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  • 1.
    Aare, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Farkost- och flygteknik.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Farkost- och flygteknik.
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Farkost- och flygteknik.
    Injury tolerances for oblique impact helmet testing2004Inngår i: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 9, nr 1, 15-23 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The most frequently sustained severe injuries in motorcycle crashes are injuries to the head, and many of these are caused by rotational force. Rotational force is most commonly the result of oblique impacts to the head. Good testing methods for evaluating the effects of such impacts are currently lacking. There is also a need for improving our understanding of the effects of oblique impacts on the human head. Helmet standards currently in use today do not measure rotational effects in test dummy heads. However rotational force to the head results in large shear strains arising in the brain, which has been proposed as a cause of traumatic brain injuries like diffuse axonal injuries (DAI). This paper investigates a number of well-defined impacts, simulated using a detailed finite element (FE) model of the human head, an FE model of the Hybrid III dummy head and an FE model of a helmet. The same simulations were performed on both the FE human head model and the FE Hybrid III head model, both fitted with helmets. Simulations on both these heads were performed to describe the relationship between load levels in the FE Hybrid III head model and strains in the brain tissue in the FE human head model. In this study, the change in rotational velocity and the head injury criterion (HIC) value were chosen as appropriate measurements. It was concluded that both rotational and translational effects are important when predicting the strain levels in the human brain.

  • 2.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    Sharif university of Technology, Iran.
    A feasibilty study to establish freight cars overhaul center (Master thesis), Sharif university of technology2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
  • 3. Abbasi, Saeed
    Implementing theory of constraint in choosing six sigma project2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Non-exhaust Nano particle emission in Rail traffic2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Moslemi, Kianoush
    A new approach for optimization of heating system in tank wagons2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Installationsteknik.
    Larsson, Christina
    Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Tribologi.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    A field test study of airborne wear particles from a running regional train2012Inngår i: IMechE, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, ISSN 0954-4097, Vol. 226, nr 1, 95-109 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Inhalable airborne particles have inverse health affect. In railways, mechanical brakes, the wheel–rail contact, current collectors, ballast, sleepers, and masonry structures yield particulate matter. Field tests examined a Swedish track using a train instrumented with particle measurement devices, brake pad temperature sensors, and speed and brake sensors. The main objective of this field test was to study the characteristics of particles generated from disc brakes on a running train with an on-board measuring set-up.

    Two airborne particle sampling points were designated, one near a pad–rotor disc brake contact and a second under the frame, not near a mechanical brake or the wheel–rail contact; the numbers and size distributions of the particles detected were registered and evaluated under various conditions (e.g. activating/deactivating electrical brakes or negotiating curves). During braking, three speed/temperature-dependent particle peaks were identified in the fine region, representing particles 280 nm, 350 nm, and 600 nm in diameter. In the coarse region, a peak was discerned for particles 3–6 μm in diameter. Effects of brake pad temperature on particle size distribution were also investigated. Results indicate that the 280 nm peak increased with increasing temperature, and that electrical braking significantly reduced airborne particle numbers. FESEM images captured particles sizing down to 50 nm. The ICP-MS results indicated that Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Ca, and Mg were the main elements constituting the particles.

     

  • 7.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement. Department of Mechanical engineering, Golpayegan University of Technology.
    Teimourimanesh, Shahab
    Chalmers.
    Vernersson, Tore
    Chalmers.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Lunden, Roger
    Chalmers.
    Temperature and Thermoelastic Instability at Tread Braking Using Cast Iron Friction Material2013Inngår i: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 314, nr 1–2, 171-180 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Braking events in railway traffic often induce high frictional heating and thermoelastic instability (TEI) at the interfacing surfaces. In the present paper, two approaches are adopted to analyse the thermomechanical interaction in a pin-on-disc experimental study of railway braking materials. In a first part, the thermal problem is studied to find the heat partitioning between pin and disc motivated by the fact that wear mechanisms can be explained with a better understanding of the prevailing thermal conditions. The numerical model is calibrated using the experimental results. In a second part, the frictionally induced thermoelastic instabilities at the pin-disc contact are studied using a numerical method and comparing them with the phenomena observed in the experiments. The effects of temperature on material properties and on material wear are considered. It is found from the thermal analysis that the pin temperature and the heat flux to the pin increase with increasing disc temperatures up to a transition stage. This agrees with the behaviour found in the experiments. Furthermore, the thermoelastic analysis displays calculated pressure and the temperature distributions at the contact interface that are in agreement with the hot spot behaviour observed in the experiments.

  • 8.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Järnvägsgruppen, JVG.
    Teimourimanesh, Shahab
    Chalmers.
    Vernersson, Tore
    Chalmers.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Järnvägsgruppen, JVG.
    Lunden, Roger
    Chalmers.
    Temperature and thermo-elastic instability of tread braking friction materials2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Abbaszadeh Shahri, Abbas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Jord- och bergmekanik.
    Updated relations for the uniaxial compressive strength of marlstones based on P-wave velocity and point load index test2016Inngår i: INNOVATIVE INFRASTRUCTURE SOLUTIONS, ISSN 2364-4176, Vol. 1, nr 1, UNSP 17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there are many proposed relations for different rock types to predict the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) as a function of P-wave velocity (V-P) and point load index (Is), only a few of them are focused on marlstones. However, these studies have limitations in applicability since they are mainly based on local studies. In this paper, an attempt is therefore made to present updated relations for two previous proposed correlations for marlstones in Iran. The modification process is executed through multivariate regression analysis techniques using a provided comprehensive database for marlstones in Iran, including UCS, V-P and Is from publications and validated relevant sources comprising 119 datasets. The accuracy, appropriateness and applicability of the obtained modifications were tested by means of different statistical criteria and graph analyses. The conducted comparison between updated and previous proposed relations highlighted better applicability in the prediction of UCS using the updated correlations introduced in this study. However, the derived updated predictive models are dependent on rock types and test conditions, as they are in this study.

  • 10.
    Abed, Kason
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Hållfasthetslära (Inst.).
    FEM-analys av torkapparat2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 11.
    Abiri, Olufunminiyi
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik. University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Svoboda, Ales
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Wedberg, Dan
    Controlling Thermal Softening Using Non-Local Temperature Field in Modelling2016Inngår i: Journal of Machining and Forming Technologies, ISSN 1947-4369, Vol. 8, nr 1-2, 13-28 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the aims of this work is to show that thermal softening due to the reduced flow strength of a material with increasing temperature may cause chip serrations to form during machining. The other purpose, the main focus of the paper, is to demonstrate that a non-local temperature field can be used to control these serrations. The non-local temperature is a weighted average of the temperature field in the region surrounding an integration point. Its size is determined by a length scale. This length scale may be based on the physics of the process but is taken here as a regularization parameter.

