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  • 201.
    Sandström, Anders G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Wikmark, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Engström, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Nyhlén, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Combinatorial reshaping of the Candida antarctica lipase A substrate pocket for enantioselectivity using an extremely condensed library2012In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 78-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A highly combinatorial structure-based protein engineering method for obtaining enantioselectivity is reported that results in a thorough modification of the substrate binding pocket of Candida antarctica lipase A (CALA). Nine amino acid residues surrounding the entire pocket were simultaneously mutated, contributing to a reshaping of the substrate pocket to give increased enantioselectivity and activity for a sterically demanding substrate. This approach seems to be powerful for developing enantioselectivity when a complete reshaping of the active site is required. Screening toward ibuprofen ester 1, a substrate for which previously used methods had failed, gave variants with a significantly increased enantioselectivity and activity. Wild-type CALA has a moderate activity with an E value of only 3.4 toward this substrate. The best variant had an E value of 100 and it also displayed a high activity. The variation at each mutated position was highly reduced, comprising only the wild type and an alternative residue, preferably a smaller one with similar properties. These minimal binary variations allow for an extremely condensed protein library. With this highly combinatorial method synergistic effects are accounted for and the protein fitness landscape is explored efficiently.

  • 202. Sapu, Chicco Manzuna
    et al.
    Görbe, Tamás
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Lihammar, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Deska, Jan
    Migratory Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of Carbocyclic Allylic Alcohols2014In: Organic Letters, ISSN 1523-7060, E-ISSN 1523-7052, Vol. 16, no 22, p. 5952-5955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel migratory dynamic kinetic resolution based on the interplay between an enzyme acylation catalyst and a heterogeneous Bronsted acid as an isomerization/racemization catalyst gives rise to carbocyclic allylic esters with excellent stereoselectivity from readily available tertiary carbinols. An easy-to-use teabag setup combining resin-bound catalysts, a biphasic isooctanewater solvent system, and a highly lipophilic acyl donor efficiently suppresses side reactions and allows for the preparation of functionalized carbocyclic building blocks in high yields and optical purity.

  • 203.
    Sebelius, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis and Transformation of Organoboranes2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the development of new palladium-catalyzed transformations involving synthesis and application of allylborane reagents. In these reactions various palladium sources, including pincer complexes and commonly used catalysts were applied.

    A new transformation for allylation of aldehyde and imine substrates was devised using allyl acetates, diboronate reagents and catalytic amounts of Pd2(dba)3. By employment of commercially available chiral diboronates enantioenriched homoallyl alcohols could be obtained.

    We have also developed a palladium-catalyzed method for synthesis of functionalized allylboronic acids from vinyl cyclopropane, vinyl aziridine, allyl acetate and allyl alcohol substrates using diboronic acid as reagent. In this process a highly selective selenium based pincer-complex was used as catalyst. The resulting allylboronic acid products were converted to potassium trifluoro(allyl)borates or allylboronates.

    The functionalized allylboronic acids generated in the above procedure were employed as reagents in two synthetic transformations. One of these transformations involves a palladium(0)-catalyzed coupling reaction between allylboronic acids and aryl iodides. The reaction was regioselective for the branched allylic product, typically difficult to prepare in the absence of directing groups. We also developed another transformation for allylation of aldehydes with allyl alcohols via allylboronic acid intermediate. This procedure can be performed as a simple one-pot sequence affording homoallyl alcohols with excellent stereo- and regioselectivity.

  • 204.
    Sebelius, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Kálmán J., Szabó
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Allylation of aldehyde and imine substrates with in situ generated allylboronates - a simple route to enantioenriched homoallyl alcohols2005In: European Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 1434-193X, E-ISSN 1099-0690, no 12, p. 2539-2547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allylation of aldehyde and imine substrates was achieved using easily available allylacetates and diboronate reagents in the presence of catalytic amounts of palladium. This operationally simple one-pot reaction has a broad synthetic scope, as many functionalities including, acetate, carbethoxy, amido and nitro groups are tolerated. The allylation reactions proceed with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity affording the branched allylic isomer. By employment of commercially available chiral diboronates enantioenriched homoallyl alcohols (up to 53% ee) could be obtained. The mechanistic studies revealed that the in situ generated allylboronates react directly with the aldehyde substrates, however the allylation of the sulfonylimine substrate requires palladium catalysis.

  • 205.
    Selander, Nicklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Catalytic Functionalization of Allylic Substrates by Palladium Pincer Complexes2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on the development of novel catalytic reactions for the synthesis and application of organometallic reagents. The main focus is directed towards organoboronate derivatives. We developed an efficient procedure for converting allylic alcohols to the corresponding allylboronates using palladium pincer complexes as catalysts. The reactions were performed under mild conditions with high selectivity, allowing further one-pot transformations. Using this approach, a variety of stereodefined homoallylic alcohols and amino acid derivatives were synthesized via trapping of the in situ generated allylboronate derivatives with an appropriate electrophile. The synthetic scope of these types of multi-component reactions is broad as many different substrate allylic alcohols may be used together with various electrophiles. Several aspects of these reactions were studied, including different reagents, catalysts and electrophiles.

    Furthermore, we studied the possibility to use oxidizing reagents as an essential component in the functionalization of olefins. Two main strategies were utilized for these catalytic methods using palladium pincer complexes. The functional group was either transferred from the oxidizing reagent, or introduced via an oxidation-transmetallation route. We propose that both methods involve palladium(IV) intermediates thus expanding both the coordination sphere of palladium and the synthetic scope of pincer complex catalysis.

  • 206.
    Selander, Nicklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Development of Multi-Component Reactions using Catalytically Generated Allyl Metal Reagents2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis is based on the development of catalytic reactions for the synthesis and application of organometallic reagents. By use of palladium pincer-complex catalysts, we have developed an efficient procedure for the synthesis of allylboronates starting from allylic alcohols. These reactions were further extended by including various one-pot multi-component reactions, using the in situ generated allylboronates. Furthermore, novel unsymmetrical palladium pincer-complexes were synthesized and studied in auto-tandem catalysis.

