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  • 1.
    Abadei, S
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Gevorgian, S
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Cho, C.-R
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Grishin, A.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Andreasson, Johanna
    Lindbäck, Ture
    DC field dependent properties of Na0.5K0.5NbO₃/SiO₂/Si structures at millimeter-wave frequencies2001Inngår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 78, nr 13, 1900-1902 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dielectric properties of laser-ablated 0.5-μm-thick c-axis epitaxial Na0.5K0.5NbO3 films on high-resistivity (7.7 Ω cm) silicon SiO2/Si substrate are studied experimentally at frequencies up to 40 GHz. For measurements, planar 0.5-μm-thick gold electrodes (interdigital and straight slot) are photolithography defined on the top surface of Na0.5K0.5NbO3 films. The slot width between the electrodes is 2 or 4 μm. 13% capacitance change at 40 V dc bias and Q factor more than 15 are observed at 40 GHz, which makes the structure useful for applications in electrically tunable millimeter-wave devices

  • 2.
    Abadei, S.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Microelectronics.
    Gevorgian, S.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Microelectronics.
    Kugler, V.
    Department of Physics, Linköping University.
    Helmersson, U.
    Department of Physics, Linköping University.
    Andreasson, Johanna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik.
    Microwave properties of tunable capacitors basee on magnetron sputtered ferroelectric Na0.5K0.5NbO3 film on low and high resistivity silicon substrates2001Inngår i: Integrated Ferroelectrics, ISSN 1058-4587, E-ISSN 1607-8489, Vol. 39, nr 1-4, 359-366 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, small signal DC voltage dependent dielectric permittivity, loss tangent, and tuneability of magnetron sputtered epitaxial Na0.5K0.5NO3 films are studied experimentally. (100)-oriented Na0.5K0.5NbO3 films are deposited onto SiO2-buffered CMOS grade low resistivity (p = 10-20 cm) and high resistivity (p = 15-45 kcm) silicon substrates. Planar capacitors with 2 or 4 m gaps between electrodes have been fabricated on top of ferroelectric films. These devices have been characterized in the frequency range 1.0 MHz to 50 GHz at temperatures 30 - 300K. Na0.5K0.5NbO3/SiO2/Si structures on high resistivity silicon substrate exhibit C-V performances typical for Metal-Insulator- Semiconductor (MIS) capacitors. At low frequencies, f 1.0 GHz, the large tuneability and large losses are associated with the MIS structure, while at higher microwave frequencies the tuneability is mainly associated with the ferroelectric, film. At 1.0 MHz and room temperature, the tuneability of Na0.5K0.5NbO3/SiO2/Si structures more than 90%, reducing to 10-15 % at 50 GHz. The losses decrease with increasing the DC bias and frequency. A Q-factor more than 15 at 50 GHz is observed. The dielectric permittivity of the Na0.5K0.5NbO3 film is in the range 50-150 at frequencies 0.045-50 GHz. On low resistivity substrate the performance of Na0.5K0.5NbO3 films is completely screened by the high losses in silicon, and the tuneability is negligible

  • 3.
    Abas, Riad Abdul
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Property measurements towards understanding process phenomena2005Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this industrially important work was to gain an increasing understanding of the properties of materials such as CMSX-4 nickel base super alloy, mould powder used in continuous casting of steel and coke used in blast furnace, with special reference to the thermal diffusivities. The measurements were carried out in a wide temperature range, solid, liquid, glassy and crystalline states.

    For CMSX-4 alloy, the thermal conductivities were calculated from the experimental thermal diffusivities. Both the diffusivities and conductivities were found to increase with increasing temperature. Microscopic analysis showed the presence of intermetallic phases such as NiTi and NiTi2 below 1253 K. In this region, the mean free path of the phonons is likely to be limited by scattering against lattice defects. Between 1253 K and solidus temperature, these phases dissolved in the alloy adding to the impurities in the matrix, which, in turn, caused a decrease in the thermal diffusivity. This effect was confirmed by annealing the samples at 1573 K. The thermal diffusivities of the annealed samples measured at 1277, 1403 and 1531 K were found to be lower than the thermal diffusivities of non-annealed samples and the values did not show any noticeable change with time. It could be related to the attainment of equilibrium with the completion of the dissolution of γ and γ´ phases during the annealing process.

    Liquid CMSX-4 does not show any change of thermal diffusivity with temperature. It may be attributed to the decreasing the mean free path being shorter than characteristic distance between two neighbouring atoms.

    On the other hand thermal diffusivities of mould powder having glassy and crystalline states decrease with increasing temperature at lower temperature and are constant at higher temperature except for one glassy sample.

    Analogously, the thermal diffusivity measurements of mould powder did not show any significant change with temperature in liquid state. It is likely to be due to the silicate network being largely broken down.

    The thermal diffusivity is increased with increasing crystallisation degree of mould powder, which is expected from theoretical considerations.

    The coke sample, taken from deeper level of the blast furnace, is found to have larger thermal diffusivity. This could be correlated to the average crystallite size along the structural c-axis, Lc, which is indicative of the higher degree of graphitisation. This was also confirmed by XRD measurements of the different coke samples. The degree of graphitisation was found to increase with increasing temperature. Further, XRD measurements of coke samples taken from different levels in the shaft of the blast furnace show that the graphitisation of coke was instantaneous between room temperature and 1473 K.

  • 4. Abbasalizadeh, A.
    et al.
    Teng, Lidong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processvetenskap.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processvetenskap.
    Sietsma, J.
    Yang, Y.
    Rare Earth Extraction from NdFeB Magnets and Rare Earth Oxides Using Aluminum Chloride/Fluoride Molten Salts2015Inngår i: Rare Earths Industry: Technological, Economic, and Environmental Implications, Elsevier, 2015, 357-373 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current research, the feasibility of the recovery of neodymium and dysprosium from spent NdFeB magnets (about 6wt% Dy) was investigated using molten salt processes. The salt bath consisted of a eutectic composition of an NaCl-KCl-LiCl mixture. To enable the efficient dissolution of metal in the molten salt phase, AlCl3 was used as a chlorinating agent. Iron-free electrodeposition was carried out successfully. Energy-dispersive spectroscopic analysis of the electrodeposit revealed that co-deposition of the dysprosium occurs along with neodymium at the cathode. The process shows that this method is well suited for recovering rare earth metals from magnetic scrap containing these metals.Furthermore, the setup design for recovery of neodymium and dysprosium from their oxides was investigated with regard to previous studies on the neodymium magnets. The stability of different fluoride and chloride salts was studied by means of thermodynamic calculation. Aluminum fluoride-based molten salt systems were studied in detail as the electrolyte for electrochemical extraction of rare earth oxides into rare earth metal elements with Al.