  • 12.
    Abiri, Olufunminiyi
    et al.
    Institute of Intelligent Systems, University of Johannesburg.
    Wedberg, Dan
    AB Sandvik Coromant.
    Svoboda, Ales
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Non-Local Modelling of Strain Softening in Machining Simulations2017Inngår i: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981, E-ISSN 1757-899X, Vol. 225, 012053Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-local damage model for strain softening in a machining simulation is presented in this paper. The coupled damage-plasticity model consists of a physically based dislocation density model and a damage model driven by plastic straining in combination with the stress state. The predicted chip serration is highly consistent with the measurement results. 

  • 13. Achani, D.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    Hopperstad, O.S.
    Lademo, O.-G.
    Modelling of local necking and fracture in aluminium alloys2007Inngår i: Materials processing and design : modeling, simulation and applications ; NUMIFORM '07: proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Industrial Forming Processes, Porto, Portugal, 17 - 21 June 2007 / [ed] J.M.A. Cesar de Sa; Abel D. Santos, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2007, 111-116 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Adelholt, Martin
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Hydra Coupler: Snabbkoppling till protessystem2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Många amputerade upplever att deras protessystem inte är lika anpassningsbara som de hoppats på. Dagens protes­system är utformade med låsta komponenter vilket begrän­sar användarens möjlighet att anpassa systemen till specifika ändamål. Därför påbörjades ett projekt med målet att under­söka om det finns möjlighet att skapa en snabbkoppling till protessystem genom att framställa ett konstruktionsförslag av ett lösningsalternativ. I starten av projektet påbörjades en problemformulering för att undersöka om problemen uppvisade några beroenden eller påverkade andra poster inom det framställda flödesschemat. Efter genomförd problemformulering påbörjades förstudierna för att samla in relevant information till genomförandet av projektet, där förstudien genomfördes med hjälp av en konkurrensanalys, funktionsanalys och enkätundersökning. Efter att förstudien var avklarad påbörjades en designprocess för att framställa ett konstruktionsförslag av ett lösningsförslag. Under designprocessens start formulerades en kravspecifikation så att konstruktionsförslaget hade något att förhålla sig till, och sedan påbörjades modelleringen av ett konstruktionsförslag med hjälp av Solidworks. En prototyp framställdes i plast med hjälp av en 3D- printer för att kontrollera passform av ingående komponenter och slutligen så undersöktes konstruktionsförslagets hållfasthet i Solidworks med hjälp av hållfasthetssimuleringar. Genomförandet av projektet har resulterat i en framställning av konstruktionsmaterial, prototyp, konstruktionsritningar till ett konstruktionsförslag av en snabbkoppling till protessystem. Konstruktionsförslaget kallat Hydra Coupler förser protesanvändare med möjligheten att enkelt byta proteskomponenter efter ändamål utan behov av externa verktyg, och Hydra Coupler kan även inneslutas av kosmetik utan att förlora funktionalitet.

  • 15. Adolfsson, E
    et al.
    Gudmundson, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Hållfasthetslära (Inst.).
    Matrix crack closure effects on the thermoelastic properties of [(0/90/+q/-q)s]M composite laminates1994Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16. Adolfsson, Vilhelm
    et al.
    Goldberg, Max
    Jawerth, Björna
    Lennerstad, Håkan
    Localized Galerkin Estimates for Boundary Integral Equations on Lipschitz Domanis1992Inngår i: SIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis, Vol. 5, nr 23, 751-764 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Galerkin method is studied for solving the boundary integral equations associated with the Laplace operator on nonsmooth domains. Convergence is established with a condition on the meshsize, which involves the local curvature on certain approximating domains. Error estimates are also proved, and the results are generalized to systems of equations.

  • 17.
    Afshar, Reza
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad mekanik.
    Alavyoon, Navid
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Mikrosystemteknik.
    Ahlgren, Anders
    Swedish National Maritime Museums, the Vasa Museum.
    van Dijk, Nico P.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad mekanik.
    Vorobyev, Alexey
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad mekanik.
    Gamstedt, Kristofer
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad mekanik.
    A full-scale finite-element model of the Vasa ship2017Inngår i: Proceedings of ECCOMAS Thematic Conference CompWood 2017: Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A full-scale model of the 17th century Vasa shipwreck has been developed to assess its current and future structural stability as well as design an improved support structure. A wireframe model, consisting of only lines, points and curves to describe the geometry of the ship, has been provided by the Vasa museum. It has been developed based on geodetic measurements using a total station. From this wireframe model, a three-dimensional (3D) model comprising solid bodies for solid-like parts (i.e. hull and keel), surfaces for the shell-like components (deck planks) and lines for beam-like constituents (deck beams) has been developed in Creo Parametric 3D software. This geometric model has been imported in finite-element software, Ansys, for further development of the stiffeners (knees, riders, stanchions, masts, etc.), adjustment of the correct location of deck beams and, finally, structural analyses of the entire ship (Figure 1). The procedure for selection of the different types of elements in the finite-element (FE) model, the definition of orthotropic material properties for the timber structure and preliminary results are discussed in this paper. Experiences drawn from this engineering project may also be useful in development of finite element models for structural assessment of other complex wooden structures in cultural heritage.

  • 18.
    Afzal, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Strukturakustik.
    Numerical modelling and analysis of friction contact for turbine blades2015Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    High cycle fatigue failure of turbine and compressor blades due to resonance in the operating frequency range is one of the main problems in the design of gas turbine engines. To suppress excessive vibrations in the blades and prevent high cycle fatigue, dry friction dampers are used by the engine manufacturers. However, due to the nonlinear nature of friction contact, analysis of such systems becomes complicated.

    This work focuses on the numerical modelling of friction contact and a 3D friction contact model is developed. To reduce the computation time in the Newton-iteration steps, a method to compute the Jacobian matrix in parallel to the contact forces is proposed. The developed numerical scheme is successfully applied on turbine blades with shroud contact having an arbitrary 3D relative displacement. The equations of motion are formulated in the frequency domain using the multiharmonic balance method to accurately capture the nonlinear contact forces and displacements. Moreover, the equations of motion of the full turbine blade model are reduced to a single sector model by exploiting the concept of the cyclic symmetry boundary condition for a periodic structure.

    The developed 3D coupled numerical contact model is compared with a 3D contact model having uncoupled tangential motion and drawback of the uncoupled contact model is discussed. Furthermore, presence of higher harmonics in the nonlinear contact forces is analyzed and their effect on the excitation of the different harmonic indices (nodal diameters) of the bladed disk are systematically presented. Moreover, due to the quasi-analytical computation of the Jacobian matrix, the developed scheme is proved to be effective in solving the equations of motion and significant reduction in time is achieved without loss of accuracy.