  • 207. Shashkov, Alexander S.
    et al.
    Wang, Tianwei
    Perepelov, Andrei V.
    Weintraub, Andrej
    Liu, Bin
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Knirel, Yuriy A.
    Structure elucidation and biosynthesis gene cluster organization of the O-antigen of Escherichia coli O1702015In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 417, p. 11-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are causative agents of diarrhea in humans as well as animals, and E. coli O170 belongs to this virotype. Upon mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of E. coli O170, the branched O-polysaccharide chain was partially cleaved at beta-D-glactofuranosidic linkages to give multiple products, including a linear tetrasaccharide and oligomers thereof. Studies of the acid degradation products and O-deacylated lipopolysaccharide by 1D and 2D H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy enabled elucidation of the following O-polysaccharide structure: -> 4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 -> 4)-beta-D-GlcpA-(1 -> 3)-beta-D-Galf-(1 -> 3)-beta-D-GlcNAc-(1 -> [GRAPHICS] beta-D-Galf Functions of genes in the O-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster were tentatively assigned and found to be in agreement with the O-polysaccharide structure.

  • 208. Siegbahn, Anna
    et al.
    Manner, Sophie
    Persson, Andrea
    Tykesson, Emil
    Holmqvist, Karin
    Ochocinska, Agata
    Rönnols, Jerk
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Sundin, Anders
    Mani, Katrin
    Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ellervik, Ulf
    Rules for priming and inhibition of glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis; probing the beta 4GalT7 active site2014In: Chemical Science, ISSN 2041-6520, E-ISSN 2041-6539, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 3501-3508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    beta-1,4-Gatactosyltransferase 7 (beta 4GalT7) is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of proteoglycans (PGs). Mammalian cells produce PGs, which are involved in biological processes such as cell growth and differentiation. The PGs consist of a core protein, with one or several GAG chains attached. Both the structure of the PGs and the GAG chains, and the expression of the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and degradation, vary between normal cells and tumor cells. The biosynthesis of GAG chains is initiated by xylosylation of a serine residue of the core protein, followed by galactosylation by beta 4GalT7. The biosynthesis can also be initiated by exogenously added beta-D-xylopyranosides with hydrophobic aglycons, which thus can act as acceptor substrates for beta 4GalT7. To determine the structural requirements for beta 4GalT7 activity, we have cloned and expressed the enzyme and designed a focused library of 2-naphthyl beta-D-xylopyranosides with modifications of the xylose moiety. Based on enzymatic studies, that is galactosylation and its inhibition, conformational analysis and molecular modeling using the crystal structure, we propose that the binding pocket of beta 4GalT7 is very narrow, with a precise set of important hydrogen bonds. Xylose appears to be the optimal acceptor substrate for galactosylation by beta 4GalT7. However, we show that modifications of the xylose moiety of the beta-D-xylopyranosides can render inhibitors of galactosylation. Such compounds will be valuable tools for the exploration of GAG and PG biosynthesis and a starting point for development of anti-tumor agents.

  • 209. Siegbahn, Anna
    et al.
    Thorsheim, Karin
    Ståhle, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Manner, Sophie
    Hamark, Christoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Persson, Andrea
    Tykesson, Emil
    Mani, Katrin
    Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ellervik, Ulf
    Exploration of the active site of beta 4GalT7: modifications of the aglycon of aromatic xylosides2015In: Organic and biomolecular chemistry, ISSN 1477-0520, E-ISSN 1477-0539, Vol. 13, no 11, p. 3351-3362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteoglycans (PGs) are macromolecules that consist of long linear polysaccharides, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, covalently attached to a core protein by the carbohydrate xylose. The biosynthesis of GAG chains is initiated by xylosylation of the core protein followed by galactosylation by the galactosyltransferase beta 4GalT7. Some beta-D-xylosides, such as 2-naphthyl beta-D-xylopyranoside, can induce GAG synthesis by serving as acceptor substrates for beta 4GalT7 and by that also compete with the GAG synthesis on core proteins. Here we present structure-activity relationships for beta 4GalT7 and xylosides with modifications of the aromatic aglycon, using enzymatic assays, cell studies, and molecular docking simulations. The results show that the aglycons reside on the outside of the active site of the enzyme and that quite bulky aglycons are accepted. By separating the aromatic aglycon from the xylose moiety by linkers, a trend towards increased galactosylation with increased linker length is observed. The galactosylation is influenced by the identity and position of substituents in the aromatic framework, and generally, only xylosides with beta-glycosidic linkages function as good substrates for beta 4GalT7. We also show that the galactosylation ability of a xyloside is increased by replacing the anomeric oxygen with sulfur, but decreased by replacing it with carbon. Finally, we propose that reaction kinetics of galactosylation by beta 4GalT7 is dependent on subtle differences in orientation of the xylose moiety.

  • 210. Silva, Luiz F., Jr.
    et al.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of natural products2011In: Natural product reports (Print), ISSN 0265-0568, E-ISSN 1460-4752, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1722-1754Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the recent applications of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of natural products. The large diversity of high-yielding and chemoselective reactions that can be achieved, even for highly functionalized molecules, is summarized, demonstrating that hypervalent iodine reagents have become an essential tool in synthetic organic chemistry.

  • 211. Siqueira, Fernanda A.
    et al.
    Ishikawa, Eloisa E.
    Fogaça, André
    Faccio, Andréa T.
    Carneiro, Vânia M. T.
    Soares, Rafael R. S.
    Utaka, Aline
    Tébéka, Iris R. M.
    Bielawski, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Silva Jr., Luiz F.
    Metal-Free Synthesis of Indanes by Iodine(III)-Mediated Ring Contraction of 1,2-Dihydronaphthalenes2011In: Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, ISSN 0103-5053, E-ISSN 1678-4790, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1795-1807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A metal-free protocol was developed to synthesize indanes by ring contraction of 1,2-dihydronaphthalenes promoted by PhI(OH)OTs (HTIB or Koser’s reagent). This oxidative rearrangement can be performed in several solvents (MeOH, CH3CN, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE), 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), and a 1:4 mixture of TFE:CH2Cl2) under mild conditions. The ring contraction diastereoselectively gives functionalized trans-1,3-disubstituted indanes, which are difficult to obtain in synthetic organic chemistry.