  • 5.
    Abbasalizadeh, Aida
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processvetenskap.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processvetenskap.
    Teng, Lidong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processvetenskap.
    Sridhar, Seetharaman
    Grinder, Olle
    Izumi, Yukari
    Barati, Mansoor
    Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process2013Inngår i: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 65, nr 11, 1552-1558 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700 degrees C) to 1173 K (900 degrees C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  • 6. Abbasalizadeh, Aida
    et al.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Venkatesan, Prakash
    Sietsma, Jilt
    Yang, Yongxiang
    Novel Reactive Anode for Electrochemical Extraction of Rare Earth Metals from Rare Earth Oxides2017Inngår i: RARE METAL TECHNOLOGY 2017 / [ed] Kim, H Alam, S Neelameggham, NR Oosterhof, H Ouchi, T Guan, X, SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG , 2017, 87-92 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrolytic production of metallic neodymium is carried out in fused fluoride salts containing neodymium oxide. Two major challenges pertaining to neodymium production are (a) low oxide solubility, (b) possibility of anodic fluorine gas evolution if the electrolysis rate exceeds feeding rate of neodymium oxide. In this study, a novel method is proposed in which iron fluoride (FeF3) is used as a fluorinating agent to convert neodymium oxide into neodymium fluoride. Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) results of as-converted salt show a complete conversion of neodymium oxide into neodymium fluoride. In the electrolysis process, iron is used as a reactive anode with electrochemical dissolution of iron into the melt, thus preventing fluorine gas evolution at the anode. Therefore, the fluorinating agent is constantly regenerated in situ which enables the continuous conversion of neodymium oxide feed. The cathodic product is a Nd-Fe alloy which can be directly used as a master alloy for the production of NdFeB permanent magnets.

  • 7.
    Abbasalizadeh, Aida
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processvetenskap.
    Teng, Lidong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processvetenskap.
    Seetharaman, S.
    Dysprosium extraction using molten salt process2014Inngår i: Rare metal technology 2014: proceedings of a symposium sponsored by The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) held during TMS 2014, 143rd Annual Meeting & Exhibition, February 16-20, 2014, San Diego Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, 2014, 207-208 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Abbasalizadeh, Aida
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processvetenskap.
    Teng, Lidong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processvetenskap.
    Sridhar, S.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processvetenskap.
    Neodymium extraction using salt extraction process2015Inngår i: Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy Section C - Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, ISSN 0371-9553, E-ISSN 1743-2855, Vol. 124, nr 4, 191-198 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper deals with the feasibility of the neodymium recovery from spent Nd-Fe-B magnets using molten salt electrodeposition method. The salt bath consisted of a mixture of LiCl- KCl-NaCl corresponding to the eutectic composition. The experimental set-up with its salient features is presented. AlCl3 was used as flux and graphite rods dipped in the salt bath served as electrodes. The voltage for the electrolysis was chosen on the basis of the decomposition potential of NdCl3. The reaction sequence can be described as Iron-free neodymium deposition could be carried out successfully. In view of the proximity of the electrode potentials, the co-deposition of the aluminium and neodymium was observed to occur at the cathode, as revealed by SEM/EDS and XRD analyses of the electrodeposit.

  • 9.
    Abbasi, Mahmoud
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanocomposite of chitosan/SiO2/carbon nanotubes and its application for dyes removal2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 145, 105-113 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption characteristics of Direct Blue 71 (DB71) and Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) from aqueous solution onto novel magnetic nanocomposite of Chitosan/SiO2/CNTs (MNCSC) have been investigated. The morphology of MNCSC was characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of initial dye concentration, contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial pH as experimental parameters on the removal of dyes were investigated. The adsorption experiments indicated the maximum adsorption capacity occurred at pH 6.8 for DB71 and pH 2.0 for RB19. The experimental data were analyzed by isotherm models and equilibrium results were fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum adsorption capacity of the MNCSM was determined to be 61.35 mg/g for DB71 (R-2 = 0.996) and 97.08 mg/g for RB19 (R-2 = 0.998). Adsorption data were analyzed with three kinetics models and pseudo second-order equation could best describe for adsorption of dyes. Finally, the thermodynamic parameters were determined. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Järnvägsgruppen, JVG.
    Characterisation of airborne particles from rail traffic2011Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the investigation of wear particles in rail transport started in late-1910s, the high mass concentration of these particles has raised worries among researchers concerned with air quality. However, effective action has yet to be taken because of lack of relevant knowledge. This thesis provides applicable information for the airborne wear particles in rail transport. Some aspects of their characteristics such as diameter size, mass concentration, number concentration, and morphology of particles were investigated in field tests and laboratory tests.The effects on particle characterisations from different operational conditions in the field tests, and applying different braking materials, conducting tests in different applied loads or sliding velocities in the laboratory tests were studied. The main advantage of conducting laboratory tests was to focus on studying particles from one source. The possibility of repetition, using high sensitive instruments and conducting tests at low costs are the other advantages of laboratory studies. Paper A describes how a pin-on-disc machine was used to reproduce similar real operational conditions during mechanical braking in a train. The results were validated by comparing the field tests results with the laboratory studies. The particles morphology and size distribution were also studied.Paper B presents a summary of field tests results. The effects of curve negotiating and applying braking in different real conditions were investigated with an on-board measurement.The element composition of the particles and their potential sources were also investigated outside of the particles morphologies.Paper C presents comprehensive results from laboratory studies on airborne particles from different braking materials. The differences in the particle characteristics in similar test conditions were attributable to different material compositions and dominant wear mechanisms. A new index was introduced in this paper and is suggested to be used as a qualitative factor with regard to the airborne wear particle emission rate.Paper D is a review of the recent studies of exhaust emission and non-exhaust emission from rail vehicles. A summary of results, measurements, adverse health effects, and proposed or applied solutions are reviewed in this paper.

  • 11.
    Abdel-Karim, R.
    et al.
    Department of Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University.
    Reda, Y.
    Department of Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University.
    Muhammed, Mamoun A.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Funktionella material, FNM.
    El-Raghy, S.
    Department of Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University.
    Shoeib, M.
    Metals Technology Department Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute.
    Ahmed, H.
    Department of Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University.
    Electrodeposition and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Ni-Fe Alloys2011Inngår i: Journal of Nanomaterials, ISSN 1687-4110, E-ISSN 1687-4129, 519274- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocrystalline Ni-Fe deposits with different composition and grain sizes were fabricated by electrodeposition. Deposits with iron contents in the range from 7 to 31% were obtained by changing the Ni(2+)/Fe(2+) mass ratio in the electrolyte. The deposits were found to be nanocrystalline with average grain size in the range 20-30 nm. The surface morphology was found to be dependent on Ni(2+)/Fe(2+) mass ratio as well as electroplating time. The grains size decreased with increasing the iron content, especially in case of short time electroplating. Increasing the electroplating time had no significant effect on grain size. The microhardness of the materials followed the regular Hall-Petch relationship with amaximum value (762 Hv) when applying Ni(2+)/Fe(2+) mass ratio equal to 9.8.