     

     

     

  • 19.
    Afzal, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Marcus Wallenberg Laboratoriet. KTH.
    On efficient and adaptive modelling of friction damping in bladed disks2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on efficient modelling and adaptive control of friction damping in bladed disks. To efficiently simulate the friction contact, a full-3D time-discrete contact model is reformulated and an analytical expression for the Jacobian matrix is derived that reduces the computation time drastically with respect to the classical finite difference method. The developed numerical solver is applied on bladed disks with shroud contact and the advantage of full-3D contact model compared to a quasi-3D contact model is presented. The developed numerical solver is also applied on bladed disks with strip damper and multiple friction contacts and obtained results are discussed. Furthermore, presence of higher harmonics in the nonlinear contact forces is analyzed and their effect on the excitation of the different nodal diameters of the bladed disk are systematically presented. The main parameters that influence the effectiveness of friction damping in bladed disks are engine excitation order,  contact stiffnesses,  friction coefficient, relative motion at the friction interface and the normal contact load. Due to variation in these parameters during operation, the obtained friction damping in practice may differ from the optimum value. Therefore, to control the normal load adaptively that will lead to an optimum damping in the system despite these variations, use of magnetostrictive actuator is proposed. The magnetostrictive material that develops an internal strain under the influence of an external magnetic field is employed to increase and decrease the normal contact load. A linearized model of the magnetostrictive actuator is used to characterize the magnetoelastic behavior of the actuator.  A nonlinear static contact analysis of the bladed disk reveals that a change of normal load more than 700 N can be achieved using a reasonable size of the actuator. This will give a very good control on friction damping once applied in practice.

  • 20.
    Afzal, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Strukturakustik. kth.
    Lopez Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Strukturakustik. Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands.
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Strukturakustik.
    A formulation of the Jacobian matrixfor 3D numerical friction contact model applied to turbine blade shroud contactInngår i: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytical expression is formulated to compute the Jacobian matrix for 3D friction contact modelling that eciently evaluates the matrix while computing the friction contact forces in the time domain by means of the alternate frequency time domain approach. The developed expression is successfully used for thecalculation of the friction damping on a turbine blade with shroud contact interface having an arbitrary 3Drelative displacement. The analytical expression drastically reduces the computation time of the Jacobian matrix with respect to the classical finite dierence method, with many points at the contact interface. Therefore,it also significantly reduces the overall computation time for the solution of the equations of motion,since the formulation of the Jacobian matrix is the most time consuming step in solving the large set of nonlinear algebraic equations when a finite dierence approach is employed. The equations of motion are formulated in the frequency domain using the multiharmonic balance method to accurately capture the nonlinear contact forces and displacements. Moreover, the equations of motion of the full turbine blade model are reduced to a single sector model by exploiting the concept of cyclic symmetry boundary condition for aperiodic structure. Implementation of the developed scheme in solving the equations of motion is proved to be effective and significant reduction in time is achieved without loss of accuracy.

  • 21.
    Afzal, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Marcus Wallenberg Laboratoriet.
    Lopez Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Marcus Wallenberg Laboratoriet.
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Marcus Wallenberg Laboratoriet.
    An analytical calculation of the Jacobian matrix for 3D friction contact model applied to turbine blade shroud contact2016Inngår i: Computers & structures, ISSN 0045-7949, E-ISSN 1879-2243, Vol. 177, 204-217 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytical expression is formulated to compute the Jacobian matrix for 3D friction contact modeling that efficiently evaluates the matrix while computing the friction contact forces in the time domain by means of the alternate frequency time domain approach. The developed expression is successfully used for the calculation of the friction damping on a turbine blade with shroud contact interface having an arbitrary 3D relative displacement. The analytical expression drastically reduces the computation time of the Jacobian matrix with respect to the classical finite difference method, with many points at the contact interface. Therefore, it also significantly reduces the overall computation time for the solution of the equations of motion, since the formulation of the Jacobian matrix is the most time consuming step in solving the large set of nonlinear algebraic equations when a finite difference approach is employed. The equations of motion are formulated in the frequency domain using the multiharmonic balance method to accurately capture the nonlinear contact forces and displacements. Moreover, the equations of motion of the full turbine blade model are reduced to a single sector model by exploiting the concept of cyclic symmetry boundary condition for a periodic structure. Implementation of the developed scheme in solving the equations of motion is proved to be effective and significant reduction in time is achieved without loss of accuracy.

  • 22.
    Afzal, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Marcus Wallenberg Laboratoriet.
    Lopez-Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Marcus Wallenberg Laboratoriet.
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Marcus Wallenberg Laboratoriet.
    Adaptive control of normal load at the friction interface of bladed disks using giant magnetostrictive materialInngår i: Journal of Vibration and Control, ISSN 1077-5463, E-ISSN 1741-2986Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel application of magnetostrictive actuators in underplatform dampers of bladed disks is proposed for adaptive control of the normal load at the friction interface in order to achieve the desired friction damping in the structure. Friction damping in a bladed disk depends on many parameters such as rotational speed, engine excitation order, nodal diameter, contact stiffness, friction coefficient and normal contact load. However, all these parameters have a fixed value at an operating point. On the other hand, the ability to vary some of these parameters such as the normal contact load is desirable in order to obtain an optimum damping in the bladed disk at different operating conditions. Under the influence of an external magnetic field, magnetostrictive materials develop an internal strain that can be exploited to vary the normal contact load at the friction interface, which makes them a potentially good candidate for this application. A commercially available magnetostrictive alloy, Terfenol-D is considered in this analysis that is capable of providing magnetostrain up to 0.002 under prestress and a blocked force over 1500 N. A linearized model of the magnetostrictive material, which is accurate enough for a DC application, is employed to compute the output displacement and the blocked force of the actuator. A nonlinear finite element contact analysis is performed to compute the normal contact load between the blade platform and the underplatform damper as a result of magnetostrictive actuation. The contact analysis is performed for different mounting configurations of the actuator and the obtained results are discussed. The proposed solution is potentially applicable to adaptively control vibratory stresses in bladed disks and consequently to reduce failure due to high-cycle fatigue. Finally, the practical challenges in employing magnetostrictive actuators in underplatform dampers are discussed.

  • 23.
    Afzal, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Marcus Wallenberg Laboratoriet.
    Lopez-Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Marcus Wallenberg Laboratoriet. Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Marcus Wallenberg Laboratoriet.
    Numerical analysis of multiple friction contacts in bladed disksInngår i: International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, ISSN 0020-7403, E-ISSN 1879-2162Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The damping potential of multiple friction contacts in a bladed disk, tip shroud and strip damper is investigated, showing that friction damping effectiveness can be potentially increased by using multiple friction contact interfaces. Friction damping depends on many parameters such as rotational speed, engine excitation order and mode family and therefore it is not possible to damp all the critical resonances using a single friction contact interface. For example, a strip damper is more effective for the low nodal diameters, where blade/disk coupling is strong. The equations of motion of the bladed disk with multiple friction contacts are derived in the frequency domain for a cyclic structure with rotating excitations and a highly accurate method is used to generate the frequency response function (FRF) matrix. Furthermore, a finite element contact analysis is performed to compute the normal contact load and the contact area of the shroud interface at operating rotational speed. The multiharmonic balance method is employed in combination with the alternate frequency time domain method to find the approximate steady state periodic solution. A low-pressure turbine bladed disk is considered and the effect of the engine excitation level, strip mass, thickness and the accuracy of FRF matrix on the nonlinear response curve are investigated in detail.