  • 212.
    Slagbrand, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Development and Applications of Molybdenum-Catalyzed Chemoselective Amide Reduction2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis covers the development of catalytic methodologies for the mild and chemoselective hydrosilylation of amides. The first part describes the investigation of the Mo(CO)6-catalyzed reduction of carboxamides. It was found that the reduction could be controlled by tuning the reaction temperature and either amines or aldehydes could be obtained selectively. The system showed an unprecedented chemoselectivity and the amide reduction could take place in the presence of other reducible functional groups such as ketones, aldehydes, and imines. Moreover, the transformation could be performed on a preparative scale and was further employed in the synthesis of Donepezil, a pharmaceutical drug used in the treatment of Alzheimer´s disease.

    The third chapter concerns the development of the Mo(CO)6-mediated hydrosilylation protocol for the reduction of carboxamides containing acidic α-hydrogens. In this case, enamines were formed and a high level of chemoselectivity was observed. Enamines containing sensitive functional groups such as ketones, aldehydes and imines were generated. The enamines were not isolated but used in subsequent catalytic reductive functionalization of amides, which is described in the last part of the thesis (Chapters 4 – 7). The in situ formed enamines were reacted with a wide variety of electrophiles, generating heterocyclic compounds as triazolines, triazoles, 4,5-dihydroisoxazoles and pyrimidinediones. N-sulfonylformamidines as well as thioacrylamides could also be prepared with this approach. The protocols for the synthesis of triazolines, triazoles and N-sulfonylformamidines could additionally be performed on a preparative scale, showing the practicality of the methodology.

  • 213.
    Slättegård, Rikard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Synthesis of Structures Related to the Capsular Polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup A and to Mycothiol2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the synthesis of structures related to the capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A and the synthesis of analogues of mycothiol, a compound produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The first part of the thesis describes the synthesis of structural elements present in the native capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A. In this part, an improved synthesis of 2-azido-2-deoxy-D-mannopyranose is included. The second part of the thesis describes the formation of stable C-phosphonate analogues related to the capsular polysaccharide. The last part outlines the formation of analogues of mycothiol, where the syntheses of a bicyclic analogue and a thioglycosidic analogue are described.

  • 214.
    Stewart, Beverly
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Nyhlén, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Martin-Matute, Belén
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Privalov, Timofei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    A computational study of the CO dissociation in cyclopentadienyl ruthenium complexes relevant to the racemization of alcohols2013In: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 927-934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of an active 16-electron ruthenium sec-alkoxide complex via loss of the CO ligand is an important step in the mechanism of the racemization of sec-alcohols by (eta(5)-Ph5C5) Ru(CO)(2)X ruthenium complexes with X = Cl and OtBu. Here we show with accurate DFT calculations the potential energy profile of the CO dissociation pathway for a series of relevant (eta(5)-Ph5C5) Ru(CO) 2X complexes, where X = Cl, OtBu, H and (COOBu)-Bu-t. We have found that the CO dissociation energy increases in the following order: OtBu (lowest), Cl, COOtBu and H (highest). Using the distance between ruthenium and C-CO, r = Ru-C-CO, as a constraint, and by optimizing all other degrees of freedom for a range of Ru-CO distances, we obtained relative energies, Delta E(r) and geometries of a sufficient number of transient structures with the elongated Ru-CO bond up to r = 3.4 angstrom. Our calculations provide a quantitative understanding of the CO ligand dissociation in (eta(5)-Ph5C5) Ru(CO)(2)Cl and (eta(5)-Ph5C5) Ru(CO) 2(OtBu) complexes, which is relevant to the mechanism of their catalytic activity in the racemization of alcohols. We recently reported that exchange of the CO ligand by isotopically labeled (CO)-C-13 in the Ru-(OBu)-Bu-t complex occurs twenty times faster than that in the Ru-Cl complex. This corresponds to a difference of 1.8 kcal mol(-1) in the CO dissociation energy (at room temperature). This is in very good agreement with the calculated difference between the two potential energy curves for Ru-OtBu and Ru-Cl complexes, which is about 1.8-2 kcal mol(-1) around the corresponding transition states of the CO dissociation. The calculated difference in the total energy for CO dissociation in (eta(5)-Ph5C5) Ru(CO)(2)X complexes is related to the stabilization provided by the X group in the final 16-electron complexes, which are formed via product-like transition states. In addition to the calculated transition states of CO dissociation in Ru-OtBu and Ru-Cl complexes, the calculated transient structures with the elongated Ru-CO bond provide insight into how the geometry of the ruthenium complex with a potent heteroatom donor group (X) gradually changes when one of the COs is dissociating.

  • 215.
    Stridfeldt, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Hypervalent Iodine Reagents in Metal-Free Arylations and Vinylations: Investigation of Suitable Coupling Partners and Synthesis of New Reagents2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the development of metal-free reactions to obtain carbon-heteroatom and carbon-carbon bonds. This is achieved by transferring carbon ligands from hypervalent iodine reagents to suitable nucleophiles.

    The bulk of the work presented herein concerns arylation of oxygen and nitrogen nucleophiles, using the well-known diaryliodonium salts as aryl sources. In the first project, O-arylation of the oxime ethyl acetohydroxamate was studied. It was found that electron-poor as well as electron-rich aryl moieties could be transferred successfully to this nucleophile. Furthermore, the protocol could be extended to a sequential one-pot synthesis of benzo[b]furans. This method allowed for a fast synthesis of the natural product stemofuran A and formal syntheses of other natural products.

    In a successive project, O-arylation of hydroxide and aliphatic alkoxides was investigated. It is known that electron-poor aryl moieties can be transferred to these nucleophiles in moderate to high yields. However, combined with more electron-rich diaryliodonium salts, a large amount of side products were formed. These were suppressed upon addition of aryne traps, suggesting that aryne pathways are competing with the desired ligand coupling. It was also observed that secondary alcohols were oxidized to the corresponding ketones. The mechanism for this oxidation was investigated and aryne pathways could be excluded. Instead we suggest that the carbinol hydrogen gets deprotonated via an internal mechanism, after the alkoxide has coordinated to the iodonium salt. Highly sterically congested alkyl aryl ethers could be obtained in high yields by combining tertiary alcohols with ortho-blocked diaryliodonium salts. 

    Next, N-arylation of secondary acyclic amides was studied using acetanilide as the model substrate. This procedure was suitable for transfer of electron-poor as well as ortho-substituted aryl moieties, but attempts to transfer very electron-rich aryl groups were unsuccessful. On the other hand, the amides displayed a complementary reactivity, allowing phenylation of electron-rich amides. 