  • 12.
    Abdel-Khalek, N.A.
    et al.
    Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, Cairo.
    Yassin, K.E.
    Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, Cairo.
    Kota, Hanumantha Rao
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Kandel, A-H
    Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University.
    Effect of starch type on selectivity of cationic flotation of iron ore2012Inngår i: Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy Section C - Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, ISSN 0371-9553, E-ISSN 1743-2855, Vol. 121, nr 2, 98-102 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cationic flotation is one of the most widely accepted technologies for upgrading siliceous iron ore using polysaccharides (mainly starches) as depressing agents for iron bearing minerals while floating silica with amines. In this paper, a group of starches are investigated as depressants for haematite. These starches are wheat, corn, rice, potato and dextrin. The role of starch type on the selectivity of the separation process has been studied through zeta potential, adsorption measurements as well as flotation tests. The effects of type of starch and pH of the medium have been studied. The results indicate that the selectivity of the separation process is strongly affected by the type of starch used, where better results are obtained with corn starch or wheat starch in comparison to the other types. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements indicated that the interaction between starches and haematite surface is intermolecular interaction

  • 13. Abdi, Y.
    et al.
    Derakhshandeh, J.
    Hashemi, P.
    Mohajerzadeh, S.
    Karbassian, F.
    Nayeri, F.
    Arzi, E.
    Robertson, M. D.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Light-emitting nano-porous silicon structures fabricated using a plasma hydrogenation technique2005Inngår i: Materials Science and Engineering B: Solid-State Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, Vol. 124-125, nr SUPPL., 483-487 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The preparation of porous silicon films by DC-plasma hydrogenation and subsequent annealing of amorphous silicon films on silicon and glass substrates is reported for the first time. The effects of varying plasma power and annealing temperatures have been investigated and characterized by scanning-electron microscopy, transmission-electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. A plasma density of about 5.5 W/m2 and hydrogenation-annealing temperatures of about 400 °C was found to be suitable for the formation of nano-crystalline silicon films with grain diameters of the order of 3-10 nm. The intensity and wavelength of the emitted visible light were found to depend on the hydrogenation and annealing conditions, and patterning of the silicon films using standard lithography allowed the creation of light-emitting patterns.

  • 14.
    Abdollahifakhr, Hamon
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH, Maskinteknik. Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH. Forskningsområde Datorstödd konstruktion.
    Sengul, Ceyhun
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH, Maskinteknik. Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH. Forskningsområde Datorstödd konstruktion.
    AUTOMATIC DESIGN OF WIRING PATTERN FOR CAR SEAT HEATERS2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This projects aims to develop design automation in product development. Design automation causes increase in producibility and decrease in product cost and manufacturing lead time.

    The study at hand is proposed to provide a new method and to introduce procedure to the design of wiring pattern for a car seat heater for Kongsberg Automotive, KA. KA is a Norwegian company and a global provider of engineering, design, and manufacture for seat comfort, driver and motion control systems, fluid assemblies, and industrial driver interface products. The method that currently is used in the company to create a wiring pattern is neither sufficient enough nor automated.

    In order to design the wiring pattern, at first procedure is handled by the designer. Secondly, car seat heater 2D layout is imported and then, the dimensions of the elements are defined as constraints. Then VBA codes are opened and the program is run. The result will be a wiring pattern in different 2D layouts. To make the design process easier, we have modeled five different layouts; wiring pattern of one element, two elements, three elements, five elements (with two back sides) and one element trapezoidal 2D layout.

    The algorithm written in VBA (Visual basic for application) creates the pattern according to the dimensions of the elements which are used as inputs to define constrained parameters. The created macros are simple to use and easy to modify, independent from the programming knowledge. The user is only responsible with parameter input and running the program. The solution gives wiring pattern for a car seat heater.

  • 15.
    Abdul Abas, Riad
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Experimental Studies of Thermal Diffusivities concerning some Industrially Important Systems2006Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this industrially important work was to gain an increasing understanding of the properties of some industrially important materials such as CMSX-4 nickel base super alloy, 90Ti.6Al.4V alloy, 25Cr:6Ni stainless steel, 0.7% carbon steel, AISI 304 stainless steel-alumina composites, mould powder used in continuous casting of steel as well as coke used in blast furnace with special reference to the thermal diffusivities. The measurements were carried out in a wide temperature range covering solid, liquid, glassy and crystalline states.

    For CMSX-4 alloy, the thermal conductivities were calculated from the experimental thermal diffusivities. Both the diffusivities and conductivities were found to increase with increasing temperature. Microscopic analysis showed the presence of intermetallic phases γ´ such as Ni3Al below 1253 K. In this region, the mean free path of the electrons and phonons is likely to be limited by scattering against lattice defects. Between 1253 K and solidus temperature, these phases dissolved in the alloy adding to the impurities in the matrix, which, in turn, caused a decrease in the thermal diffusivity. This effect was confirmed by annealing the samples at 1573 K. The thermal diffusivities of the annealed samples measured at 1277, 1403 and 1531 K were found to be lower than the thermal diffusivities of non-annealed samples and the values did not show any noticeable change with time. It could be related to the attainment of equilibrium with the completion of the dissolution of γ´ phase during the annealing process. Liquid CMSX-4 does not show any change of thermal diffusivity with temperature. It may be attributed to the decrease of the mean free path being shorter than characteristic distance between two neighbouring atoms.

    Same tendency could be observed in the case of 90Ti.6Al.4V alloy. Since the thermal diffusivity increases with increasing temperature below 1225 K and shows slight decrease or constancy at higher temperature. For 25Cr:6Ni stainless steel, the thermal diffusivity is nearly constant up to about 700 K. Beyond that, there is an increase with temperature both during heating as well as cooling cycle. On the other hand, the slope of the curve increases above 950 K, which can be due to the increase of bcc phase in the structure. 0.7% carbon steel shows a decrease in the thermal diffusivity at temperature below Curie point, where the structure contains bcc+ fcc phases. Above this point the thermal diffusivity increases, where the structure contains only fcc phase. The experimental thermal conductivity values of these alloys show good agreement with the calculated values using Mills model.

    Thermal diffusivity measurements as a function of temperature of sintered AISI 304 stainless steel-alumina composites having various composition, viz, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 10 wt% Al2O3 were carried out in the present work. The thermal diffusivity as well as the thermal conductivity were found to increase with temperature for all composite specimens. The thermal diffusivity/conductivity decreases with increasing weight fraction of alumina in the composites. The experimental results are in good agreement with simple rule of mixture, Eucken equation and developed Ohm´s law model at weight fraction of alumina below 5 wt%. Beyond this, the thermal diffusivity/ conductivity exhibits a high discrepancy probably due to the agglomeration of alumina particles during cold pressing and sintering.

