aska per år. För specialfallet där halten H2S är extremt hög ökar askbehovet och för en anläggning med 15 000 ppm H2S och ett gasflöde på 200 m3/h krävs det ca 800 ton torr aska per år. Överlag är det emellertid beskedliga mängder aska som krävs och skulle t.ex. samtliga svenska deponier använda aska för gasrening skulle askbehovet endast vara 0,2-0,3 % av den årliga svenska askproduktionen.

     

    De ekonomiska beräkningarna visar att askfilter är en konkurrenskraftig metod för att rena bort H2S. För specialfallet med extremt höga halter H2S visade det sig att kostnaden för askfilter är drygt 20 % lägre jämfört med den för ändamålet billigaste konventionella reningstekniken på marknaden. Även vid rening av deponigas med mer normala halter H2S står sig askfilter väl. Vid låga flöden kring 100 m3/h är askfilter klart billigare jämfört med litteraturvärden för konventionell reningsteknik. Skalfördelarna tycks dock vara större för de konventionella reningsteknikerna och därför blir skillnaden mellan reningskostnaden för askfilter jämfört med annan teknik mindre vid högre gasflöden.

     

    De låga reningskostnaderna för askfilter kan öppna upp möjligheter för deponier som idag inte renar gas från H2S. Under projektet kontaktades 15 svenska deponier och ingen av dessa hade någon form av H2S-rening. Med rening kan deponigas däremot användas effektivare, t.ex. genom minskad fackling, ökad verkningsgrad för el- och värmeproduktion samt minskat slitage på pannor och förbränningsutrustning. Dessutom minskar emissioner av svavel till atmosfären, vilket även minskar potentiella luktproblem kring deponin.

     

    För fortsatt utveckling är utformning och design av en prototyp av en askfiltermodul i fullskala en central del. Vidare måste den behandlade askan undersökas vad gäller urlakningsegenskaper, lagringsbarhet och användbarhet som konstruktionsmaterial på deponier tillsammans med en bedömning av de samlade miljökonsekvenserna. Försök i fullskala bör även göras vid fler deponier med olika gasflöden och H2S-halter i deponigasen för att verifiera prestanda från de genomförda pilotförsöken.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Palme, Ulrika
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Markanvändningens effekter på växthusgaser, biologisk mångfald och vatten2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten fokuserar på skötselmetoder inom skogsoch jordbruk och vilka effekter de får för växthusgaser, biologisk mångfald och vattenkvalitet/kvantitet. Skogen spelar en allt större roll i klimatarbetet för att minska atmosfärens halter av växthusgaser, främst koldioxid. För den fysiska samhällsplaneringen är det viktigt att kunna diskutera olika utfall för olika markanvändning, både i tid och rum. Rapporten visar genom en systemanalytisk ansats att: De flesta skötselmetoder kan möta målen för växthusgasminskning, minimera påverkan på biologisk mångfald och vattensäkerhet, med undantag för intensivskogsbruk. Rapporten kan användas som diskussionsunderlag när olika miljömål konkurrerar.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Ramon
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Hållbart jordbruk inom vattenskyddsområde: En studie om Sverige, Danmark, Frankrike och Tyskland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    To guarantee protection of our drinking water, water catchment protections are established. These are divided into three different zones and in the first zone it is most likely that an activity, such as agriculture, will contaminate the water resource. Hence the activities are strongly regulated or banned. The EU communion is working towards a sustained water quality through several directives; Nitrate Directive, Waterframwork directives and Sustainable use of pesticide directive. The main purpose is to regulate the diffuse pollution from agriculture.This thesis is about how Denmark, Germany and France are working towards a sustainable agriculture within water protection areas. Sweden is also discussed but mainly about two different methods applied in Linköpings and Ljungbys municipalties.How the different countries work is mainly the same due to the directives. However, there are some interesting water management methods to observe such as voluntary agreements between water companies and farmers. Moreover, the sustainability perspective is approached in a larger scale where you and I as consumers also contribute via consumer-pays-principle. Therefore, we are, by our demand for water, the problem but also the solution and together we can contribute with good social, economic and ecological conditions for ourselves and the farmer.

  • 22.
    Angeler, David G.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Allen, Craig R.
    Garmestani, Ahjond S.
    Gunderson, Lance H.
    Hjerne, Olle
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 12, e0146053Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  • 23.
    Arsenie, Irina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Allard, Bert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Effects of Gamma Irradiation on an Aquatic Fulvic Acid1991Inngår i: Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 1989 / [ed] B. Allard, H. Borén and A. Grimvall, Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer, 1991, 233-241 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An aquatic fulvic acid was irradiated with gamma radiation from a 60Co-source (dose range 0-48 Mrad), as part of a larger study of the transformation and decomposition of humic substances in natura! aquatic systems. Experiments were performed at two concentrations (1000 mg/l and 100 mg/l) and at various pH-values (2-10). The fulvic acid transformation was studied by monitoring optical density (UV-spectroscopy ), molecular weight distribution (GPC-technique) and total dissolved organic carbon (TOC). A general decrease in TOC with increasing radiation dose was observed: the initial G-value of about 5 decreased with the increasing dose to a minimum value of 0.2-0.3. A simultaneous increase in molecular weight (Mn rose from approximately 2000 to a maximum of about 4000) was observed in the acidic samples (pH 2-4) at a dose below 10 Mrad. Natural background radiation can significantly contribute to the degradation of dissolved humic substances in deep groundwaters, considering the observed G-value for low doses (about 5) and the otherwise high chemical stability of the fulvic acid fraction even after long residence times (103-104 y) in the ground.