  • 24.
    Aghaali, Habib
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik.
    Exhaust Heat Utilisation and Losses in Internal Combustion Engines with Focus on the Gas Exchange System2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Exhaust gas energy recovery should be considered in improving fuel economy of internal combustion engines. A large portion of fuel energy is wasted through the exhaust of internal combustion engines. Turbocharger and turbocompound can, however, recover part of this wasted heat. The energy recovery depends on the efficiency and mass flow of the turbine(s) as well as the exhaust gas state and properties such as pressure, temperature and specific heat capacity. The exhaust gas pressure is the principal parameter which is required for the turbine energy recovery, but higher exhaust back-pressures on the engines create higher pumping losses. This is in addition to the heat losses in the turbochargers what makes any measurement and simulation of the engines more complex.

    This thesis consists of two major parts. First of all, the importance of heat losses in turbochargers has been shown theoretically and experimentally with the aim of including heat transfer of the turbochargers in engine simulations. Secondly, different concepts have been examined to extract exhaust heat energy including turbocompounding and divided exhaust period (DEP) with the aim of improved exhaust heat utilisation and reduced pumping losses.

    In the study of heat transfer in turbochargers, the turbocharged engine simulation was improved by including heat transfer of the turbocharger in the simulation. Next, the heat transfer modelling of the turbochargers was improved by introducing a new method for convection heat transfer calculation with the support of on-engine turbocharger measurements under different heat transfer conditions. Then, two different turbocharger performance maps were assessed concerning the heat transfer conditions in the engine simulation. Finally, the temperatures of turbocharger’s surfaces were predicted according to the measurements under different heat transfer conditions and their effects are studied on the turbocharger performance. The present study shows that the heat transfer in the turbochargers is very crucial to take into account in the engine simulations, especially in transient operations.

    In the study of exhaust heat utilisation, important parameters concerning turbine and gas exchange system that can influence the waste heat recovery were discussed. In addition to exhaust back-pressure, turbine speed and turbine efficiency, the role of the air-fuel equivalence ratio was demonstrated in details, because lower air-fuel equivalence ratio in a Diesel engine can provide higher exhaust gas temperature. The results of this study indicate that turbocompound engine efficiency is relatively insensitive to the air-fuel equivalence ratio.

    To decrease the influence of the increased exhaust back-pressure of a turbocompound engine, a new architecture was developed by combining the turbocompound engine with DEP. The aim of this study was to utilise the earlier phase (blowdown) of the exhaust stroke in the turbine(s) and let the later phase (scavenging) of the exhaust stroke bypass the turbine(s). To decouple the blowdown phase from the scavenging phase, the exhaust flow was divided between two different exhaust manifolds with different valve timing.

    According to this study, this combination improves the fuel consumption in low engine speeds and deteriorates it at high engine speeds. This is mainly due to long duration of choked flow in the exhaust valves because this approach is using only one of the two exhaust valves on each cylinder at a time.

    Therefore, the effects of enlarged effective flow areas of the exhaust valves were studied. Two methods were used to enlarge the effective flow area i.e. increasing the diameters of the blowdown and scavenging valves by 4 mm; and modifying the valve lift curves of the exhaust valves to fast opening and closing. Both methods improved BSFC in the same order even though they were different in nature. Fast opening and closing of the exhaust valves required shorter blowdown duration and longer scavenging duration. The modified lift curves provided less pumping losses, less available energy into the turbine and larger amplitude of the pulsating flow through the turbine.

    In order for defining a set of important parameters that should be examined in experimental studies, a sensitivity analysis was performed on the turbocompound DEP engine in terms of break specific fuel consumption to different parameters concerning the gas exchange such as blowdown valve timing, scavenging valve timing, blowdown valve size, scavenging valve size, discharge coefficients of blowdown and scavenging ports, turbine efficiency, turbine size and power transmission efficiency.

    Finally, to overcome the restriction in the effective flow areas of the exhaust valves, DEP was implemented externally on the exhaust manifold instead of engine exhaust valves, which is called externally DEP (ExDEP). This innovative engine architecture, which benefits from supercharging, turbocharging and turbocompounding, has a great fuel-saving potential in almost all load points up to 4%.

  • 25.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik.
    Ångstrom, Hans-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik.
    Demonstration of Air-Fuel Ratio Role in One-Stage Turbocompound Diesel Engines2013Inngår i: SAE Technical Papers, 2013, Vol. 11Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A large portion of fuel energy is wasted through the exhaust of internal combustion engines. Turbocompound can, however, recover part of this wasted heat. The energy recovery depends on the turbine efficiency and mass flow as well as the exhaust gas state and properties such as pressure, temperature and specific heat capacity.

    The main parameter influencing the turbocompound energy recovery is the exhaust gas pressure which leads to higher pumping loss of the engine and consequently lower engine crankshaft power. Each air-fuel equivalence ratio (λ) gives different engine power, exhaust gas temperature and pressure. Decreasing λ toward 1 in a Diesel engine results in higher exhaust gas temperatures of the engine.  λ can be varied by changing the intake air pressure or the amount of injected fuel which changes the available energy into the turbine. Thus, there is a compromise between gross engine power, created pumping power, recovered turbocompound power and consumed compressor power.

    In this study, the effects of different λ values and exhaust back-pressure have been investigated on the efficiency of a heavy-duty Diesel engine equipped with a single-stage electric turbocompounding. A one-dimensional gas dynamics model of a turbocharged engine was utilized that was validated against measurements at different load points. Two configurations of turbocompound engine were made. In one configuration an electric turbocharger was used and the amount of fuel was varied with constant intake air pressure. In another configuration the turbocharger turbine and compressor were disconnected to be able to control the turbine speed and the compressor speed independently; then the compressor pressure ratio was varied with constant engine fuelling and the exhaust back-pressure was optimized for each compressor pressure ratio.

    At each constant turbine efficiency there is a linear relation between the optimum exhaust back-pressure and ideally expanded cylinder pressure until bottom dead center with closed exhaust valves. There is an optimum λ for the turbocharged engine with regard to the fuel consumption. In the turbocompound engine, this will be moved to a richer λ that gives the best total specific fuel consumption; however, the results of this study indicates that turbocompound engine efficiency is relatively insensitive to the air-fuel ratio.

  • 26.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    A review of turbocompounding as a waste heat recovery system for internal combustion engines2015Inngår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 49, 813-824 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internal combustion engines waste a large amount of fuel energy through their exhausts. Various technologies have been developed for waste heat recovery such as turbocompounds, Rankine bottoming cycles, and thermoelectric generators that reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Turbocompounding is still not widely applied to vehicular use despite the improved fuel economy, lower cost, volume, and complexity higher exhaust gas recirculation driving capability and improved transient response. This paper comprehensively reviews the latest developments and research on turbocompounding to discover important variables and provide insights into the implementation of a high-efficiency turbocompound engine. Attention should be paid to the optimization of turbocompound engines and their configurations because the major drawback of this technology is additional exhaust back-pressure, which leads to higher pumping loss in the engines. Applying different technologies and concepts on turbocompound engines makes the exhaust energy recovery more efficient and provides more freedom in the design and optimization of the engines. Turbine efficiency plays an important role in the recovery of the wasted heat so turbine design is a crucial issue in turbocompounding. In addition, variability in geometry and rotational speed of power turbines allows for more efficient turbocompound engines in different operating conditions. The conclusion drawn from this review is that turbocompounding is a promising technology for reducing fuel consumption in the coming decades in both light- and heavy-duty engines.