    On the other hand, thermal diffusivities of industrial mould flux having glassy and crystalline states decrease with increasing temperature at lower temperature and are constant at higher temperature except for one glassy sample. The thermal diffusivity is increased with increasing crystallisation degree of mould flux, which is expected from theoretical considerations.

    Analogously, the thermal diffusivity measurements of mould flux do not show any significant change with temperature in liquid state. It is likely to be due to the silicate network being largely broken down.

    In the case of coke, the sample taken from deeper level of the pilot blast furnace is found to have larger thermal diffusivity. This can be correlated to the average crystallite size along the structural c-axis, Lc, which is indicative of the higher degree of graphitisation. This was also confirmed by XRD measurements of the different coke samples. The degree of graphitisation was found to increase with increasing temperature. Further, XRD and heat capacity measurements of coke samples taken from different levels in the shaft of the pilot blast furnace show that the graphitisation of coke was instantaneous between 973 and 1473 K.

  • 16.
    Abdul Abas, Riad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processvetenskap.
    Hayashi, M.iyuki
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processvetenskap.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processvetenskap.
    Thermal Diffusivity measurement of CMSX-4 alloy by Laser flash method2007Inngår i: International journal of thermophysics, ISSN 0195-928X, E-ISSN 1572-9567, Vol. 28, nr 1, 109-122 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, thermal diffusivity measurements have been carried out on industrial samples of CMSX-4 nickel-base superalloy using the laser-flash method with emphasis on studying the effect of temperature and microstructure on the thermal diffusivity. The measurements were performed in the temperature range from 298 to 1623 K covering both solid as well as liquid ranges. Below 1253 K, the thermal-diffusivity values were found to increase with increasing temperature. Microstructural investigations of quenched samples revealed that below 1253 K, an ordered phase, usually referred to as the -phase was present together with the disordered fcc phase, often referred to as the γ phase. Between 1253 K and the solidus temperature, the phase was found to dissolve in the matrix alloy causing an increase in the disordering of the alloy, and thereby a small decrease in the thermal-diffusivity values. The thermal-diffusivity values of samples pre-annealed at 1573 K exhibited constancy in the temperature range from 1277 to 1513 K, which is attributed to the attainment of thermodynamic equilibrium. These equilibrium values were found to be lower than the results for samples not subjected to annealing. The thermal-diffusivity values of the alloy in the liquid state were found to be independent of temperature.

  • 17.
    Abdul Abas, Riad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processvetenskap.
    Hayashi, Miyuki
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processvetenskap.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processvetenskap.
    Thermal Diffusivity Measurements of some Industrially Important Alloys by a Laser Flash Method2007Inngår i: International journal of materials reseach, ISSN 1862-5282, Vol. 98, nr 6, 535-540 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, thermal diffusivity measurements of three industrially significant alloys, viz. 90Ti.6Al.4V, stainless steel with 25Cr and 6Ni as well as plain carbon steel with 0.7 % carbon have been carried out as a function of temperature. The aim of this work is to study the effect of temperature and microstructure on the thermal diffusivities of these alloys. For the 90Ti.6Al.4V alloy, thermal diffusivity increases with temperature below 1225 K. Above this temperature, the values started decreasing probably due to the dissolution of Ti3Al intermediate phase in the matrix, which would result in an increase in the disorder of the structure. For 25Cr: 6Ni stainless steel, the thermal diffusivity is nearly constant up to about 700 K. Above this, there is an increase in the thermal diffusivities with temperature during the heating cycle, which was reproducible during thermal cycling. On the other hand, the slope of the curve increases above 950 K.

    In the case of the 0.7 % carbon steel, the thermal diffusivity shows a decreasing trend with temperature below the Curie point for the alloy, where the alloy consists of bcc + fcc phases. Above this point, only the fcc phase is prevalent and the thermal diffusivity was found to increase with temperature. Heat transfer is carried out by lattice vibration (phonons) as well as electrons. The contribution of electrons varies depending upon the type of alloy. In this study, the highest electron contribution was found in 0.7 % carbon steel, while the lowest was in stainless steel. The thermal conductivity values of these alloys are in good agreement with the calculated values using the model proposed by Mills.

  • 18. Abdullah, Omed Gh.
    et al.
    Tahir, Dana A.
    Kadir, K.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK). Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research, Iraq.
    Optical and structural investigation of synthesized PVA/PbS nanocomposites2015Inngår i: Journal of materials science. Materials in electronics, ISSN 0957-4522, E-ISSN 1573-482X, Vol. 26, nr 9, 6939-6944 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer nanocomposite based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and lead sulfide (PbS) in the average radius of (1.88-2.23) nm, have been synthesized using the chemical reduction rote and solution casting technique for different concentrations of PbS. The characterization of the polymer nanocomposite films were carried out using UV-visible spectroscopy, SEM, and XRD. The effect of various concentration of PbS NP on the optical properties of the composite has been studied to understand the optimum conditions for the synthesis process. The nanocomposite film shows high UV and visible light absorptions in the wavelength range of (200-500) nm, which correspond to the characteristics of the PbS NPs. The significant decreasing trend of the direct allowed band gap of the nanocomposite was observed upon increasing the Pb source concentration, from (6.27 eV) for pure PVA to (2.34 eV) for 0.04 M PbS concentration, which is much higher than the energy gap of bulk PbS value (0.41 eV). The calculated values of the static refractive index of Cauchy dispersion model were in the range of (1.09-1.20). X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the cubic nanocrystalline PbS phase formation.

  • 19.
    Abebe, Mihret
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Hedin, Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Bacsik, Zoltan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Spherical and Porous Particles of Calcium Carbonate Synthesized with Food Friendly Polymer Additives2015Inngår i: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 15, nr 8, 3609-3616 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Porous calcium carbonate particles were synthesized by adding solutions of Ca2+ to solutions of CO32- containing polymeric additives. Under optimized conditions well-defined aggregates of the anhydrous polymorph vaterite formed. A typical sample of these micrometer-sized aggregates had: a pore volume of 0.1 cm(3)/g, a pore width of similar to 10 nm, and a specific surface area of similar to 25-30 m(2)/ g. Only one mixing Order (calcium to carbonate) allowed the formation of vaterite, which was ascribed to the buffering capacity and relatively high pH of the CO32- solution. Rapid addition of the calcium chloride solution and rapid stirring promoted the formation of vaterite, due to the high supersaturation levels achieved. With xanthan gum, porous and micrometer-sized vaterite aggregates could be synthesized over a wide range of synthetic conditions. For the Other food grade polymers, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), methylcellulose (MC), and sodium carboxyl methylcellulose, several intensive and extensive synthetic parameters had to be optimized to obtain pure vaterite and porous aggregates. HPMC and MC allowed well-defined spherical micrometer-sited particles to form. We expect that these spherical and porous particles of vaterite could be relevant to model studies as well as a controlled delivery of particularly large molecules.