  • 24.
    Asperö Lind, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Biologisk behandling av matavfall med avfallskvarn: En systemanalys2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The municipal sewage treatment plant Käppalaverket and municipally owned waste handling company SÖRAB, both located in the northern part of Stockholm Sweden, have together started the BOA project. BOA means “Biologisk behandling av Organiskt matavfall medhjälp av Avfallskvarnar” which is translated to biological treatment of organic food waste using food waste macerators. The initiative stems from one of Sweden’s national environmental goals: Saying that at least 35 percent of all the organic waste produced byhouseholds and companies shall be treated biologically by the year 2010 and that the nutrients from this waste should be used as fertilizer.

    In the first phase of the project, seven different scenarios on how to transport the food waste from the households to the digestion chamber were described. To be able to evaluate these scenarios from a societal and sustainability perspective, seven criteria were chosen:technology, environment, work environment, economy, quality, law, and acceptance. The first part of the thesis consisted of formulating indicators from these criteria, through meetings and discussions with different working groups, all consisting of people in the waste and wastewater field. After that, a review of available tools was done to find the ones that were best suited for each chosen indicator.

    For the indicators that required calculations, Substance Flow Analysis, Life Cycle Analysis, Energy Analysis and Life Cycle Costing were chosen. After the tools had been used the results were given grades depending on how big impact they would have on society. For some of the indicators calculations were not possible and instead a qualitative grading system was used, in which the different working groups graded each scenario depending on the indicator and the grades were weighted and summed together.

    Finally, a multi criteria analysis was made together with the project managers from Käppalaverket and SÖRAB, in which the different indicators were discussed and weighted depending on how important they were considered to be. The final result of the multi criteria analysis was that one scenario could be chosen as the most suited for transport of food waste, from the perspective of the chosen indicators and their given weight.

    The scenario in which food waste is collected in bins and then transported by car to a centralprocessing plant, and finally transported by car to Käppalaverkets digestion chambers, got the highest score in the multi criteria analysis and is therefore the best scenario from the perspective of the chosen indicators and given weight. But from the multi criteria analysis onecould also see that none of the scenarios were given a particularly low score. This opens upfor the possibility of combined scenarios were all the residents of the SÖRAB region are given the possibility to recycle their food waste with a bin collecting system, but were there isa will to use systems with a kitchen food waste disposer instead it can be accepted as long as they do not become too popular.

    During the work of this thesis several questions have been raised that needs further investigation. One is what happens with the food waste when it is transported in the sewagesystem and another is how it will change during storage longer than four days. Also, the final results have shown that the impact on climate change from the scenarios could besignificantly decreased if a leakage free methane production could be assured and the possibility to use renewable fuels for the collecting cars was investigated.

  • 25.
    Asplund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Carlsson, Uno
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Soil Peroxidase-Mediated Chlorination of Fulvic Acid1991Inngår i: Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 1989 / [ed] B. Allard, H. Borén and A. Grimvall, Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer, 1991, 474-483 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Humic matter has recently been shown to contain considerable quantities of naturally produced organohalogens. The present study investigated the possibility of a non-specific, enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter in soil. The results showed that, in the presence of chloride and hydrogen peroxide, the enzyme chloroperox1dase (CPO) from the fungus Caldariomyces fumago catalyzes chlorination of fulvic acid. At pH 2.5 - 6.0, the chlorine to fulvic acid ratio in the tested sample was elevated from 12 mg/g to approximately 40-50 mg/g. It was also shown that this reaction can take place at chloride and hydrogen peroxide concentrations found in the environment. An extract from spruce forest soil was shown to have a measurable chlorinating capacity. The activity of an extract of 0.5 kg soil corresponded to approximately 0.3 enzyme units, measured as CPO activity. Enzymatically mediated halogenation of humic substances may be one of the mechanisms explaining the w1despread occurrence of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) in soil and water.

  • 26. Backstrom, Tobias
    et al.
    Heynen, Martina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brannas, Eva
    Nilsson, Jan
    Winberg, Svante
    Magnhagen, Carin
    Anaesthesia and handling stress effects on pigmentation and monoamines in Arctic charr2017Inngår i: Environmental Biology of Fishes, ISSN 0378-1909, E-ISSN 1573-5133, Vol. 100, nr 5, 471-480 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress responsiveness differs between individuals and is often categorized into different stress coping styles. Using these stress coping styles for selection in fish farming could be beneficial, since stress is one main factor affecting welfare. In Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) carotenoid pigmentation is associated with stress responsiveness and stress coping styles. Thus this could be an important tool to use for selection of stress resilient charr. However, anaesthetics seem to affect carotenoid pigmentation, and it would be better if the method for selection could be implemented during normal maintenance, which usually includes anaesthetics. Therefore, this study investigated how the use of anaesthetics affected carotenoid pigmentation, i.e. number of spots, over time compared to no-anaesthetic treatment. Additionally, the stress indicators monoamines and glucocorticoids were investigated. The results indicate that the anaesthetic MS-222 affects number of spots on the right side. This anaesthetic also increased dopaminergic activity in the telencephalon. Both brain dopaminergic and serotonergic activity was associated with spottiness. Further, behaviour during anaesthetization was associated with spots on the left side, but not the right side. Repetition of the same treatment seemed to affect spot numbers on the right side. In conclusion, this study shows that inducing stress in charr affects the carotenoid spots. Thus, it is possible to use anaesthetics when evaluating spottiness although careful planning is needed.

  • 27. Bager, S. L
    et al.
    Dinesh, D
    Olesen, A.S
    Andersen, S.P
    Eriksen, S.L
    Friis, A
    Scaling-Up Climate Action in Agriculture: Identifying Successes and Overcoming Challenges2017Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing food production in the face of a growing population, while adapting to and mitigating climate change constitutes a main challenge for the global agricultural sector. This study identifies, analyses and contextualizes regional initiatives related to agriculture and climate change in developing countries. In order to identify needs for improvements and possibilities for replication or scale-up, a review of recently launched initiatives is combined with a SWOT analysis. Moreover, the study places initiatives in the context of INDCs of Sub-Saharan African countries submitted under the UNFCCC. As a result, recommendations on how to develop and implement best practice agriculture climate change initiatives are presented.