  • 27.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik.
    Effects of Effective Flow Areas of Exhaust Valves on a Turbocompound Diesel Engine Combined With Divided Exhaust Period2014Inngår i: Proceedings from the FISITA 2014 World Automotive Congress, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research and /or Engineering Questions/Objective: Exhaust gas energy recovery in internal combustion engines is one of the key challenges in the future developments. The objective of this study is to reveal the fuel-saving potential of a turbocompound Diesel engine combined with divided exhaust period (DEP). The exhaust flow is provided for two different manifolds via separate valves, blowdown and scavenging, at different timings. The main challenge in this combination is choked flow through the exhaust valves due to the restricted effective flow areas. Therefore, the effects of enlarged effective flow areas of the exhaust valves are studied.

    Methodology: A commercial 1D gas dynamics code, GT-POWER, was used to simulate a turbocharged Diesel engine which was validated against measurements. Then the turbocharged engine model was modified to a turbocompound engine with DEP. Using statistical analysis in the simulation (design of experiment), the performance of this engine was studied at different sizes, lift curves and timings of the exhaust valves and turbine swallowing capacity.

    Results: In the paper the effects of the effective flow areas of the exhaust valves are presented on the break specific fuel consumption, pumping mean effective pressure and the turbine energy recovery by increasing the valve size and modifying valve lift curve to fast opening and closing. This has been done in a low engine speed and full load. The main finding is that the flow characteristics of the exhaust valves in the turbocompound DEP engine are very important for gaining the full efficiency benefit of the DEP concept.  The turbocompound DEP engine with modified valve lift shape of the exhaust valves could improve the overall brake specific fuel consumption by 3.44% in which 0.64% of the improvement is due to the valve lift curve. Modified valve lift curves contribute mainly in decreasing the period of choked flow through the exhaust valves.

    Limitations of this study: The simulations were not validated against measurements; however, the mechanical and geometrical limitations were tried to keep realistic when manipulating the valve flow area events.

    What does the paper offer that is new in the field in comparison to other works of the author: In addition to the novelty of the engine architecture that combines turbocompound with DEP, the statistical analysis and comparison presented in this paper is new especially with demonstrating the importance of crank angle coupled flow characteristics of the valves.

    Conclusion: To achieve full fuel-saving potential of turbocompound DEP engines, the flow characteristics of the exhaust valves must be considered. The effective flow areas of the exhaust valves play important roles in the choked flow through the valves, the pumping work and the brake specific fuel consumption of the engine.

  • 28.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik.
    Externally divided exhaust period on a turbocompound engine for fuel-saving2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve exhaust heat utilization of a turbocharged engine, divided exhaust period (DEP) and turbocompound are integrated. The DEP concept decreases pumping loss created by the turbocompound. In the DEP concept the exhaust flow is divided between two different exhaust manifolds, blowdown and scavenging. One of the two exhaust valves on each engine cylinder is opened to the blowdown manifold at the first phase of exhaust stroke and the other valve is opened to the scavenging manifold at the later phase of exhaust stroke. This leads to lower exhaust back pressure and pumping loss. The combination of turbocompound engine with DEP has been examined previously and the result showed that this combination reduces the fuel consumption in low engine speeds and deteriorates it in high engine speeds. The main restriction of this combination was the low effective flow areas of the exhaust valves at high engine speeds.

    To overcome this restriction and increase the effective flow areas of the exhaust valves, DEP is employed externally on the exhaust manifold instead of engine exhaust valves. In externally DEP (ExDEP), both exhaust valves will be opened and closed similar to the corresponding turbocharged engine and the exhaust flow is divided by flow splits on the exhaust manifold. Two valves on the outlet ports of each flow split are added. One of them is a non-return valve (check valve) and the other one is synchronized with the cam shaft.

    In this study, the fuel-saving potential of ExDEP is analysed on the turbocompound engine at different engine speeds and loads and compared with the corresponding turbocharged engine, turbocompound engine and turbocompound DEP engine equipped. The results show that ExDEP has a great fuel-saving potential in almost all load points.

    ExDEP concept, itself, is a novel concept that there is no available literature about it. Moreover, combination of this new gas exchange system with turbocompound engines is an innovative extension of combined turbocompound DEP engines.

  • 29.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik.
    Performance Sensitivity to Exhaust Valves and Turbine Parameters on a Turbocompound Engine with Divided Exhaust Period2014Inngår i: SAE International Journal of Engines, ISSN 1946-3936, E-ISSN 1946-3944, Vol. 7, nr 4, 1722-1733 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbocompound can utilize part of the exhaust energy on internal combustion engines; however, it increases exhaust back pressure, and pumping loss.  To avoid such drawbacks, divided exhaust period (DEP) technology is combined with the turbocompound engine. In the DEP concept the exhaust flow is divided between two different exhaust manifolds, blowdown and scavenging, with different valve timings. This leads to lower exhaust back pressure and improves engine performance.

    Combining turbocompound engine with DEP has been theoretically investigated previously and shown that this reduces the fuel consumption and there is a compromise between the turbine energy recovery and the pumping work in the engine optimization. However, the sensitivity of the engine performance has not been investigated for all relevant parameters. The main aim of this study is to analyze the sensitivity of this engine architecture in terms of break specific fuel consumption to different parameters concerning the gas exchange such as blowdown valve timing, scavenging valve timing, blowdown valve size, scavenging valve size, discharge coefficients of blowdown and scavenging ports, turbine efficiency, turbine size and power transmission efficiency. This study presents the sensitivity analysis of the turbocompound DEP engine to these parameters and defines a set of important parameters that should be examined in experimental studies.

  • 30.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik.
    Temperature Estimation of Turbocharger Working Fluids and Walls under Different Engine Loads and Heat Transfer Conditions2013Inngår i: SAE Technical Papers, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbocharger performance maps, which are used in engine simulations, are usually measured on a gas-stand where the temperatures distributions on the turbocharger walls are entirely different from that under real engine operation. This should be taken into account in the simulation of a turbocharged engine. Dissimilar wall temperatures of turbochargers give different air temperature after the compressor and different exhaust gas temperature after the turbine at a same load point. The efficiencies are consequently affected. This can lead to deviations between the simulated and measured outlet temperatures of the turbocharger turbine and compressor. This deviation is larger during a transient load step because the temperatures of turbocharger walls change slowly due to the thermal inertia. Therefore, it is important to predict the temperatures of turbocharger walls and the outlet temperatures of the turbocharger working fluids in a turbocharged engine simulation.