  • 20.
    Abedin, Ahmad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Moeen, Mahdi
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Cappetta, Carmine
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Sensitivity of the crystal quality of SiGe layers grown at low temperatures by trisilane and germane2016Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 613, 38-42 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates the crystal quality of SiGe layers grown at low temperatures using trisilane, and germane precursors. The crystal quality sensitivity was monitored for hydrogen chloride and/or minor oxygen amount during SiGe epitaxy or at the interface of SiGe/Si layers. The quality of the epi-layerswas examined by quantifying noise parameter, K-1/f obtained from the power spectral density vs. 1/f curves. The results indicate that while it is difficult to detect small defect densities in SiGe layers by physical material characterization, the noise measurement could reveal the effects of oxygen contamination as low as 0.16mPa inside and in the interface of the layers.

  • 21.
    Abelow, Alexis
    et al.
    University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA.
    Persson, Kristin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zharov, Ilya
    University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA.
    Electroresponsive Nanoporous Membranes by Coating Anodized Alumina with Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophone) and Polypyrrole2014Inngår i: Macromolecular materials and engineering (Print), ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 299, nr 2, 190-197 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically-active nanoporous membranes are prepared by coating the surface of anodized alumina with electroactive polymers using vapor phase polymerization with four combinations of conjugated polymers and doping ions: poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophone) and polypyrrole, FeCl3 and FeTs3. The permeability of the polymer-coated membranes is measured as a function of the applied electric potential. A reversible three-fold increase is found in molecular flux of a neutral dye for membranes in oxidized state compared to that in the reduced state. After analyzing various factors that may affect the molecular transport through these membranes, it is concluded that the observed behavior results mostly from swelling/deswelling of the polymers and from the confinement of the polymers inside the nanopores.

  • 22.
    Abhale, Prakash Bansi
    et al.
    Global R and D, ArcelorMittal, Kolkatta.
    Yadav, Vishal Kumar
    Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (MTM), Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven.
    Nurni, Viswanathan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Ballal, Bharath Nidambur
    Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay.
    Efficient computation of gas flow in blast furnace in 3-D2012Inngår i: 6th Int. Congress on the Science and Technology of Ironmaking 2012, ICSTI 2012: Including Proceedings from the 42nd Ironmaking and Raw Materials Seminar, and the 13th Brazilian Symp. on Iron Ore, 2012, Vol. 1, 722-732 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Blast furnace continues to occupy prominent place among iron making technologies as it accounts for more than 90% of the hot metal produced in the world. In India, as a part of initiative from Ministry of Steel, efforts are being made to develop offline as well as online models with an aim to improve blast furnace performance. As a part of this effort, offline comprehensive models simulating the internal state of an operating blast furnace are being developed. Such comprehensive models involve systematic integration of various sub-models for gas flow, solid flow, reaction kinetics, enthalpy balance etc. Unlike in many other systems, these sub-processes are highly interlinked in blast furnace and hence call for large number of iteration among the sub-models which ultimately results in significant computation time. Our efforts in integration of these sub-models have indicated that the gas flow is one of the important bottle necks in achieving faster computation. This has led to a development of new and efficient computation scheme to simulate the gas flow in 2-D [1]. This new scheme provided efficient way of handling complex burden profile in a blast furnace. This paper presents the extension of this 2-D gas flow model to 3-D. Further, the 3-D model has been used to investigate the asymmetry in gas flow which can arise from blanking the tuyeres, asymmetric fusion or cohesive zone or formation scabs or scaffolds in the furnace behavior

  • 23.
    Abiri, Olufunminiyi
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Non-local models in manufacturing simulations2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Ductile fracture presents challenges with respect to material modelling andnumerical simulations of localization. The strain and damage localization maybe unwanted as it indicates a failure in the process or, as in the case ofmachining and cutting, a wanted phenomenon to be controlled. The latterrequires a higher accuracy regarding the modelling of the underlying coupledplastic and fracturing/damage behaviour of the material, metal in the currentcontext as well as the stability and robustness of the simulation procedure.This aim of this work is to develop, evaluate and implement formulations thatcan efficiently and reliably handle localization problems in machiningsimulations. The focus is on non-local models. The non-local models extendthe standard continuum mechanics theory by using non-local continuumtheory in order to achieve mesh independent results when simulating fractureor shear localization.The non-local damage model is implemented and various formulations areevaluated in a Matlab™ based finite element code. The chosen algorithm wasthen implemented in commercial software. The implementations remedy themesh sensitivity problem and gives convergent solution for metal cuttingsimulations with reasonable cost. The length scale associated with the nonlocalmodels are in the current context considered as a numericalregularization parameter. The model has been applied in machiningsimulations and compared with measurements from industry.Keywords: Finite element simulation; Non-local damage; Plasticity; Machining

  • 24.
    Abiri, Olufunminiyi
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Simplifications of non-local damage models2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Ductile fracture presents challenges with respect to material modelling and numerical simulations of localization. The strain and damage localization may be unwanted as it indicates a failure in the process or, as in the case of machining and cutting, a wanted phenomenon to be controlled. The latter requires a higher accuracy regarding the modelling of the underlying coupled plastic and fracturing/damage behaviour of the material, metal in the current context as well as the robustness of the simulation procedure. The focus of this thesis is on efficient and reliable finite element solution of the localization problem through the non-local damage model. The non-local damage model extends the standard continuum mechanics theory by using non-local continuum theory in order to achieve mesh independent results when simulating fracture or shear localization. In this work, the non-local damage model and its various simplifications are evaluated in an in-house finite element code developed using Matlab™. The accuracy, robustness, efficiency and costs of the models are investigated and also compared to a general multi-length scale finite element formulation. A numerical study versus published data is used to demonstrate the validity of the model. The explicit non-local damage variant will be implemented in a commercial finite element code for use in machining simulation

  • 25.
    Abiri, Olufunminiyi
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Non-local damage models in manufacturing simulations2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Localisation of deformation is a problem in several manufacturing processes. Machining is an exception where it is a wanted feature. However, it is always a problem in finite element modelling of these processes due to mesh sensitivity of the computed results. The remedy is to incorporate a length scale into the numerical formulations in order to achieve convergent solutions. Different simplifications in the implementation of a non-local damage model are evaluated with respect to temporal and spatial discretisation to show the effect of different approximations on accuracy and convergence.