    In the final project, a one-pot synthesis of the cyclic iodonium reagent vinylbenziodoxolone is presented. These compounds have not been explored as reagents earlier. Initial screenings showed that the vinyl moiety could be transferred to nitrocyclohexane with opposite regioselectivity compared to the acyclic analogue of the reagent.

  • 216.
    Stridfeldt, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Lindstedt, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Reitti, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Blid, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Norrby, Per-Ola
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Competing Pathways in O-Arylations with Diaryliodonium Salts: Mechanistic Insights2017In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 23, no 53, p. 13249-13258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mechanistic study of arylations of aliphatic alcohols and hydroxide with diaryliodonium salts, to give alkyl aryl ethers and diaryl ethers, has been performed using experimental techniques and DFT calculations. Aryne intermediates have been trapped, and additives to avoid by-product formation originating from arynes have been found. An alcohol oxidation pathway was observed in parallel to arylation; this is suggested to proceed by an intramolecular mechanism. Product formation pathways via ligand coupling and arynes have been compared, and 4-coordinated transition states were found to be favored in reactions with alcohols. Furthermore, a novel, direct nucleophilic substitution pathway has been identified in reactions with electron-deficient diaryliodonium salts.

  • 217.
    Ståhle, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Structure Elucidations of Bacterial Polysaccharides using NMR Spectroscopy and Bioinformatics2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbohydrates are ubiquitous components in nature involved in a range of tasks. They cover every cell and contribute both structural stability as well as identity. Lipopolysaccharides are the outermost exposed part of the bacterial cell wall and the primary target for host-pathogen recognition. Understanding the structure and biosynthesis of these polysaccharides is crucial to combat disease and develop new medicine. Structural determinations can be carried out using NMR spectroscopy, a powerful tool giving information on an atomistic scale. This thesis is focused on method development to study polysaccharide structures as well as application on bacterial lipopolysaccharides. The focus has been to incorporate a bioinformatics approach prior to analysis by NMR spectroscopy, and then computer assisted methods to aid in the subsequent analysis of the spectra.

    The third chapter deals with the recent developments of ECODAB, a tool that can help predict structural fragments in Escherichia coli O-antigens. It was migrated to a relational database and the aforementioned predictions can now be made automatically by ECODAB. The fourth chapter gives insight into the program CASPER, a computer program that helps with structure determination of oligo- and polysaccharides. An approach to determine substituent positions in polysaccharides was investigated. The underlying database was also expanded and the improved capabilities were demonstrated by determining O-antigenic structures that could not previously be solved. The fifth chapter is an application to O‑antigen structures of E. coli strains. This is done by a combination of NMR spectroscopy and bioinformatics to predict components as well as linkages prior to spectra analysis. In the first case, a full structure elucidation was performed on E. coli serogroup O63, and in the second case a demonstration of the bioinformatics approach is done to E. coli serogroup O93. In the sixth chapter, a new version of the CarbBuilder software is presented. This includes a more robust building algorithm that helps build sterically crowded polysaccharide structures, as well as a general expansion of possible components. 

  • 218.
    Säwén, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    NMR spectroscopy and MD simulations of carbohydrates2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the structure, conformation and dynamics of carbohydrates is important in our understanding of the way carbohydrates function in biological systems, for example in intermolecular signaling and recognition. This thesis is a summary of five papers studying these properties in carbohydrate-containing molecules with NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations.

    In paper I, the ring-conformations of the six-membered rings of two carbaiduronic analogs were investigated. These carbasugars could potentially be used as hydrolytically stable mimics of iduronic acid in drugs. The study showed that the equilibrium is entirely shifted towards the 4C1 conformation.

    Paper II is an investigation of the conformational flexibility and dynamics of two (1→6)-linked disaccharides related to an oligosaccharide epitope expressed on malignant tumor cells.

    In paper III, the conformational space of the glycosidic linkage of an alfa-(1→2) linked mannose disaccharide present in N- and O-linked glycoproteins, was studied. A maximum entropy analysis using different priors as background information was used and four new Karplus equations for 3JC,C and 3JC,H coupling constants, related to the glycosidic linkage, were presented.

    Paper IV describes a structural elucidation of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Streptococcus thermophilus ST1, a major dairy starter used in yoghurt and cheese production. The EPS contains a hexasaccharide repeating unit of d-galactose and d-glucose residues, which is a new EPS structure of the S. thermophilus species.

    In paper V, the dynamics of three generations of glycodendrimers were investigated by NMR diffusion and 13C NMR relaxation studies. Three different correlations times were identified, one global correlation time describing the rotation of the dendrimer as a whole, one local correlation time describing the reorientation of the C-H vectors, and one correlation time describing the pulsation of a dendrimer branch.

  • 219.
    Teodorovic, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Synthesis of oligosaccharides related to the capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serotype A2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to find suitable stable vaccine candidates against Neisseria meningitidis group A, several structures related to the capsular polysaccharide have been synthesised. The first part of the thesis describes the synthesis of C-phosphonate analogues starting from glucose. The key step is a Mitsunobu coupling of a methyl C-phosphonate monomer to the 6-hydroxyl group of a 2-acetamido mannose derivative. Contained within this work is a description of an improved synthesis of 2-azido-2-deoxy-D-mannopyranose. The second part outlines the synthesis of structural elements present in the native capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serotype A including different acetylation and phosphorylation patterns. The final chapter describes an improved synthesis of the Lewis b hexasaccharide needed for purification of and interaction studies with the Helicobacter pylori adhesin BabA.

  • 220. Thorsheim, Karin
    et al.
    Siegbahn, Anna
    Johnsson, Richard E.
    Stalbrand, Henrik
    Manner, Sophie
    Bartholomeyzik, Teresa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ellervik, Ulf
    Chemistry of xylopyranosides2015In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 418, p. 65-88Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Xylose is one of the few monosaccharidic building blocks that are used by mammalian cells. In comparison with other monosaccharides, xylose is rather unusual and, so far, only found in two different mammalian structures, i.e. in the Notch receptor and as the linker between protein and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains in proteoglycans. Interestingly, simple soluble xylopyranosides can not only initiate the biosynthesis of soluble GAG chains but also function as inhibitors of important enzymes in the biosynthesis of proteoglycans. Furthermore, xylose is a major constituent of hemicellulosic xylans and thus one of the most abundant carbohydrates on Earth. Altogether, this has spurred a strong interest in xylose chemistry. The scope of this review is to describe synthesis of xylopyranosyl donors, as well as protective group chemistry, modifications, and conformational analysis of xylose.