  • 28.
    Barjolle, Dominique
    et al.
    Swiss Institute of Organic Agriculture.
    Belletti, Giovanni
    University of Florence.
    Marescotti, Andrea
    University of Florence.
    Casabianca, Francois
    INRA.
    Cristóvão, Artur
    De Rosa, Marcello
    University of Cassino del Lazio Meridionale.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Måltidskunskap. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, ENTER forum.
    Prologue. The Role of Localised Agrifood Systems in a Globalised Europe2014Inngår i: International Agricultural Policy, ISSN 1722-4365, Vol. 1, 7-10 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 29. Batidzirai, B.
    et al.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Energy security, agro-industrial development and international trade: the case of sugarcane in southern Africa2012Inngår i: Socioeconomic and Environmental Impacts of Biofuels: Evidence from Developing Nations / [ed] Alexandros Gasparatos and Per Stromberg, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012, 254-277 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 30. Bazilian, Morgan
    et al.
    Rogner, Holger
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energisystemanalys.
    Hermann, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energisystemanalys.
    Arent, Douglas
    Gielen, Dolf
    Steduto, Pasquale
    Mueller, Alexander
    Komor, Paul
    Tol, Richard S.J.
    Yumkella, Kandeh K.
    Considering the energy, water and food nexus: Towards an integrated modelling approach2011Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, nr 12, 7896-7906 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The areas of energy, water and food policy have numerous interwoven concerns ranging from ensuring access to services, to environmental impacts to price volatility. These issues manifest in very different ways in each of the three "spheres", but often the impacts are closely related. Identifying these interrelationships a priori is of great importance to help target synergies and avoid potential tensions. Systems thinking is required to address such a wide swath of possible topics. This paper briefly describes some of the linkages at a high-level of aggregation - primarily from a developing country perspective - and via case studies, to arrive at some promising directions for addressing the nexus. To that end, we also present the attributes of a modelling framework that specifically addresses the nexus, and can thus serve to inform more effective national policies and regulations. While environmental issues are normally the 'cohesive principle' from which the three areas are considered jointly, the enormous inequalities arising from a lack of access suggest that economic and security-related issues may be stronger motivators of change. Finally, consideration of the complex interactions will require new institutional capacity both in industrialised and developing countries.

  • 31.
    Behrens, Thomas
    et al.
    Bremen Inst Prevent Res & Social Med, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.;Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Prevent & Occupat Med German Social Accid In, Bochum, Germany..
    Lynge, Elsebeth
    Univ Copenhagen, Inst Publ Hlth, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Cree, Ian
    UCL, Inst Ophthalmol, London, England..
    Lutz, Jean-Michel
    Univ Zurich, NICER, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Univ Lund Hosp, Dept Oncol, S-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Guenel, Pascal
    INSERM, CESP Ctr Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, U1018, Villejuif, France.;Univ Paris Sud, UMRS 1018, Villejuif, France..
    Merletti, Franco
    Univ Turin, Canc Epidemiol Unit, Piemonte, Italy.;CPO, Piemonte, Italy..
    Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria
    Univ Valencia, Dept Prevent Med, Unit Publ Hlth & Environm Care, Valencia, Spain.;CIBER Act Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Res Grp CIBER CB06 02 0045, Valencia, Spain.;Ctr Publ Hlth Res CSISP, Valencia, Spain..
    Afonso, Noemia
    Inst Portugues Oncol Francisco Gentil, Med Oncol Serv, Oporto, Portugal..
    Stengrevics, Aivars
    Latvia Canc Registry, Riga, Latvia..
    Fevotte, Joelle
    Umrestte UCB Lyon 1 InVS Inrets, F-69373 Lyon, France..
    Sabroe, Svend
    Univ Aarhus, Dept Epidemiol, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustin
    Univ Valencia, Dept Prevent Med, Unit Publ Hlth & Environm Care, Valencia, Spain.;CIBER Act Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Res Grp CIBER CB06 02 0045, Valencia, Spain..
    Gorini, Giuseppe
    ISPO Canc Prevent & Res Inst, Environm & Occupat Epidemiol Unit, Florence, Italy..
    Hardell, Lennart
    Region Örebro län. Department of Oncology.
    Stang, Andreas
    Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Clin Epidemiol, Halle, Germany.;Univ Duisburg Essen, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Essen, Germany..
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    Bremen Inst Prevent Res & Social Med, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.;Univ Duisburg Essen, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Essen, Germany..
    Pesticide exposure in farming and forestry and the risk of uveal melanoma2012Inngår i: Cancer Causes and Control, ISSN 0957-5243, E-ISSN 1573-7225, Vol. 23, nr 1, 141-151 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since pesticides are disputed risk factors for uveal melanoma, we studied the association between occupational pesticide exposure and uveal melanoma risk in a case-control study from nine European countries.

    Incident cases of uveal melanoma and population as well as hospital controls were included and frequency-matched by country, 5-year age groups and sex. Self-reported exposure was quantified with respect to duration of exposure and pesticide application method. We calculated the exposure intensity level based on application method and use of personal protective equipment. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression analyses and adjusted for several potential confounders.

    293 case and 3,198 control subjects were interviewed. We did not identify positive associations with activities in farming or forestry, pesticide application or pesticide mixing. No consistent positive associations were seen with exposure intensity level scores either. The only statistically significantly raised association in this study was for exposure to chemical fertilizers in forestry (OR = 8.93; 95% CI 1.73-42.13), but this observation was based on only six exposed subjects. Results did not change when we restricted analyses to morphologically verified cases and excluded proxy interviews as well as cancer controls. We did not observe effect modification by sex or eye color.

    Risk estimates for pesticide exposures and occupational activities in agriculture and forestry were not increased and did not indicate a hormonal mechanism due to these exposures.