  • 26.
    Abiri, Olufunminiyi
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Non-local damage models in manufacturing simulations2015Inngår i: European journal of mechanics. A, Solids, ISSN 0997-7538, E-ISSN 1873-7285, Vol. 49, 548-560 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Localisation of deformation is a problem in several manufacturing processes. Machining is an exception where it is a wanted feature. However, it is always a problem in finite element modelling of these processes due to mesh sensitivity of the computed results. The remedy is to incorporate a length scale into the numerical formulations in order to achieve convergent solutions. Different simplifications in the implementation of a non-local damage model are evaluated with respect to temporal and spatial discretisation to show the effect of different approximations on accuracy and convergence.

  • 27.
    Abiri, Olufunminiyi
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Qin, Hao
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Comparison of Multiresolution Continuum Theory and Nonlocal Dame model for use in Simulation of Manufacutring Processes2016Inngår i: International Journal for Multiscale Computational Engineering, ISSN 1543-1649, Vol. 14, nr 1, 81-94 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling and simulation of manufacturing processes may require the capability to account for localization behavior, often associated with damage/fracture. It may be unwanted localization indicating a failure in the process or, as in the case of machining and cutting, a wanted phenomenon to be controlled. The latter requires a higher accuracy regarding the modelling of the underlying physics, as well as the robustness of the simulation procedure. Two different approaches for achieving mesh-independent solutions are compared in this paper. They are the multiresolution continuum theory (MRCT) and nonlocal damage model. The MRCT theory is a general multilength-scale finite element formulation, while the nonlocal damage model is a specialized method using a weighted averaging of softening internal variables over a spatial neighborhood of the material point. Both approaches result in a converged finite element solution of the localization problem upon mesh refinement. This study compares the accuracy and robustness of their numerical schemes in implicit finite element codes for the plane strain shear deformation test case. Final remarks concerning ease of implementation of the methods in commercial finite element packages are also given.

  • 28.
    Abiri, Olufunminiyi
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik. University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Svoboda, Ales
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Wedberg, Dan
    Controlling Thermal Softening Using Non-Local Temperature Field in Modelling2016Inngår i: Journal of Machining and Forming Technologies, ISSN 1947-4369, Vol. 8, nr 1-2, 13-28 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the aims of this work is to show that thermal softening due to the reduced flow strength of a material with increasing temperature may cause chip serrations to form during machining. The other purpose, the main focus of the paper, is to demonstrate that a non-local temperature field can be used to control these serrations. The non-local temperature is a weighted average of the temperature field in the region surrounding an integration point. Its size is determined by a length scale. This length scale may be based on the physics of the process but is taken here as a regularization parameter.

  • 29.
    Abiri, Olufunminiyi
    et al.
    Institute of Intelligent Systems, University of Johannesburg.
    Wedberg, Dan
    AB Sandvik Coromant.
    Svoboda, Ales
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Non-Local Modelling of Strain Softening in Machining Simulations2017Inngår i: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981, E-ISSN 1757-899X, Vol. 225, 012053Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-local damage model for strain softening in a machining simulation is presented in this paper. The coupled damage-plasticity model consists of a physically based dislocation density model and a damage model driven by plastic straining in combination with the stress state. The predicted chip serration is highly consistent with the measurement results. 

  • 30.
    Abou Nada, Fahed
    et al.
    Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Combustion Physics, Box 118, Lund, Swede.
    Lantz, Andreas
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Larfeldt, Jenny
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för avverkande och additativa tillverkningsprocesser (AAT).
    Alden, Marcus
    Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Combustion Physics, Box 118, Lund, Swede.
    Richter, Mattias
    Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Combustion Physics, Box 118, Lund, Swede.
    Remote temperature sensing on and beneath atmospheric plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings using thermographic phosphors2016Inngår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 302, 359-367 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations on remote temperature sensing of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) at the surface and at the bond-coat/top-coat interface were carried out. Using Y2O3:Eu thermographic phosphor as an embedded temperature sensing layer, sub-surface temperature probing through 300 mu m of atmospheric plasma sprayed YSZ is demonstrated. The Y2O3:Eu thermographic phosphor displays a temperature sensitivity ranging between 400 degrees C up to a maximum of 900 degrees C when utilizing the luminescence originating from the 611 nm emission band. Dysprosium stabilized zirconia (10 wt.% DySZ), a TBC material, is also investigated and established as a temperature sensor from 400 degrees C up to a temperature of 1000 degrees C using both the intensity decay time and emission intensity ratio methods. In addition, the luminescence of presumed optically inactive YSZ materials was spectroscopically investigated in terms of optical interferences caused by impurities. A validation temperature probing measurement through 300 mu m of YSZ top-coat was successfully performed in a SGT-800 Siemens burner running at six different operating conditions in an atmospheric combustion rig. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 31.
    Abouzari, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Solid solution strengthening effect on creep strength of austenitic stainless steel2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Sanicro 25 is a newly developed austenitic stainless steel, designed for the next generation of Ultrasupercritical coal-fired boilers in electrical power plants. This material is applicable in reheater and superheater tubes, where the material temperature is up to 700

    °C. One of the main strengthening mechanisms in high temperature materials is solid solution strengthening. A combination of this mechanism and precipitation hardening, promotes creep strength of heat resistance materials. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of solid solution strengthening on creep strength of Sanicro 25.Previous works has been done for effects of phosphorous in copper and also for influence of laves phase on the creep properties of CrMo alloys. The results of these two works are used and the model is adapted to austenitic stainless steel. First a Zero starting state was defined which was Alloy 316H and then the calculation was made for Sanicro 25. Thermodynamic calculations were made using DICTRA and Thermo-Calc. Elastic misfit parameter was determined using ab initio calculations. The results from the simulation in this work indicate that solutes with larger size misfit compare to the parent atoms have better solid solution strengthening effect. A decrease in the creep strength by increasing temperature has been observed which could be attributed to growth of laves phase.

  • 32.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Rask, Kjell
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Fältholm, Ylva
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Projekt: LUPO - globala länkar2010Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 33.
    Abramov, A.A.
    et al.
    Moscow State Mining University, Moscow.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Chemistry and optimal conditions for copper minerals flotation: theory and practice2005Inngår i: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review, ISSN 0882-7508, E-ISSN 1547-7401, Vol. 26, nr 2, 77-143 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable information on the surface state of sulphide copper minerals and regularities of sulphidization and flotation of oxidized copper minerals, the composition of sorption layer on the mineral surface forming during its interaction with xanthate or dixanthogen, and the influence of collector forms sorption on the copper minerals floatability and on the optimal conditions for these minerals flotation and depression has been obtained at present. The determined physicochemical models in the form of quantitative equations have been derived for the optimal conditions of flotation and depression of copper minerals under changing pH value and of sodium sulphide, lime, cyanide, zinc–cyanide complexes additions. The equations derived were proven in the laboratory and industrial scale and can be used both in automatic control systems at plants and for improvement of technological processes of selective flotation of copper containing ores.