  • 221.
    Tinnis, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Stridfeldt, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Lundberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Adolfsson, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Metal-Free N-Arylation of Secondary Amides at Room Temperature2015In: Organic Letters, ISSN 1523-7060, E-ISSN 1523-7052, Vol. 17, no 11, p. 2688-2691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The arylation of secondary acyclic amides has been achieved with diaryliodonium salts under mild and metal-free conditions. The methodology has a wide scope, allows synthesis of tertiary amides with highly congested aryl moieties, and avoids the regioselectivity problems observed in reactions with (diacetoxyiodo)benzene.

  • 222.
    Tinnis, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Verho, Oscar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Gustafson, Karl P. J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Adolfsson, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Efficient Palladium-Catalyzed Aminocarbonylation of Aryl Iodides Using Palladium Nanoparticles Dispersed on Siliceous Mesocellular Foam2014In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 20, no 20, p. 5885-5889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A highly dispersed nanopalladium catalyst supported on mesocellular foam (MCF), was successfully used in the heterogeneous catalysis of aminocarbonylation reactions. During the preliminary evaluation of this catalyst it was discovered that the supported palladium nanoparticles exhibited a “release and catch” effect, meaning that a minor amount of the heterogeneous palladium became soluble and catalyzed the reaction, after which it re-deposited onto the support.

  • 223.
    Tolnai, Gergely L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Nilsson, Ulf J.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Efficient O-Functionalization of Carbohydrates with Electrophilic Reagents2016In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 55, no 37, p. 11226-11230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel methodology for O-functionalization of carbohydrate derivatives has been established using bench-stable and easily prepared iodonium(III) reagents. Both electron-withdrawing and electron-donating aryl groups were introduced under ambient conditions and without precautions to exclude air or moisture. Furthermore, the approach was extended both to full arylation of cyclodextrin, and to trifluoroethylation of carbohydrate derivatives. This is the first general approach to introduce traditionally non-electrophilic groups into any of the OH groups around the sugar backbone. The methodology will be useful both in synthetic organic chemistry and biochemistry, as important functional groups can be incorporated under simple and robust reaction conditions in a fast and efficient manner.

  • 224.
    Tran, Lien-Hoa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Biomimetic Reactions: Water Oxidation and Aerobic Oxidation2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals mainly with two oxidation reactions: water oxidation and aerobic oxidation, both of which have been applied in a biomimetic fashion. In the former reaction molecular oxygen is generated whereas in the latter it was used as terminal oxidant in oxidation reactions.

    The first part of this thesis describes the synthesis of different ruthenium and manganese complexes that could potentially act as catalysts for water oxidation. This part includes a discussion of the stability and reactivity of a new manganese(III) amide-type complex, that has been used as a catalyst for both epoxidation of stilbene and alcohol oxidation.

    The second part of this thesis discusses the synthesis of two new hybrid catalysts consisting of hydroquinone linked cobalt(II) salophen and cobalt(II) salmdpt, which have been used as oxygen-activating catalysts in aerobic oxidation reactions. The former catalyst was applied to the Pd-catalyzed reactions such as 1,4-diacetoxylation of cyclohexadiene whereas the latter was applied to the Ru-catalyzed oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones. Moreover, these two hybrid catalysts could be used in the Pd-catalyzed carbocyclization of enallenes. In all cases molecular oxygen was used as the stoichiometric oxidant.

     

  • 225.
    Träff, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Asymmetric transformation of ß- and γ-functionalized alcohols: Study of combined ruthenium-catalyzed racemization and enzymatic resolution2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The major part of this thesis describes the asymmetric synthesis of β- and γ-amino alcohols through the combination of ruthenium catalyzed racemization and enzymatic kinetic resolution.

    The dynamic kinetic resolution, DKR, protocol for chlorohydrins was improved by employing Bäckvall’s catalyst, which is a base activated racemization catalyst, in combination with Burkholderia cepacia lipase. These optimized conditions broadened the substrate scope and improved the yields and ee’s of the obtained chlorohydrin acetates. The utility of the method was demonstrated in the synthesis of (S)-salbutamol.

    In the second part of the thesis, DKR was utilized in the enantio-determining step of the total synthesis of (R)-duloxetine. Optimized DKR conditions, combining Bäckvall’s catalyst together with Candida antarctica lipase B, afforded a β-cyano acetate in high yield and ee. (R)-Duloxetine was accessible through synthetic alterations of the enantioenriched β-cyano acetate in high overall yield.

    A dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation, DYKAT, protocol to obtain enantio- and diastereomerically pure γ-amino alcohols was developed. In a first step N-Boc-aminoketones were obtained in high enantiomeric purity through a proline-catalyzed Mannich reaction. Subsequent in situ reduction coupled with a highly efficient DYKAT yielded γ-amino acetates in high dr and ee. The γ-amino alcohols were available through simple hydrolysis/deprotection with retained stereochemistry.

    In the final part of the thesis a heterogeneous bifunctional catalytic system is reported, which combines the catalytic properties of transition metal-catalyzed racemization with enzymatic acylation. A novel ruthenium-phosphonate complex was synthesized and then covalently anchored to the active site of solid supported Candida antarctica lipase B. The partially inhibited beads proved to be catalytically active both in racemization as well as enzymatic acylation.

  • 226. Tutkowski, Brandon
    et al.
    Kerdphon, Sutthichat
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Limé, Elaine
    Helquist, Paul
    Andersson, Pher G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Wiest, Olaf
    Norrby, Per-Ola
    Revisiting the Stereodetermining Step in Enantioselective Iridium-Catalyzed Imine Hydrogenation2018In: ACS Catalysis, ISSN 2155-5435, E-ISSN 2155-5435, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 615-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism for the iridium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of prochiral imines has been investigated for an experimentally relevant ligand substrate combination using DFT calculations. The possible stereoisomers of the stereodetermining hydride transfer transition state were considered for four possible hydrogenation mechanisms starting from the recently disclosed active catalyst consisting of iridium phosphine-oxazoline with cyclometalated imine substrate. The hydrogenation was found to proceed via an outer sphere pathway. The transition state accurately describes the experimental observations of the active catalyst and provides a structural rationale for the high stereoinduction despite the lack of direct interaction points in the outer-sphere mechanism. The predicted enantioselectivity was consistent with experimental observations. Experimental studies support the hypothesis that the iridacycle forms spontaneously and functions as the active catalyst in the hydrogenation.