  • 32.
    Bengtsson, Mikael
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Märgelgravar i Åstorps kommun: Förändringar i förekomst över tid och lokalisering i landskapet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Märgelgravar är småbiotoper i odlingslandskapet som ofta hyser höga naturvärden och är viktiga för bevarandet av den biologiska mångfalden i slättlandskapet. De utgör också synliga kulturlämningar från 1800 - talets jordbruk och den agrara utveckling som skedde då. Märgelgravarna är idag skyddade som generella biotopskyddsområden. Biotopskyddsområdena bidrar till att uppfylla de svenska miljökvalitetsmålen samt FN - konventionen om biologisk mångfald. Märglingen var som mest omfattande mellan cirka 1850 fram till 1890 i södra Sveriges slättbygd. Märgeln användes som jordförbättringsmedel och grävdes upp där det fanns kalkhaltig lera. Där den bröts bildades bestående gravar som ofta vattenfylldes. Syftet med studien är att kartlägga hur många märgelgravar som försvunnit i Åstorps kommun, var de ursprungligen placerades och vad som kännetecknar de som finns kvar idag. Undersökningen grundas på kartmateriel från ca. 1930, ca. 1970 och 2015 som bearbetats och analyserats i ett GIS - program. Resultaten visar att endast 23% av märgelgravarna finns kvar 2015 jämfört med 1930 och att de ursprungligen grävdes i lerjordar nära bebyggelse, men att de som finns kvar idag i högre utsträckning ligger längre ifrån bebyggelse och till större del i sluttningar. Borttagandet av märgelgravarna tros bero på de omfattande rationaliseringar som jordbruket genomgick speciellt efter andra världskriget, då de sågs som odlingshinder eller som lämpliga platser att dumpa sopor och rivningsmateriel i. 

  • 33. Berghel, J.
    et al.
    Frodeson, S.
    Granström, K.
    Renström, R.
    Stahl, M.
    Nordgren, D.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tomani, P.
    RISE, Innventia.
    The effects of kraft lignin additives on wood fuel pellet quality, energy use and shelf life2013Inngår i: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, 64-69 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 34.
    Berglin, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    von Schenck, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    RISE, Innventia.
    Co-production of renewable polymers and ethanol from eucalyptus-based pulp mills2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 35.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Regulation versus deregulation: Policy divergence between Swedish forestry and the Swedish pulp and paper industry after the 1990s2016Inngår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 73, 10-17 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the divergence of environmental regulatory arrangements in the Swedish forestry sector in relation to the closely-linked Swedish pulp and paper industry. The study finds that while the Swedish forestry sector was deregulated in 1993, with decreased state intervention in forest management, the pulp and paper sector has remained controlled by strong national mandatory requirements which have been further strengthened by European Union Directives after the 1990s. We suggest that one reason for the persistent, strict mandatory regulation of the pulp and paper sector is that conflicting goals between environmental protection and production growth have been aligned through technological change, while such a strong alignment of conflicting interests has not been possible to achieve in the forestry sector. Thus, policy divergence between the forestry and the pulp and paper industries may be explained by the success of established regulatory paths in the case of the pulp and paper industry, while in forestry deregulation has instead been used to, at least formally, increase focus on protection of the environment while maintaining a high level of productivity. Further studies in other sectors and countrieswill be necessary to clarify the specific role of, for example, discourses of deregulation and concepts of competitive advantage concerning e.g. particular actor's roles in specific elements of regulative change.

  • 36.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Agricultural water institutions in East Africa2015Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is causing growing variability and uncertainty in rainfall in Africa. Since the continent's food production systems are dominantly rain-fed, these changes are putting food security at even higher risk. In order to reduce this dependency, institutional reforms in the agricultural water sectors have become a priority in research and policy.

    In this report, Atakilte Beyene, senior researcher at the Nordic Africa Institute, together with twelve researchers based in Africa, studies current agricultural water reforms in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and other East African countries. The report consists of four case studies and an introductory section. The first case study evaluates the performance of community participation in water resources governance in the Mount Kenya Region. It uncovers the implication of a ban on traditional institutions on water security at a catchment level. The second case analyses the prospects of introducing pro-poor water schemes in conditions where climate change and water inequality are already challenges. It identifies incentive mechanisms that enhance more efficient distribution and utilization of water resources. The third case examines impacts of competitive and intensive farming strategies, especially irrigation schemes, on water demands. The final case study explores how advances in information and communication technologies improve water-use management systems across organizational and geographic scales.

  • 37.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Large-scale land acquisitions in Tanzania and Ethiopia: a comparative perspective2015Inngår i: Looking back, looking ahead: land, agriculture and society in East Africa : a festschrift for Kjell Havnevik / [ed] Michael Ståhl, Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2015, 170-181 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Bignert, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bäcklin, Britt-Marie
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helander, Björn
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Roos, Anna
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    9. Contaminants and Health of Aquatic Wildlife2012Inngår i: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, 73-85 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 39.
    Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Eksvärd, Karin
    Inspire and action research ab.
    Schaffer, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm,. Sverige.
    Assessing ecosystem services in perennial intercropping systems: participatory action research in Swedish modern agrofores2014Inngår i: Farming systems facing global challenges: Capacities and strategies / [ed] Schobert, H., Riecher, M.-C., Fischer, H. Aenis, T. & Knierim, 2014, 112-113 s.Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is on how to assess ecosystem services in complex agroforestry systems using a case of edible forest gardens. Benefits of doing these assessments in a participatory learning and action research (PLAR) context are elaborated, as well as difficulties and questions that this has raised. The PLAR group comprised farmers on 13 smallholdings, researchers and a facilitator, which through collaboration and participatory methods have developed a general design of a forest garden, 60 m2 in size and established it on all 13 participating farms. Important values of the work are that ecosystem services are related to specific local contexts and that methodology for multi-criteria assessments of the generation of ecosystem services on a farm scale are being developed. Farmers engaged in formulating research questions, development of field trial designs, sampling and analysis of results improves the relevance and quality of the research as well as advance the adoption of new knowledge.