  • 34.
    Abrikosov, Igor A.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Steneteg, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultberg, Lasse
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hellman, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yu Mosyagin, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Department of Theoretical Physics and Quantum Technologies, National Research, Technological University MISiS, Moscow, Russia.
    Lugovskoy, Andrey V.
    Department of Theoretical Physics and Quantum Technologies, National Research, Technological University MISiS, Russia.
    Barannikova, Svetlana A.
    Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia; Department of Physics and Engineering, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Finite Temperature, Magnetic, and Many-Body Effects in Ab Initio Simulations of Alloy Thermodynamics2013Inngår i: TMS2013 Supplemental Proceedings, John Wiley & Sons, 2013, 617-626 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ab initio electronic structure theory is known as a useful tool for prediction of materials properties. However, majority of simulations still deal with calculations in the framework of density functional theory with local or semi-local functionals carried out at zero temperature. We present new methodological solution.s, which go beyond this approach and explicitly take finite temperature, magnetic, and many-body effects into account. Considering Ti-based alloys, we discuss !imitations of the quasiharmonic approximation for the treatment of lattice vibrations, and present an accurate and easily extendable method to calculate free ,energies of strongly anharmonic solids. We underline the necessity to going beyond the state-of-the-art techniques for the determination of effective cluster interactions in systems exhibiting mctal-to-insulator transition, and describe a unified cluster expansion approach developed for this class of materials. Finally, we outline a first-principles method, disordered local moments molecular dynamics, for calculations of thermodynamic properties of magnetic alloys, like Cr1-x,.AlxN, in their high-temperature paramagnetic state. Our results unambiguously demonstrate importance of finite temperature effects in theoretical calculations ofthermodynamic properties ofmaterials.

  • 35.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Knutsson, Axel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tasnádi, Ferenc
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lind, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Phase Stability and Elasticity of TiAlN2011Inngår i: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 4, nr 9, 1599-1618 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We review results of recent combined theoretical and experimental studies of Ti1−xAlxN, an archetypical alloy system material for hard-coating applications. Theoretical simulations of lattice parameters, mixing enthalpies, and elastic properties are presented. Calculated phase diagrams at ambient pressure, as well as at pressure of 10 GPa, show a wide miscibility gap and broad region of compositions and temperatures where the spinodal decomposition takes place. The strong dependence of the elastic properties and sound wave anisotropy on the Al-content offers detailed understanding of the spinodal decomposition and age hardening in Ti1−xAlxN alloy films and multilayers. TiAlN/TiN multilayers can further improve the hardness and thermal stability compared to TiAlN since they offer means to influence the kinetics of the favorable spinodal decomposition and suppress the detrimental transformation to w-AlN. Here, we show that a 100 degree improvement in terms of w-AlN suppression can be achieved, which is of importance when the coating is used as a protective coating on metal cutting inserts.

  • 36. Absil, Olivier
    et al.
    Mawet, Dimitri
    Delacroix, Christian
    Forsberg, Pontus
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad materialvetenskap.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad materialvetenskap.
    Habraken, Serge
    Surdej, Jean
    Absil, Pierre-Antoine
    Carlomagno, Brunella
    Christiaens, Valentin
    Defrere, Denis
    Gonzalez, Carlos Gomez
    Huby, Elsa
    Jolivet, Aissa
    Milli, Julien
    Piron, Pierre
    Catalan, Ernesto Vargas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad materialvetenskap.
    Van Droogenbroeck, Marc
    The VORTEX project: first results and perspectives2014Inngår i: Adaptive Optics Systems IV, 2014, 91480MKonferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vortex coronagraphs are among the most promising solutions to perform high contrast imaging at small angular separations from bright stars. They feature a very small inner working angle (down to the diffraction limit of the telescope), a clear 360 degree discovery space, have demonstrated very high contrast capabilities, are easy to implement on high-contrast imaging instruments, and have already been extensively tested on the sky. Since 2005, we have been designing, developing and testing an implementation of the charge-2 vector vortex phase mask based on concentric sub-wavelength gratings, referred to as the Annular Groove Phase Mask (AGPM). Science-grade mid-infrared AGPMs were produced in 2012 for the first time, using plasma etching on synthetic diamond substrates. They have been validated on a coronagraphic test bench, showing broadband peak rejection up to 500: 1 in the L band, which translates into a raw contrast of about 6 x 10(-5) at 2 lambda/D. Three of them have now been installed on world-leading diffraction-limited infrared cameras, namely VLT/NACO, VLT/VISIR and LBT/LMIRCam. During the science verification observations with our L-band AGPM on NACO, we observed the beta Pictoris system and obtained unprecedented sensitivity limits to planetary companions down to the diffraction limit (0 : 1 0 0). More recently, we obtained new images of the HR 8799 system at L band during the AGPM first light on LMIRCam. After reviewing these first results obtained with mid-infrared AGPMs, we will discuss the short-and mid-term goals of the on-going VORTEX project, which aims to improve the performance of our vortex phase masks for future applications on second-generation high-contrast imager and on future extremely large telescopes (ELTs). In particular, we will briefly describe our current efforts to improve the manufacturing of mid-infrared AGPMs, to push their operation to shorter wavelengths, and to provide deeper starlight extinction by creating new designs for higher topological charge vortices. Within the VORTEX project, we also plan to develop new image processing techniques tailored to coronagraphic images, and to study some pre- and post-coronagraphic concepts adapted to the vortex coronagraph in order to reduce scattered starlight in the final images.

  • 37.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Ji, Guangchao
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Rödby, Kristian
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Björlin, Anders
    Kiwok AB.
    Östlund, Anders
    Kiwok AB.
    Seoane, Fernando
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd. KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Textile-Electronic Integration in Wearable Measurement Garments for Pervasive Healthcare Monitoring2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system.
    Ji, Guangchao
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system.
    Rödby, Kristian
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Björlin, Anders
    Kiwok AB.
    Östlund, Anders
    Kiwok AB.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system. Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system.
    Textile-Electronic Integration in Wearable Measurement Garments for Pervasive Healthcare Monitoring2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Guangchao, Li
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Rödby, Kristian
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Seoane, Fernando
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd. KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    A Knitted Garment using Intarsia Technique for Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback: Evaluation of Initial Prototype.2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 40.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system.
    Guangchao, Li
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system.
    Rödby, Kristian
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system. Högskolan i Borås.
    A Knitted Garment using Intarsia Technique for Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback: Evaluation of Initial Prototype.2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 41. Abylaev, Mansur
    Kyrgyz textile companies’ resilience features in the post-Soviet regionalization processes2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kyrgyz textile industry is a fast growing sector since the last decade. The combination of international market conjuncture and low input factors were the main reasons for the development of the textile sector. Legal and political modification of the international trade system is a risk for the whole industry's resilience. The purpose of the paper is to identify the vulnerable points of doing business in the context of economic transformation from planned Soviet to free market economy.