  • 227.
    Utas, Josefin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Hydrogen Bonded Phenols as Models for Redox-Active Tyrosines in Enzymes2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the impact of hydrogen bonding on the properties of phenols. The possibility for tyrosine to form hydrogen bonds to other amino acids has been found to be important for its function as an electron transfer mediator in a number of important redox enzymes. This study has focused on modeling the function of tyrosine in Photosystem II, a crucial enzyme in the photosynthetic pathway of green plants.

    Hydrogen bonds between phenol and amines in both inter- and intramolecular systems have been studied with quantum chemical calculations and also in some solid-state structures involving phenol and imidazole.

    Different phenols linked to amines have been synthesized and their possibilities of forming intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds have been studied as well as the thermodynamics and kinetics of the generation of phenoxyl radicals via oxidation reactions.

    Since carboxylates may in principle act as hydrogen bond acceptors in a manner similar to imidazole, proton coupled electron transfer has also been studied for a few phenols intramolecularly hydrogen bonded to carboxylates with the aim to elucidate the mechanism for oxidation. Electron transfer in a new linked phenol—ruthenium(II)trisbipyridine complex was studied as well.

    The knowledge is important for the ultimate goal of the project, which is to transform solar energy into a fuel by an artificial mimic of the natural photosynthetic apparatus

  • 228.
    Utas, Josefin E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Åkermark, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Efficient Synthesis of 2-Substituted Imidazoles by Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling with Benzylzinc Reagents2006In: Synlett: Accounts and Rapid Communications in Synthetic Organic Chemistry, ISSN 0936-5214, E-ISSN 1437-2096, no 12, p. 1965-1967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Substituted benzylzinc reagents have been used in novel cross-coupling reactions with 2-iodo imidazoles to form compounds containing both a phenol and an imidazole moiety. The ­intramolecular hydrogen-bonding properties of these compounds were subsequently studied.

  • 229.
    van der Werf, Angela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Hribersek, Matic
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Selander, Nicklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    N-Trifluoromethylation of Nitrosoarenes with Sodium Triflinate2017In: Organic Letters, ISSN 1523-7060, E-ISSN 1523-7052, Vol. 19, no 9, p. 2374-2377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A highly efficient N-trifluoromethylation of nitro-soarenes is reported. The inexpensive and convenient Langlois reagent (sodium triflinate) is employed as a Ch(3)-radical source in combination with a copper catalyst and an oxidant. N-Trifluoromethylated hychoxylamines are obtained in high yields within 1 h at room temperature. The addition of hydroquinone was found to be instrumental to prevent the formation of side products. The method is high-yielding is scalable, and displays a high functional group tolerance.

  • 230.
    van der Werf, Angela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Selander, Nicklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Para-Selective Halogenation of Nitrosoarenes with Copper(II) Halides2015In: Organic Letters, ISSN 1523-7060, E-ISSN 1523-7052, Vol. 17, no 24, p. 6210-6213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The para-selective direct bromination and chlorination of nitrosoarenes with copper(II) bromide and chloride is reported. Under mild reaction conditions, a rang of halogenated arylnitroso compounds are obtained in moderate to good yields with high regioselectivity. Additionally, the versatility of the method is demonstrated by the development of a One-pot procedure to obtain the corresponding para-halogenated aniline- and nitrobenzene derivatives.

  • 231.
    Vazquez-Romero, Ana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bermejo Gómez, Antonio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Martín-Matute, Belén
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Acid- and Iridium-Catalyzed Tandem 1,3-Transposition/3,1-Hydrogen Shift/Chlorination of Allylic Alcohols2015In: ACS Catalysis, ISSN 2155-5435, E-ISSN 2155-5435, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 708-714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for the selective synthesis of alpha-chlorocarbonyls from allylic alcohols is presented. The reaction occurs through an acid- and iridium-catalyzed tandem process that combines a 1,3-transposition, a 3,1-hydrogen shift, and a chlorination process, and can be applied to a wide range of alpha-aromatic and heteroaromatic secondary allylic alcohols. Saturated non-chlorinated ketones or other side-products derived from overchlorination were not detected.

  • 232. Verendel, J. Johan
    et al.
    Pamies, Oscar
    Dieguez, Montserrat
    Andersson, Pher G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Chem, Durban, South Africa.
    Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Olefins Using Chiral Crabtree-type Catalysts: Scope and Limitations2014In: Chemical Reviews, ISSN 0009-2665, E-ISSN 1520-6890, Vol. 114, no 4, p. 2130-2169Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 233.
    Verho, Oscar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Transition Metal-Catalyzed Redox Reactions: A Journey from Homogeneous Ruthenium to Heterogeneous Palladium Catalysis2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first part of the thesis covers the development and utilization of electronically modified (pentaarylcyclopentadienyl)Ru-complexes in the racemization of secondary alcohols. This study revealed that the electronic properties of the substrate were the main factors dictating whether β-hydride elimination or hydride re-addition becomes the rate-determining step of the racemization process. With this knowledge in hand, it proved to be possible to design more efficient racemization protocols by matching the electronic properties of catalyst and substrate.

    The second part describes mechanistic work that aimed at elucidating the role of CO dissociation in the mechanism of secondary alcohol racemization catalyzed by a (pentaarylcyclopentadienyl)Ru-complex. From CO exchange studies, we demonstrated that CO dissociation occurred in the catalytically active tert-BuO-species as well as in the chloride precatalyst. Furthermore, an inhibition study showed that an increase of the partial pressure of CO had a negative influence on the racemization rate. Together, these two observations provide strong support for CO dissociation as a key step in the racemization of secondary alcohols.

    The third part concerns the improved synthesis and characterization of a heterogeneous catalyst consisting of Pd nanoparticles immobilized on aminopropyl-functionalized siliceous mesocellular foam. The developed Pd nanocatalyst was found to be a highly efficient and recyclable catalyst for the aerobic oxidation of a wide range of primary and secondary alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones.