  • 40.
    Bladby, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Wersäll, Johanna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    A meat free society: The different substitutes for meat, their future and their environmental and health impact compared to meat2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide consumption of meat continues to increase and in Sweden the annual consumption has gone from 24 kg/person in 1990 to about 78 kg/person in 2005. This contributes to large environmental impacts such as an increase of greenhouse gas emissions, unsustainable land and resource use and shortage of water. A solution to the problem is to change our diets to be more sustainable. The purpose with this research is therefore to study the positive environmental and health aspects of alternative protein rich products based on soya, grown meat, algae and insects in comparison with meat. The goal is then to compare the environmental impacts from these products by studying different LCA-studies. Furthermore, also to understand how the future will be developed by interviewing producers of meat substitutes in Sweden. Some difficulties of comparing different LCA-studies are the choice of system boundaries, functional units and environmental aspects in the studies. Nevertheless, after studying a large amount of reports and articles about the products conclusions could yet be drawn. The carbonfootprint from beef is up to 20 times larger than from the substitutes and the land use is up to 125 times larger for beef compared to substitutes. Pork and chicken have lower impact but the lowest impact seems to come from producing substitutes based on soya beans. Insects and algae also have a low impact, but the products are still in the stage of development in Sweden due to laws, regulations and lack of knowledge. Regarding the health aspects substitutes could possibly replace meat since both insects and soya are rich of protein. Insects are also rich oniron and other nutrition. Algae consist as well of good nutrition. The companies interviewed in this study were Kung Markatta, Ekko gourmet and Veggi. They had some different opinions on future products, but they could all agree on that we need to eat less meat and more substitutes. The conclusions of this research are that the environmental aspects considered in the analysed LCA-studies are mostly carbon footprint and land use. They show that beef have a larger environmental impact than meat substitutes. It is however recommended to do new studies on products with the same system boundaries and functional units to get a more accurate and comparable result.

  • 41. Blanchet, Guillaume
    et al.
    Gavazov, Konstantin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bragazza, Luca
    Sinaj, Sokrat
    Responses of soil properties and crop yields to different inorganic and organic amendments in a Swiss conventional farming system2016Inngår i: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 230, 116-126 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In agro-ecosystems, fertilization practices are crucial for sustaining crop productivity. Here, based on a 50-year long-term experiment, we studied the influence of fertilization practices (inorganic and/or organic) and nitrogen (N) application rates on (i) soil physicochemical properties, (ii) microbial and earthworm communities and (iii) crop production. Our results showed that soil organic carbon content was increased by incorporation of crop residues (+2.45%) and farmyard manure application (+6.40%) in comparison to the use of mineral fertilizer alone. In contrast, soil carbon stock was not significantly affected by these fertilization practices. Overall, only farmyard manure application improved soil physicochemical properties compared to mineral fertilization alone. Soil microbial population was enhanced by the application of organic amendments as indicated by microbial biomass and phospholipid-derived fatty acids contents. The fertilization practices and the N application rates affected significantly both the biomass and composition of earthworm populations, especially the epigeic and endogeic species. Finally, farmyard manure application significantly increased crop yield (+3.5%) in comparison to mineral fertilization alone. Crop residue incorporation rendered variable but similar crop yields over the 50-year period. The results of this long-term experiment indicate that the use of organic amendments not only reduces the need for higher amount of mineral N fertilizer but also improves the soil biological properties with direct effects on crop yield.

  • 42.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Angelstam, Per
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elbakidze, Marine
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Axelsson, Robert
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Skorupski, Maciej
    Poznan University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Forestry.
    Wegiel, Andrzej
    Poznan University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Forestry.
    The Polish Promotional Forest Complex: objectives, implementation and outcomes towards sustainable forest management?2012Inngår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 23, 28-39 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 43.
    Blixt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jonason, Dennis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Clear-cuts in production forests: From matrix to neo-habitat forbutterflies2015Inngår i: Acta Oecologica, ISSN 1146-609X, E-ISSN 1873-6238, Vol. 69, 71-77 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Butterfly conservation in Europe is mainly focused on well-defined grassland habitat patches. Such anapproach ignores the impact of the surrounding landscape, which may contain complementary resourcesand facilitate dispersal. Here, we investigated butterfly species richness and abundance in a habitatnormally regarded as unsuitable matrix: production forestry clear-cuts. Butterflies were recorded in 48clear-cuts in southern Sweden differing with regards to the time since clear-cutting and land-use history(meadow or forest based on historical maps from the 1870s). All clear-cuts had been managed as productionforests for at least 80e120 years. A total of 39 species were found in clear-cuts of both land-usehistories, but clear-cuts with a history as meadow had on average 34% higher species richness and 19%higher abundance than did clear-cuts with a history as forest. No effect of the time since clear-cuttingwas found, irrespective of land-use history, which was likely due to the narrow timespan sampled (<8years). The absence of temporal effect suggests that clear-cuts may provide butterflies with valuableresources for 10e15 years. Assuming a 100 year forest rotational cycle, this means that 10e15% of thetotal forested area are made up by clear-cuts valuable to butterflies, which corresponds to an area aboutfour times as large as that of species-rich semi-natural grasslands. The study illustrates the importance ofconsidering land-use legacies in ecological research and question the landscape-ecological view thatclear-cuts make up an unsuitable matrix for butterflies. Moreover, forest conservation management withspecial attention to land-use history may increase the quality of the landscape, thus facilitating butterflymetapopulation persistence. Given their large area and assets of nectar and host plant resources, clearcutsmust be considered as a butterfly habitat in its own right. Being a man-made environment withshort history, we might call it a neo-habitat.