    In the work described in this paper, a water-oil-cooled turbocharger was extensively instrumented with several thermocouples on reachable walls. The turbocharger was installed on a 2-liter gasoline engine that was run under different loads and different heat transfer conditions on the turbocharger by using insulators, an extra cooling fan, radiation shields and water-cooling settings. The turbine inlet temperature varied between 550 and 850 °C at different engine loads.

    The results of this study show that the temperatures of turbocharger walls are predictable from the experiment. They are dependent on the load point and the heat transfer condition of the turbocharger. The heat transfer condition of an on-engine turbocharger could be defined by the turbine inlet temperature, ambient temperature, oil heat flux, water heat flux and the velocity of the air around the turbocharger. Thus, defining the heat transfer condition and rotational speed of the turbocharger provides temperatures predictions of the turbocharger walls and the working fluids. This prediction enables increased precision in engine simulation for future work in transient operation.

  • 31.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    The Exhaust Energy Utilization of a Turbocompound Engine Combined with Divided Exhaust Period2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To decrease the influence of the increased exhaust pressure of a turbocompound engine, a new architecture is developed by combining the turbocompound engine with divided exhaust period (DEP). The aim of this study is to utilize the earlier stage (blowdown) of the exhaust stroke in the turbine(s) and let the later stage (scavenging) of the exhaust stroke bypass the turbine(s). To decouple the blowdown phase from the scavenging phase, the exhaust flow is divided between two different exhaust manifolds with different valve timing. A variable valve train system is assumed to enable optimization at different load points. The fuel-saving potential of this architecture have been theoretically investigated by examining different parameters such as turbine flow capacity, blowdown valve timing and scavenging valve timing. Many combinations of these parameters are considered in the optimization of the engine for different engine loads and speeds.

    This architecture produces less negative pumping work for the same engine load point due to lower exhaust back pressure; however, the exhaust mass flow into the turbine(s) is decreased. Therefore, there is a compromise between the turbine energy recovery and the pumping work. According to this study, this combination shows fuel-saving potential in low engine speeds and limitations at high engine speeds. This is mainly due to the choked flow in the exhaust valves because this approach is using only one of the two exhaust valves at a time. To reveal the full potential of this approach, increasing the effective flow area of the valves should be studied.

  • 32.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik.
    Turbocharged SI-Engine Simulation with Cold and Hot-Measured Turbocharger Performance Maps2012Inngår i: Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2012, Vol 5, ASME Press, 2012, 671-679 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat transfer within the turbocharger is an issue in engine simulation based on zero and one-dimensional gas dynamics. Turbocharged engine simulation is often done without taking into account the heat transfer in the turbocharger. In the simulation, using multipliers is the common way of adjusting turbocharger speed and parameters downstream of the compressor and upstream of the turbine. However, they do not represent the physical reality. The multipliers change the maps and need often to be different for different load points. The aim of this paper is to simulate a turbocharged engine and also consider heat transfer in the turbocharger. To be able to consider heat transfer in the turbine and compressor, heat is transferred from the turbine volute and into the compressor scroll. Additionally, the engine simulation was done by using two different turbocharger performance maps of a turbocharger measured under cold and hot conditions. The turbine inlet temperatures were 100 and 600°C, respectively. The turbocharged engine experiment was performed on a water-oil-cooled turbocharger (closed waste-gate), which was installed on a 2-liter gasoline direct-injected engine with variable valve timing, for different load points of the engine. In the work described in this paper, the difference between cold and hot-measured turbocharger performance maps is discussed and the quantified heat transfers from the turbine and to/from the compressor are interpreted and related to the maps.

  • 33.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Förbränningsmotorteknik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Serrano, Jose R
    Universitat Politècnica de València.
    Evaluation of different heat transfer conditions on an automotive turbocharger2014Inngår i: International Journal of Engine Research, ISSN 1468-0874, E-ISSN 2041-3149, Vol. 16, nr 2, 137-151 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a combination of theoretical and experimental investigations for determining the main heat fluxes within a turbocharger. These investigations consider several engine speeds and loads as well as different methods of conduction, convection, and radiation heat transfer on the turbocharger. A one-dimensional heat transfer model of the turbocharger has been developed in combination with simulation of a turbocharged engine that includes the heat transfer of the turbocharger. Both the heat transfer model and the simulation were validated against experimental measurements. Various methods were compared for calculating heat transfer from the external surfaces of the turbocharger, and one new method was suggested.

    The effects of different heat transfer conditions were studied on the heat fluxes of the turbocharger using experimental techniques. The different heat transfer conditions on the turbocharger created dissimilar temperature gradients across the turbocharger. The results show that changing the convection heat transfer condition around the turbocharger affects the heat fluxes more noticeably than changing the radiation and conduction heat transfer conditions. Moreover, the internal heat transfers from the turbine to the bearing housing and from the bearing housing to the compressor are significant, but there is an order of magnitude difference between these heat transfer rates.

  • 34.
    Agmell, M.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ahadi, A.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Zhou, J. M.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Konstruktionsmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bushlya, V.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Stahl, J. -E.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Modeling subsurface deformation induced by machining of Inconel 7182017Inngår i: Machining science and technology, ISSN 1091-0344, E-ISSN 1532-2483, Vol. 21, nr 1, 103-120 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, the development and optimization of the machining process with regards to the subsurface deformation are done through experimental method which is often expensive and time consuming. This article presents the development of a finite element model based on an updated Lagrangian formulation. The numerical model is able to predict the depth of subsurface deformation induced in the high- speed machining of Inconel 718 by use of a whisker-reinforced ceramic tool. The effect that the different cutting parameters and tool microgeometries has on subsurface deformation will be investigated both numerically and experimentally. This research article also addresses the temperature distribution in the workpiece and the connection it could have on the wear of the cutting tool. The correlation of the numerical and experimental investigations for the subsurface deformation has been measured by the use of the coefficient of determination, R-2. This confirms that the finite element model developed here is able to simulate this type of machining process with sufficient accuracy.

  • 35.
    Ahlbert, Gabriella
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Hållfasthetslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Method Evaluation of Global-Local Finite Element Analysis2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    When doing finite element analysis upon the structure of Saab’s aeroplanes a coarse global model of mainly shell elements is used to determine the load distribution for sizing the structure. At some parts of the aeroplane it is however desirable to implement a more detailed analysis. These areas are usually modelled with solid elements; the problem of connecting the fine local solid elements to the coarse global model will shell elements then arises.

     

    This master thesis is preformed to investigate possible Global-Local methods to use for the structural analysis on Gripen. First a literature study of current methods on the market is made, thereafter a few methods are implemented on a generic test structure and later on also tested on a real detail of Gripen VU. The methods tested in this thesis are Mesh refinement in HyperWorks, RBE3 in HyperWorks, Glue in MSC Patran/Nastran and DMIG in MSC Nastran. The software is however not evaluated in this thesis, and a further investigation is recommended to find the most fitting software for this purpose. All analysis are performed with linear assumptions.