    The fourth part deals with the successful application of the Pd nanocatalyst in chemically-induced H2O oxidation, when using either ceric ammonium nitrate or [Ru(bpy)3]3+ as the terminal oxidant. Remarkably, the Pd nanocatalyst proved to catalyze this reaction with high efficiency and the measured TOF was found to greatly exceed those of current state-of-the-art metal oxide catalysts.

    The fifth and final part describes the co-immobilization of Pd nanoparticles and the enzyme Candida Antarctica Lipase B into the same cavities of mesocellular foam, to generate a “metalloenzyme-like” hybrid catalyst for the dynamic kinetic resolution of a primary amine. The close proximity of the two catalytic species led to an enhanced cooperativity between them and resulted in an overall more efficient tandem process. 

  • 234.
    Verho, Oscar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Gao, Feifei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Johnston, Eric V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Wan, Wei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Nagendiran, Anuja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Zheng, Haoquan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles applied as a support for Pd and Au nanocatalysts in cycloisomerization reactions2014In: APL materials, ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 2, no 11, p. 113316-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultra-small mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been synthesized at room temperature with particle sizes ranging from 28 to 45 nm. These MSNs have been employed as heterogeneous supports for palladium and gold nanocatalysts. The colloidal nature of the MSNs is highly useful for catalytic applications as it allows for better mass transfer properties and a more uniform distribution of the nanocatalysts in solution. The two nanocatalysts were evaluated in the cycloisomerization of alkynoic acids and demonstrated to produce the corresponding alkylidene lactones in good to excellent yields under mild conditions. In addition to their high activity, the catalysts exhibit low degree of metal leaching and straight-forward recycling, which highlight the practical utility of MSNs as supports for nanocatalysts. (C) 2014 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

  • 235.
    Verho, Oscar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Gustafson, Karl P. J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Nagendiran, Anuja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Mild and Selective Hydrogenation of Nitro Compounds using Palladium Nanoparticles Supported on Amino-Functionalized Mesocellular Foam2014In: ChemCatChem, ISSN 1867-3880, E-ISSN 1867-3899, Vol. 6, no 11, p. 3153-3159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the utilization of a heterogeneous catalyst comprised of Pd nanoparticles supported on aminopropyl-functionalized siliceous mesocellular foam (Pd-0-AmP-MCF) for the selective hydrogenation of aromatic, aliphatic, and heterocyclic nitro compounds to the corresponding amines. In general, the catalytic protocol exclusively affords the desired amine products in excellent yields within short reaction times with the reactions performed at room temperature under ambient pressure of H-2. Moreover, the reported Pd nanocatalyst displayed excellent structural integrity for this transformation as it could be recycled multiple times without any observable loss of activity or leaching of metal. In addition, the Pd nanocatalyst could be easily integrated into a continuous-flow device and used for the hydrogenation of 4-nitroanisole on a 2.5 g scale, where the product p-anisidine was obtained in 95% yield within 2 h with a Pd content of less than 1 ppm.

  • 236.
    Verho, Oscar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Nagendiran, Anuja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Johnston, Eric V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Nanopalladium on Amino-Functionalized Mesocellular Foam as an Efficient and Recyclable Catalyst for the Selective Transfer Hydrogenation of Nitroarenes to Anilines2014In: ChemCatChem, ISSN 1867-3880, E-ISSN 1867-3899, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 205-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, we report on the use of nanopalladium on amino-functionalized siliceous mesocellular foam as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the transfer hydrogenation of nitroarenes to anilines. In all cases, the protocol proved to be highly selective and favored the formation of the desired aniline as the single product in high yields with short reaction times if naturally occurring and renewable -terpinene was employed as the hydrogen donor. Furthermore, the catalyst displayed excellent recyclability over five cycles and negligible leaching of metal into solution, which makes it an eco-friendly and economic catalyst to perform this transformation. The scalability of the protocol was demonstrated with the reduction of 4-nitroanisole on a 2g scale, in which p-anisidine was isolated in 98% yield.

  • 237.
    Villo, Piret
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Kervefors, Gabriella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Transition metal-free, chemoselective arylation of thioamides yielding aryl thioimidates or N-aryl thioamides2018In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 54, no 64, p. 8810-8813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactions of secondary thioamides with diaryliodonium salts under basic, transition metal-free conditions resulted in chemoselective S-arylation to provide aryl thioimidates in good to excellent yields. Equimolar amounts of thioamide, base and diaryliodonium salt were sufficient to obtain a diverse selection of products within short reaction times. Reactions with thiolactams delivered N-arylated thioamides in good yield at room temperature.

  • 238.
    Volkov, Alexey
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Catalytic Amide Reductions under Hydrosilylation Conditions2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis covers the development of catalytic methodologies for the mild and chemoselective reductions of amides. The first part of the thesis describes the use of a Fe(II)/NHC catalyst for the deoxygenation of aromatic tertiary amides to corresponding amines. The protocol is characterized by low catalyst loading, mild reaction conditions and the use of air and moisture stable polymethylhydrosilaxane (PMHS) as the hydride source.

    The second part concerns the development of a protocol for the room temperature deoxygenation of a wide range of tertiary amides to amines using catalytic amounts of Et2Zn and LiCl together with PMHS. The system displayed high levels of chemoselectivity tolerating various reducible groups such as nitro, nitrile, and olefin functionalities, and was shown to be applicable for the reduction of aromatic, heteroaromatic and aliphatic tertiary amides.

    The attempts to expand the scope of the Fe-based protocol to accommodate benzylic tertiary amides led to the development of a transition metal-free catalytic system based on KOtBu for the formation of enamines. The final products constitute an important class of precursors for a wide range of valuable compounds in organic chemistry. Moreover, avoiding the use of transition metals in the protocol allowed the desired products to be obtained without the hazardous metal contaminants.

    The last chapter of the thesis describes the Mo(CO)6-catalyzed hydrosilylation of amides. The Mo-based catalyst was proven to mediate the deoxygenation of α,β-unsaturated tertiary and secondary amides to the corresponding allylamines without reduction of the olefinic bonds. Further development of the catalytic system revealed an unprecedented chemoselectivity in the hydrosilylation of aromatic and certain aliphatic tertiary amides in the presence of a variety of reducible groups along with aldehydes and imines that were tolerated for the first time. Moreover, it was possible to control the reaction outcome by variation of the reaction temperature to obtain either amines or aldehydes as the major products. The synthetic utility of the developed Mo(CO)6-catalyzed protocols was further demonstrated in the synthesis of the pharmaceuticals Naftifine and Donepezil.