  • 44.
    Bohman, Mattias
    et al.
    Grontmij AB.
    Berglund Odhner, Peter
    Grontmij AB.
    Schabbauer, Anna
    Grontmij AB.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Rundstedt, Johan
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET), Bio- och miljösystemforskning (BLESS).
    Biogas i Halland: Förbehandling av substrat och simulering av biogasflöden2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bioenergicentrum i Halland (BEH) är ett projekt som ligger inom ramen för EU:s strukturfondsprogram. Projektet genomförs i Region Hallands regi som är regionens välfärds- och utvecklingsorganisation. Arbetet som bedrivs inom BEH syftar speciellt till att driva utvecklingen mot en ökad produktion och användning av bioenergi till biogas och i förlängningen fordonsgas. Genom att satsa på att skapa förutsättningar för innovation, kunskapsutveckling och samverkan främjas tillväxt och hållbar utveckling.

    Vid naturbruksgymnasiet i Plönninge utanför Halmstad finns idag en biogasanläggning som beskickas med bl.a. nötgödsel och matavfall. Dessutom finns en mindre pilotanläggning som är tänkt att fungera som en del av test- och verifieringsanläggning som BEH vill bygga upp i Plönninge. Som ett led i att utveckla dessa anläggningar och kunna erbjuda möjligheten till kunskapsinsamling genomfördes projektet som beskrivs i denna rapport. Uppdraget var att genomföra försöksrötningar på labb, använda resultaten för att skapa en modell som sedan kan nyttjas som ett verktyg i det inledande arbetet med att investera i en biogasanläggning som beskickas med lantbruksbaserade substrat. Högskolan i Halmstad (HH) genomförde försöksrötningarna och Grontmij (GM) använde sedan resultaten för att skapa en modell där bl.a. substrat, förbehandlingsteknik och driftkostnader finns med.

    Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att majs som substrat fungerar bäst med de valda förbehandlingsmetoderna; kemisk behandling, termisk behandling och ultraljudsbehandling. Alla förbehandlingsmetoder med majs som substrat visade på ett positivt resultat, d.v.s. det ökade gasutbytet och dess värde (kr/kWh) översteg kostnaderna för de olika förbehandlingarna. Vad som måste beaktas är att produktionskostnaderna överlag är höga, med och utan förbehandling.

    Modellen har konstruerats på ett sådant sätt att den ska vara användarvänlig och med möjlighet att enkelt lägga till ytterligare substrat och förbehandlingsmetoder. Upprepningar av de försöksrötningar som genomförts kommer att öka tillförlitligheten hos modellen. Den fungerar som ett verktyg i att beräkna investeringsmarginalen för förbehandlingsutrustningen baserat på det valda substratet. På detta vis kan intressenter få en första indikation på om det är ekonomiskt rimligt att gå vidare med det tänkta substratet, den valda förbehandlingsmetoden, de planerade mängderna substrat etc.

    En investeringskalkyl har tagits fram för en gårdsanläggning som hanterar 5 000 ton substrat eller gödsel årligen. Det motsvarar 2-3 stycken medelstora mjölkgårdar. Kalkylen är översiktlig och syftar till att ge en första indikation på kostnader för de stora komponenterna såsom substratlager, rötkammare och rötrestlager. Kringarbeten såsom utredningar, markarbeten och geoundersökningar är inte med i kalkylen då dessa omkostnader till stor del avgörs av lokalisering och de förutsättningar som finns på platsen redan från start. Generellt kan dock sägas att den absolut billigaste och enklaste gårdsbaserade biogasanläggningen innebär en investering på 2,7-4 MSEK för flytgödsel från 100-300 mjölkkor.

    För BEH är det viktigt att skapa en plattform där intressenter kan komma för att genomföra försöksrötningar, byta erfarenheter och samla kunskap. För att uppnå detta är det nödvändigt att kunna erbjuda kunden kompletta och kompetenta lösningar på en och samma plats. Detta innebär ett erbjudande som innefattar försöksrötningar på labb-, pilot och fullskala. Ett förslag på konstruktion av pilotanläggning med övergripande principskiss ingår i denna rapport och fungerar som ett inledande arbete i projekteringen av en större pilotanläggning. Nödvändiga driftanalyser av rötrest ska kunna göras på plats i Plönninge på laboratoriet; analyser såsom enskilda organiska syror ska kunna skickas till lämpligt laboratorium. Personal ska kunna tillhandahållas för att driva och optimera rötningen enligt kundens syften och önskemål. På detta vis fungerar Region Halland som en länk mellan teori ochpraktik, mellan liten och stor skala och mellan aktörer från olika discipliner och geografiska områden.

  • 45.
    Boklund, Ingrid
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Ekosystemtjänster & grönstrukturplanering: Att synliggöra ekosystemtjänsternas nytta och värde i den kommunala planeringen med hjälp av ArcGIS-verktyget Matrixgreen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekosystemtjänster är ekosystemens direkta och indirekta bidrag till människors välbefinnande. Ren luft, rent vatten, pollinering och biologisk mångfald är exempel på tjänster som människan är beroende av och vars värde behöver integreras i beslutsprocesser i samhällets alla olika sektioner. Kommunerna har en viktig roll i detta då de genom den fysiska planeringen har möjlighet att på lokal nivå styra utvecklingen mot mer långsiktigt hållbara lösningar.

    Syftet med examensarbetet var att synliggöra ekosystemtjänsterna i Knivsta kommuns grönstrukturplan och att med hjälp av ArcGIS-verktyget Matrixgreen analysera den ekologiska konnektivteten mellan de ekologiska strukturerna. En litteraturstudie lade grunden för arbetet och följdes av en workshop där viktiga ekosystemtjänster för Knivsta kommun identifierades. Utifrån den inlästa kunskapsbasen skapades ekologiska profiler där 11 av de 18 prioriterade ekosystemtjänsterna kunde kopplas till en viss biotoptyp. Biotoptypen kunde i sin tur kopplas till en biologisk art eller artgrupp, kallad profilart, med den specifika biotopen som möjlig livsmiljö. Profilartens habitatpreferenser (storlekskrav och spridningsmöjligheter) satte ramarna för hur konnektiviteten för respektive biotop skulle analyseras. Efter insamling av relevant kartunderlag skapades ekologiska nätverk i Matrixgreen. Nätverken analyserades med avseende på patchernas position i nätverket (”Betweenness Centrality”-analys) samt den totala konnektiviteten i kommunen (Komponentanalys).