  • 42. Acciaro, R.
    et al.
    Aulin, C.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wågberg, L.
    Lindström, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Claesson, P.M.
    Varga, I.
    Investigation of the formation structure and release characteristics of self-assembled composite films of cellulose nanofibrils and temperature responsive microgels2011Inngår i: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, nr 4, 1369-1377 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 43.
    Achtel, Christian
    et al.
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB. Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Kosan, Birgit
    Thuringian Institute of Textile and Plastics Research (TITK), Germany.
    Seoud, Omar. A.El
    University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Heinze, Thomas
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Dissolution capacity of novel cellulose solvents based on triethyloctylammonium chloride2017Inngår i: Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 1022-1352, E-ISSN 1521-3935, Vol. 218, nr 21, 1700208Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolution of cellulose from various sources (microcrystalline cellulose and different dissolving grade pulp fibers) is investigated in solvent systems based on triethyl(n-octyl)ammonium chloride (N2228Cl). Clear cellulose solutions are obtained with N2228Cl in a variety of solvents, e.g., dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, and acetone. It is possible to prepare clear cellulose solutions from pulp fibers with concentrations up to 15 wt%. However, it is found that the cellulose is degraded, especially when neat (i.e., molten) N2228Cl is used as a solvent. The present work includes comprehensive rheological characterization of the cellulose solutions, both with shear and extensional rheology. In most cases, the viscosity values are low (complex viscosities below 100 Pa s for 5–10 wt% dissolved cellulose), and the solutions show more Newtonian than viscoelastic behavior. 

  • 44. Ackland, G. J.
    et al.
    Hepburn, D. J.
    Wallenius, Janne
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Reaktorfysik.
    Interatomic forces for transition metals including magnetism2010Inngår i: 139th Annual Meeting & Exhibition - Supplemental Proceedings, Vol 2: Materials Characterization, Computation And Modeling And Energy, 2010, 85-92 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a formalism for extending the second moment tight-binding model[1], incorporating ferro- and anti-ferromagnetic interaction terms which are needed for the FeCr system. For antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic materials, an explicit additional variable representing the spin is required. In a mean-field approximation this spin can be eliminated. and the potential becomes explicitly temperature dependent. For ferromagnetic interactions, this degree of freedom can be eliminated, and the formalism reduces to the embedded atom method (EAM[2]), and we show the equivalence of existing EAM potentials to "magnetic" Potentials.

  • 45.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Greece.
    Fiber analysis techniques for sustainable manufacturing of corrugated board and packaging2006Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2006 Naxos International Conference on Sustainable Management and Development of Mountainous and Island Areas: 29th September - 1st October 2006, Island of Naxos, Greece / [ed] Evangelos I. Manolas, Democritus University of Thrace , 2006, Vol. 1, 1-9 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental – economic pressure and associated regulations have led to a significant increase of recycled paper as the main fibrous component of corrugated board the last years. Corrugating packaging industry is facing the challenge to enhance products derived from recycled pulp and to ensure a satisfactory strength of packages. Advanced techniques are highly needed for the evaluation of packaging fiber supply sources as well as for the utilization of the available resources in an optimal manner. As industrial packaging is based on the characteristics of its constituent fibers, information on the fiber composition of the recycled raw materials is of primary importance for a continual control of fiber sources. This paper reports on the usefulness of fiber analysis techniques as diagnostic methods for assessing the potential quality distribution of fibers for sustainable packaging manufacturing.

  • 46.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    AIDIMA, Spain.
    Identification of Fibre Components in Packaging Grade Papers2006Inngår i: IAWA Journal, ISSN 0928-1541, Vol. 27, nr 2, 153-172 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental and economic issues have led to a significant increase of recycled paper as the main fibrous component of corrugated board the last years. Qualitative data on the different fibre types are needed for the evaluation of packaging fibre supply sources, which are becoming numerous and heterogeneous. Fifteen different packaging grade papers (7 linerboards and 8 corrugating medium) were selected to represent all the variety of papers available on the Spanish market. The origin of virgin and recycled fibres was identified by their morphological characteristics employing light microscopy and standard fibre analysis techniques. The waste-based papers (Waste based-liners and Fluting), Kraft-liners and Test-liner were highly variable containing 9–18 different wood and nonwood components. Semi-chemical, with 5–13 components, was the less variable grade. Hardwoods were identified as the most important fibre component from a quantitative standpoint. All papers contained in their hardwood mix Betula, Eucalyptus and Populus in significant amounts. Fagus sylvatica and Tilia were also frequently observed and in some papers were amongst major hardwood components. Prominent softwood components were found to be Pinus sylvestris, P. pinaster, P. radiata, Picea, Larix and in some papers Pinus nigra. The lower presence of a variety of softwood, hardwood and nonwood (mainly grasses) species and genera was due to the paper recycling process.

  • 47.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Morphology, properties and recyclability of modified fibres and papers with different chemicals at laboratory, pilot plant and industrial trials2015Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 48. Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Quality control of packaging fiber sources2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 49. Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Quantification of softwood, hardwood and nonwood fibres in packaging grade papers2006Inngår i: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 5, nr 3, 27-32 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study determined percentages by weight of the fiber components in 15 papers commonly used to produce corrugating packaging in Spain. The papers are manufactured mainly from recycled raw materials. The percentages were determined by means of standard quantitative fiber analysis techniques and use of appropriate weight factors. Hardwoods were the major fiber component in all papers, except kraft liners, varying from 51% to 92% per weight. Kraft liners had greater softwood content (49%-69%)than hardwood, and the most plentiful softwood classes were pines. Douglas-fir was a contaminating fiber component (weight percentage less than 2%) in almost in every paper. Nonwood fibers, entering the papers through the recycling process, were a significant fiber component (2%-9%) in most of the papers, especially the waste-based papers (liners and flutings). Quantitative fiber composition reflects the differences in quality between the papers. Its usefulness could be further explored in the quality control of paper manufacturing for packaging.

    Application: Packaging grade papers incorporate a variety of wood and nonwood fiber types. Manufacturing of papers of consistent and acceptable quality requires knowledge concerning the quantity of each fiber used.

  • 50.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    TEI Thessaly, Greece.
    Recovery and utilization of wood and rubber at the end of their lifespan to produce innovative products2014Inngår i: Development and Business Prospects in Thessaly by Symbiotic Utilization of Agricultural and Industrial Solid Waste to Produce Materials and Energy, November 24, Larissa, Greece, 2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
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