     

    Mesh refinement is an integrated technique where the elements are gradually decreasing in size. Per definition, this technique cannot handle gaps, but it has almost identical results to the fine reference model.

     

    RBE3 is a type of rigid body elements with zero stiffness, and is used as an interface element. RBE3 is possible to use to connect both Shell-To-Shell and Shell-To-Solid, and can handle offsets and gaps in the boundary between the global and local model.

     

    Glue is a contact definition and is also available in other software under other names. The global respectively the local model is defined as contact bodies and a contact table is used to control the coupling. Glue works for both Shell-To-Shell and Shell-To-Solid couplings, but has problem dealing with offsets and gaps in the boundary between the global and local model.

     

    DMIG is a superelement technique where the global model is divided into smaller sub-models which are mathematically connected. DMIG is only possible to use when the nodes on the boundary on the local model have the same position as the nodes at the boundary of the global model. Thus, it is not possible to only use DMIG as a Global-Local method, but can advantageously be combined with other methods.

     

    The results indicate that the preferable method to use for Global-Local analysis is RBE3. To decrease the size of the files and demand of computational power, RBE3 can be combined with a superelement technique, for example DMIG.

     

    Finally, it is important to consider the size of the local model. There will inevitably be boundary effect when performing a Global-Local analysis of the suggested type, and it is therefore important to make the local model big enough so that the boundary effects have faded before reaching the area of interest.

  • 36. Ahlin, Kjell
    Comparison of Test Specifications and Measured Field Data2006Inngår i: Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X , Vol. 40, nr 9, 22-25 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not always obvious how to compare a given test specification with measured field data. This article presents a systematic method based on the shock response spectrum and the fatigue damage spectrum. A random-on-random test specification for tracked vehicles, AECTP 400, is used as an example.

  • 37. Ahlin, Kjell
    et al.
    Granlund, Johan
    Lindström, Fredric
    Comparing Road Profiles with Vehicle Perceived Roughness2004Inngår i: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, E-ISSN 1741-5314, Vol. 36, nr 2-3, 270-286 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate road profiles are useful in vehicle design, such as for simulation of durability and ride quality. Laser/inertial profilometers typically record I mm wide profiles. The question is how well such a profile matches perceived vehicle wheel roughness. The objective here was to create a more representative wheel track longitudinal profile. Simulated and measured wheel vibration was compared on a 6km long road. Simulations were made for several definitions of the profile. Results for single laser sensor profiles showed reasonable likeness to truck perceived roughness. By far the best likeness (14.5% better) was achieved when the profile was based on triangular 25%-50%-25% weighted data from three sensors in the wheel track. Clearly, vehicle engineers can benefit from using multiple laser profile sensors, instead of a single sensor. This will improve test accuracy, thus reducing vehicle design project lead times and costs.

  • 38. Ahlin, Kjell
    et al.
    Magnevall, Martin
    Josefsson, Andreas
    Simulation of forced response in linear and nonlinear mechanical systems using digital filters2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There exist many methods to calculate forced response in mechanical systems. Some methods are slow and the errors introduced are unknown. The paper presents a method that uses digital filters and modal superposition. It is shown how aliasing can be avoided as well as phase errors. The parameters describing the mechanical system are residues and poles, taken from FEA models, from lumped MCK systems, from analytic solutions or from experimental modal analysis. Modal damping may be used. The error in the calculation is derived and is shown to be only a function of the sampling frequency used. When the method is applied to linear mechanical systems in MATLAB it is very fast. The method is extended to incorporate nonlinear components. The nonlinear components could be simple, like hardening or stiffening springs, but may also contain memory, like dampers with hysteresis. The simulations are used to generate test data for development and evaluation of methods for identification of non-linear systems.

  • 39.
    Ahmad, Maqsood
    et al.
    Base Engine & Materials Technology, Volvo Group, Gothenburg.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Konstruktionsmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    König, Mathias
    Materials Technology for Basic Engine, Scania CV, Södertälje.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Konstruktionsmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bending Fatigue Behavior of Blast Cleaned Grey Cast Iron2017Inngår i: Residual Stresses 2016: ICRS-10, Materials Research Proceedings 2 (2016), 2017, Vol. 2, 193-198 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a detailed study on the effect of an industrial blast cleaning process on the fatigue behavior of a grey cast iron with regard to the residual stresses and microstructural changes induced by the process. A comparison was also made to the effect of a machining operation which removed the casting skin layer. The blast cleaning process was found to greatly improve the fatigue resistance in both the low and high cycle regimes with a 75% increase in the fatigue limit. Xray diffraction measurements and scanning electron microscopic analyses showed that the improvement was mainly attributed to compressive residual stresses in a surface layer up to 800 μm in thickness in the blast cleaned specimens. The machining also gave better fatigue performance with a 30% increase in the fatigue limit, which was ascribed to the removal of the weaker casting skin layer.

  • 40.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Betongbyggnad.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Betongbyggnad.
    Malm, Richard
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Betongbyggnad.
    Numerical modelling and evaluation of laboratory tests with impact loaded young concrete prisms2016Inngår i: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, 1-14 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical modelling in combination with in situ measurements, observations and laboratory testing will be important to future establishment of reliable guidelines for efficient civil and engineering work involving concrete casting close to e.g. blasting operations. Results from laboratory tests with impact loaded young concrete prisms are here evaluated using a 3D finite element model. Solid elements are used implementing a non-linear material model, capable of describing cracking during stress wave propagation. The position of cracks and measured particle vibration velocities are calculated and compared with laboratory test results. The damaging effect of impact vibrations is evaluated using crack width and fracture energy as damage criteria. Alternative geometry for the test prisms, with a notched section, is analysed. This will give one wide crack at the centre of the prism instead of two or three cracks distributed over its length which will make future laboratory test more efficient and reliable. Recommended damage limits at concrete ages of 4, 6, 8 and 12 h are given, based on numerical calculations for concrete strength class C25 and C50.

  • 41.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Analysis of multiple solutions in bifurcation diagrams to avoid unexpected dynamics2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In mechanical applications it is essential that unexpected dynamics are avoided. The industry wants to build reliable machines that are not sensitive to initial conditions. Therefore, a simple method has been developed to extract all sets of stable bifurcation diagrams. The method gives a designer a good overview of possible dynamics and thereby the possibility to select a safe operating region. The method is described and demonstrated with a rub-impact rotor. The practical usage of this method is to help the designer to determine if parameter ranges exist where coexistent solutions will appear. Thereby one can design the system to work in parameter ranges where only one acceptable solution exists.