    Gemensamt för de fyra valda biotoperna (våtmark, gräsmark, äldre barrskog och lövskog) är att de indirekt förser oss med de prioriterade stödjande ekosystemtjänsterna livsmiljöer och biologisk mångfald. De prioriterade ekosystemtjänsterna vattenrening, flödesreglering och översvämningsskydd kunde kopplas till biotopen våtmarker och material (dekorativa) och pollinering kunde kopplas till biotopen gräsmark. Till biotoperna barrskog och lövskog kunde de prioriterade ekosystemtjänsterna livsmedel (tama och vilda djur, växter), material (biomassa), bioenergi och klimatreglering kopplas. Nätverksanalyserna visar god konnektivitet i kommunen för våtmarker samt områden med äldre barrskog. För gräsmarker och lövskog är den totala konnektiviteten begränsad. Analyserna visar vidare att för respektive biotop finns ett antal områden som är extra viktiga för konnektiviteten, dessa områden har ett högt så kallat ”Betweenness Centrality”-värde.

    De ekologiska profiler som ligger till grund för analyserna är teoretiska profiler, inga platsbesök eller inventeringar har gjorts för att se hur verkligheten stämmer överens med teorin. De nätverk som har skapats och analyserats i detta examensarbete ska därför främst ses som en guide till var i kommunen de utvalda ekosystemtjänsterna finns. Nätverken utgör inte fullgoda livsmiljöer för de valda profilarterna och inga direkta slutsatser kan dras om var i kommunen en specifik art finns eller inte. Den biologiska mångfalden är en ekosystemtjänst i sig men utgör också en försäkring för ekosystemen som blir mer resilienta, det vill säga mer stabila och motståndskraftiga mot yttre störningar. Resilienta ekosystem är en förutsättning för de ekosystemtjänster som har studerats. Bristande konnektivitet i landskapet riskerar att leda till ökad fragmentering och en utarmad biologisk mångfald.

  • 46. Bossio, Deborah
    et al.
    Erkossa, Teklu
    Dile, Yihun
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    McCartney, Matthew
    Killiches, Franziska
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany.
    Hoff, Holger
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany.
    Water implications of foreign direct investment in Ethiopia’s agricultural sector2012Inngår i: Water Alternatives, ISSN 1965-0175, E-ISSN 1965-0175, Vol. 5, nr 2, 223-242 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethiopia is often highlighted as a country in which a lot of foreign land acquisition is occurring. The extent to which these investments also constitute significant acquisitions of water is the subject of this paper. It is apparent that water availability is a strong driver of the recent surge of investments in agricultural land globally, and in general the investments occur in countries with significant 'untapped' water resources. Ethiopia is no exception. We propose that the perception of unused and abundant water resources, as captured in dominant narratives, that drives and justifies both foreign and domestic investments, fails to reflect the more complex reality on the ground. Based on new collections of lease information and crop modelling, we estimate the potential additional water use associated with foreign investments at various scales. As a consequence of data limitations our analyses provide only crude estimates of consumptive water use and indicate a wide range of possible water consumption depending on exactly how foreign direct investment (FDI) development scenarios unfold. However, they do suggest that if all planned FDI schemes are implemented and expanded in the near future, additional water consumption is likely to be comparable with existing water use in non-FDI irrigation schemes, and a non-trivial proportion of the country’s water resources will be effectively utilised by foreign entities. Hence, additional water use as well as local water scarcity ought to be strong considerations in regulating or pricing land leases. If new investments are to increase local food and water security without compromising local and downstream water availability they should be designed to improve often very low agricultural water productivity, and to safeguard access of local populations to water.

  • 47.
    Bozaghian, Marjan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology.
    Rebbling, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Larsson, Sylvia H.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology.
    Xiong, Shaojun
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Combustion characteristics of barley straw stored with CaCO3 using olivine and quartz as bed materials in fluidized bed combustion2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 48.
    Bozaghian, Marjan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology.
    Rebbling, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Larsson, Sylvia H.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology.
    Xiong, Shaojun
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Combustion characteristics of barley straw stored with CaCO3 using quartz and olivine as bed materials in fluidized-bed combustion2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 49.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Usage of Biofuels in Sweden2013Inngår i: CSR-2 Catalyst for renewable sources: Fuel, Energy, Chemicals Book of Abstracts / [ed] Vadim Yakovlev, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibrisk, Russia: Boreskov Institute of Catalysis , 2013, 5-7 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, biofuels have come into substantial use, in an extent that are claimed to be bigger than use of fossil oil. One driving force for this have been the CO2-tax that was introduced in 1991 (1). According to SVEBIO:s calculations (2) based on the Swedish Energy Agency´s prognosis, the total energy consumption in Sweden 2012 was 404 TWh. If the figure is broken down on the different energy sources (figure 1) one can see that the consumption roughly distribute in three different, equally sized, blocks, Biofuels, fossil fuels and water & nuclear power. The major use of the fossil fuels is for transport and the water & nuclear power is used as electric power. The main use of the biofuels is for heating in the industrial sector and as district heating. In 2009 the consumption from those two segments was 85 TWh, and 10 TWh of bio power was co-produced giving an average biomass to electricity efficiency of 12%. This indicates a substantial conversion potential from hot water production to combined heat and power (CHP) production. in Sweden 2013 broken down on the different energy sources. In 2006 the pulp, paper and sawmill industry accounted for 95% of the bio energy consumption in the industrial sector, and the major biofuel consumed was black liquor (5). However, the pulp and paper industries also produced the black liquor in their own processes. The major energy source (58%) for district heating during 2006 was woody biomass (chips, pellets etc.) followed by waste (24%), peat (6%) and others (12%) (5). The use of peat has probably decreased since 2006 since peat is no longer regarded as a renewable energy source. While the use of biofuel for heating purpose is well developed and the bio-power is expected to grow, the use in the transport sector is small, 9 TWh or 7% in 2011. The main consumption there is due to the mandatory addition (5%) of ethanol to gasoline and FAME to diesel (6). The Swedish authorities have announced plans to increase the renewable content to 7.5 % in 2015 on the way to fulfill the EU’s goal of 10 % renewable transportation fuels in 2020. However the new proposed fuel directive in EU says that a maximum of 5% renewable fuel may be produced from food sources like sugars and vegetable oils. Another bothersome fact is that, in principle, all rape seed oil produced in Sweden is consumed (95-97%) in the food sector, and consequently all FAME used (in principle) in Sweden is imported as FAME, rape seed oil or seed (6). In Sweden a new source of biodiesel have emerged, tall oil diesel. Tall oil is extracted from black liquor and refined into a diesel fraction (not FAME) and can be mixed into fossil diesel, i.e. Preem Evolution diesel. The SUNPINE plant in Piteå have a capacity of 100 000 metric tons of tall oil diesel per annum, while the total potential in all of Sweden is claimed to be 200 000 tons (7). 100 000 tons of tall oil corresponds to 1% of the total diesel consumption in Sweden. in Sweden for 2010 and a prognosis for 2014. (6). Accordingly, the profoundest task is to decrease the fossil fuel dependency in the transport sector, and clearly, the first generation biofuels can´t do this on its own. Biogas is a fuel gas with high methane content that can be used in a similar way to natural gas; for instance for cooking, heating and as transportation fuel. Today biogas is produced by fermentation of waste (municipal waste, sludge, manure), but can be produced by gasification of biomass, for instance from forest residues such as branches and rots (GROT in Swedish). To get high efficiency in the production, the lower hydrocarbons, mainly methane, in the producer gas, should not be converted into synthesis gas. Instead a synthesis gas with high methane content is sought. This limits the drainage of chemically bonded energy, due to the exothermic reaction in the synthesis step (so called methanisation). In 2011 0.7 TWh of biogas was produced in Sweden by fermentation of waste (6) and there were no production by gasification, at least not of economic importance. The potential seems to be large, though. In 2008 the total potential for biogas production, in Sweden, from waste by fermentation and gasification was estimated to 70 TWh (10 TWh fermentation and 60 TWh gasification) (8). This figure includes only different types of waste and no dedicated agricultural crops or dedicated forest harvest. Activities in the biogas sector, by gasification, in Sweden are the Göteborgs energi´s Gobigas project in Gothenburg and Eon´s Bio2G-project, now pending, in south of Sweden. If the producer gas is cleaned and upgraded into synthesis gas also other fuels could be produced. In Sweden methanol and DME productions are planned for in the Värmlands metanol-project and at Chemrecs DME production plant in Piteå.

  • 50.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola .
    Leveau, Andreas
    Biofuel-Solutions AB.
    Selective Catalysts for Glycerol Dehydration2013Inngår i: CRS-2, Catalysis for Renewable Sources: Fuel,Energy,ChemicalsBook of Abstracts / [ed] Vadim Yakovlev, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibirsk, Russia: Boreskov Institute of Catalysis , 2013, 17-18 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     There has been an increased interest over the last decade for replacing fossil based feedstock’s with renewable ones. There are several such feedstock’s that are currently being investigated such as cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose, triglycerides etc. However, when trying to perform selective reactions an as homogeneous feedstock as possible is preferable. One such feedstock example is glycerol, a side-product from biofuels production, which is a tri-alcohol and thus has much flexibility for reactions, e.g. dehydration, hydrogenation, addition reactions etc. Glycerol in itself is a good starting point for fine chemicals production being non-toxic and available in rather large quantities [1-2]. A key reaction for glycerol valorisation is the dehydration of glycerol to form acrolein, an unsaturated C3 aldehyde, which may be used for producing acrylic acid, acrylonitrile and other important chemcial products. It has recently been shown that pore-condensation of glycerol is an issue under industrial like conditions, leading to liquid-phase reactions and speeding up the catalyst activity and selectivity loss [3]. To address this issue, modified catalyst materials have been prepared where the relevant micro and meso pores have been removed by thermal sintering; calculations have shown that pores below 45 Å may be subject to pore condensation. The catalyst starting material was a 10% WO3 by weight supported on ZrO2 in the form of beads 1–2 mm and it was thermally treated at 400°C, 500°C, 600°C, 700°C, 700°C, 800°C, 850°C, 900°C and 1000°C for 2 hours. The catalysts were characterised using nitrogen adsorption, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), Raman spectroscopy and ammonia temperature programmed desorption. The thermal sintered catalysts show first of all a decreasing BET surface area with sintering commencing between 700°C and 800°C when it decreases from the initial 71 m2/g to 62 m2/g and at 1000°C there is a mere 5 m2/g of surface area left. During sintering, the micro and meso-porosity is reduced as evidenced by MIP and depicted in figure 1. As may be seen in the figure, sintering decrease the amount of pores below and around 100 Å is reduced at a sintering temperature of 800°C and above. The most suitable catalyst based on the MIP appears to be the one sintered at 850°C which is further strengthened by the Raman analysis. There is a clear shift in the tungsten structure from monoclinic to triclinic between 850°C and 900°C and it is believed that the monoclinic phase is important for activity and selectivity. Further, the heat treatment shows that there is an increase in catalyst acidity measured as mmol NH3/(m2/g) but a decrease in the acid strength as evidenced by a decrease in the desorption peak maximum temperature.

     

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