  • 42.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Dynamics of some vibro-impacting systems with amplitude constraints1995Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the dynamics of some vibro-impacting systems with fixed or moving amplitude constraints. It is based on and includes five papers, marked A to E. Simple models of three different vibro-impacting systems with applications in the fields of impact hammers, granular flow and disk brakes in vehicles are analysed. A 2-DOF (two-degree-of-freedom) model of a threshold-limited impact hammer is studied (Paper A). The stability of a class of periodic motions is analysed. For some parameter values these periodic motions are found to be qualitatively similar to the ones observed for a corresponding 1-DOF system. At other parameter combinations, however, new kinds of periodic or chaotic motions can be observed. For low damping, phenomena resembling antiresonance for linear systems can also be observed. Granular shear flows show a transitional behaviour in the rapid flow regime as the shear speed or the concentration of the grains is varied. The motion can, for example, change from smooth and orderly to erratic and turbulent. Some aspects of this transitional behaviour in granular shear flow are studied numerically, analytically and experimentally (Papers B, C and D). Simple vibro-impacting models are suggested to get some analytical insight into the dynamics of shear layers. Results from a 1-DOF model show that for high forcing frequencies, which correspond to high shear speeds, periodic as well as chaotic motions can exist, whereas, for low forcing frequencies the vibrations are completely damped out to a stationary state (Paper B). Stability of this stationary state is studied analytically (Paper C), and experimentally (Paper D), where the motions of granular particles in a transparent shear cell are followed by using video techniques. For low shear speeds a single shear layer adjacent to the bottom boundary of the shear cell is observed. As the shear speed is increased, a transition to a random like state involving many layers is found to occur. In order to understand the phenomenon of squeal in disk brakes, a 3-DOF model is suggested to simulate the dynamics of a brake pad. The region of contact between the brake pad and the disk is described by using a coefficient of friction and distributed stiffness. The brake pad is allowed to have adjustable support locations and possibilities of impacts with its surroundings. The equilibrium state of the pad is determined by using a static analysis. The assumption is that the instability of this stationary state is a possible explanation of squeal, therefore, the stability is analysed in detail. Examples of different kinds of pad motions are presented. A rich variety of motions are found to exist including periodic, seemingly chaotic, stationary behaviour in slip, vibrations with full contact with the disk, stick-slip and impacts.

  • 43.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Multiple solutions in a rub-impact Jeffcott rotor2004Inngår i: Extended abstracts, proceedings: 10th international symposium on transport phenomena and dynamics of rotating machinery / [ed] Dieter Bohn, Aachen: Inst. of steam and gas turbines, RWTH , 2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 44.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Multiple solutions in an amplitude limited Jeffcott rotor including rubbing and stick-slip effect2005Inngår i: Proceedings ASME 2005 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference: DETC 2005, American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 2005, 1091-1096 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The non-linear behaviour of rub-impact rotors have been studied in several papers. In such systems rich dynamics have been found together with the coexistence of solutions within some specific parameter ranges. In this paper an attempt is made to find all stable solutions for an amplitude limited Jeffcott rotor including rubbing and stick-slip effect. The recently suggested "multi bifurcation diagram method" is used to find and extract stable sets of bifurcation diagrams. A system is chosen where the linear stationary amplitude only exceeds the clearance in a narrow region near the natural frequency. Therefore large regions in frequency are expected to have only the linear stationary response. The results show that it is only for very low frequencies that one single solution exists. Even though periodic motions are dominant, there exist large ranges in frequency with quasi-periodic or chaotic motions. For the studied cases, three coexisting stable solutions are most common. In one case as many as four stable solutions was found to coexist. For rotors with large clearances (no impacts necessary) it is still possible to find several coexisting motions. For all cases the stick motion is the most severe one with large amplitudes and high backward whirl frequencies. In real situations the consequence of this stick motion is machine failure. These high amplitude motions were found to be stable over large frequency ranges. From the stability analysis it was found that this rolling motion can be avoided by low spin speed, low contact stiffness, low coefficient of friction, small ratio of disc radius/clearance or high damping ratio. In a design situation the parameters are seldom known with high accuracy. Therefore, it is of interest to know all solutions for parameter intervals. The multi-bifurcation diagram can be used in such situations to design a robust machine or at least be prepared for unwanted dynamics.

  • 45.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Review of Mechanical Vibrations by S.S. Rao2007Inngår i: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part C, journal of mechanical engineering science, ISSN 0954-4062, E-ISSN 2041-2983, Vol. 221, nr 1, 135- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 46.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Rotor dynamical analysis of failure due to rotor-stator contact in an overhung rotor2006Inngår i: Proceedings - 7th International Conference on Rotor Dynamics: September 25 - 28, 2006, Vienna, Austria / [ed] H. Springer; H. Ecker, Vienna: Institute of Mechanics and Mechatronics, Vienna University of Technology , 2006, 264Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two new 1MW fans in a remote gas cleaning plant have failed within 12 days of operation. Due to high costs a rapid repair and modification was performed without any deeper investigation or measurements. Since the driving frequency was far below the critical speed, a theory was that contact between rotating and stationary part was the reason for failure. In this paper the rotor dynamics is studied by an amplitude limited 4DOF overhung rotor. Simulations indicate that in addition to the ordinary unbalance response there can exist a high amplitude rolling contact mode between the disc and the stationary parts. By analysis of basin of attraction it is concluded that contact is a possible cause for the failure if the damping ratio is low, coefficient of friction is high and the rotor is eccentrically positioned relative to the stator. Measurements on the system are however necessary before a satisfying explanation can be given.

  • 47.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Two vibroimpacting systems with amplitude constraints1992Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 48.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Gupta, R.B.
    Periodic and chaotic behaviour of a threshold-limited two-degree-of-freedom system1993Inngår i: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568, Vol. 165, nr 2, 305-327 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A two-degree-of-freedom impact oscillator with proportional damping is considered. The maximum displacement of one of the masses is limited to a threshold value by a rigid wall, which gives rise to a non-linearity in the system. Impacts between the mass and the wall are described by a coefficient of restitution. The behaviour of the system is rich and includes features like period doublings, period havings, jumps, chaos, etc. Periodic motions of the system are studied by analytical methods. The influence of system parameters such as damping, coefficient of restitution, distribution of masses and clearance, etc., is studied for some extreme values of these parameters. The stability of a class of periodic motions is investigated. Parameter ranges which result in stable periodic multiple impacts are identified. Application of the results to the design of impact tools is discussed.

  • 49.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Gustavsson, Rolf K.
    Vattenfall, VRD.
    Lundström, Niklas L. P.
    Umeå university.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Calleecharan, Yogeshwarsing
    Nässelqvist, Mattias
    Karlberg, Magnus
    Lundin, Urban
    Uppsala University.
    Developments in rotor dynamical modeling of hydropower units2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Emerging Trends in Rotor Dynamics: held in New Delhi, India, March 23 - March 26, 2009 / [ed] Kshitij Gupta, Dordrecht: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 50.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Lindkvist, Göran
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Dynamics of a rubbing Jeffcott rotor with three blades2011Inngår i: Chaos Theory: Modeling, Simulation and Applications: Selected Papers from the 3rd Chaotic Modeling and Simulation International Conference (CHAOS2010) / [ed] Christos H. Skiadas; Ioannis Dimotikalis; Charilaos Skiadas, Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co Pte Ltd , 2011, Vol. Part II. Invited and Contributed Papers, 97-104 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
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