  • 239.
    Volla, Chandra M. R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative Domino Carbocyclization- Carbonylation-Alkynylation of Enallenes2014In: Organic Letters, ISSN 1523-7060, E-ISSN 1523-7052, Vol. 16, no 16, p. 4174-4177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An oxidative carbocyclization-carbonylation-alkynylation reaction cascade has been developed using catalytic amounts of palladium(II) salts. The domino reaction proceeds efficiently, giving the corresponding ynones in good to excellent yields under operationally simple conditions. A wide range of aromatic and aliphatic terminal alkynes with various functional groups are tolerated under the reaction conditions.

  • 240.
    Volla, Chandra M. R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Mazuela, Javier
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative Carbocyclization-Carbonylation of Allenynes and Enallenes2014In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 20, no 25, p. 7608-7612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A highly efficient oxidative carbocyclization-carbonylation reaction cascade of allenynes and enallenes has been developed using a Pd-II salt in low catalytic amounts under ambient temperature and pressure (1 atm of carbon monoxide). The use of DMSO as an additive was found to be important for an efficient reaction. A wide range of alcohols as trapping reagents were used to give the corresponding esters in good yields.

  • 241.
    Wallner, Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis and Transformations of Organometallic Compounds2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is focused on two important fields of palladium catalysis: the development of electrophilic allylic substitution reactions via bis-allylpalladium intermediates; and application of palladium pincer-complexes in the synthesis and transformations of organometallic compounds.

    Palladium-catalyzed electrophilic allylation of aldehyde and imine substrates could be achieved using readily available allyl chlorides and acetates by employing hexamethylditin or bis(pinacolato)diboron reagents. The reaction proceeds under mild and neutral reaction conditions with high regioselectivity, providing the branched homoallylic products. The stereoselectivity of the reaction depends on the steric and electronic effects of the allylic substituents of the substrates. DFT modeling of the electrophilic attack on the bis-allylpalladium intermediate of the reaction revealed the origin of the regio- and stereoselectivity of the reaction.

    Palladium pincer-complexes were employed as catalysts in a variety of reactions such as stannylation, selenylation, allylation, and cross coupling reactions with various electrophiles. Allylic stannylation in the presence of hexamethylditin was achieved by use of an NCN palladium pincer-complex catalyst. In contrast to the reactions catalyzed by traditional palladium catalysts, isolation of functionalized allyl stannanes was possible due to the special features of the pincer-complex catalyst. Extension of the scope of the palladium pincer-complex catalyzed electrophilic allylation reactions was achieved by using potassium trifluoro(allyl)borate instead of allyl stannanes. In addition, asymmetric electrophilic allylation of sulfonimines was achieved by employment of novel BINOL-based palladium pincer-complexes. The enantioselectivity of the pincer-complex catalyst was fine-tuned by employment of substituted analogs of BINOL.

  • 242.
    Wang, Dong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    New Reactions with Allyl- and Allenylboron Reagents: Transition-Metal-Catalyzed and Transition-Metal-Free Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation Processes2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organoboron compounds have been widely used in carbon-carbon bond formation reactions in organic synthesis and catalysis. This thesis is focused on cross-coupling reactions of allyl-, allenylboronic acids and their ester derivatives via transition metal catalysis or transition-metal-free processes.

    The first part of the thesis describes Cu-catalyzed C(sp3)-C(sp3) formation reactions involving allylboronic acids and α-diazoketones. This coupling process shows high γ-regioselectivity, resulting in branched allylic products. When stereodefined cyclic allylboronic acids were employed as the substrate, the relative facial configuration was retained in the reaction product.

    The second part involves Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of allylboronic acid and α-diazoketones. The reaction proceeds with high α-regioselectivity, affording linear allylic products. Accordingly, the palladium- and copper-catalyzed cross-coupling of allylboronic acid and α-diazoketones occurs with opposite regioselectivity.

    The third part concerns a new transition-metal-free carbon-carbon bond formation between allenylboronic acids and in situ generated diazo compounds. The diazo compounds are generated from tosylhydrazones in the presence of base. The reaction is suitable for synthesis of densely substituted conjugated dienes with high Z-selectivity.

    In the final part, the allylation of quinones with allylboronates is presented. The reaction was performed without any catalyst or additive. Various quinones can be employed as substrates, including unsubstituted, monosubstituted benzoquinones and naphthoquinones.

  • 243.
    Warner, Madeleine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ruthenium-Catalyzed Hydrogen Transfer Reactions: Mechanistic Studies and Chemoenzymatic Dynamic Kinetic Resolutions2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of this thesis lies on transition metal-catalyzed hydrogen transfer reactions. In the first part of the thesis, the mechanism for racemization of sec-alcohols with a ruthenium complex, Ru(CO)2Cl(η5-C5Ph5) was studied.

    The reaction between 5-hexen-2-ol and Ru(CO)2(Ot-Bu)(η5-C5Ph5) was studied with the aim to elucidate the origin of the slow racemization observed for this sec-alcohol. Two diastereomers of an alkoxycarbonyl complex, which has the double bond coordinated to ruthenium, were characterized by NMR and in situ FT-IR spectroscopy. The observed inhibition of the rate of racemization for substrates with double bonds provided further confirmation of the importance of a free coordination site on ruthenium for β-hydride elimination. Furthermore, we observed that CO exchange, monitored by 13C NMR using 13CO, occurs with both the precatalyst, Ru(CO)2Cl(η5-C5Ph5), and the active catalytic intermediate, Ru(CO)2(Ot-Bu)(η5-C5Ph5). It was also found that added CO has an inhibitory effect on the rate of racemization of (S)-1-phenylethanol. Both these observations provide strong support for reversible CO dissociation as a key step in the racemization mechanism.

    In the second part of this thesis, Ru(CO)2Cl(η5-C5Ph5) was combined with an enzymatic resolution catalyzed by a lipase, leading to several efficient dynamic kinetic resolutions (DKR). DKR of exocyclic allylic alcohols afforded the corresponding acetates in high yields and with excellent enantiomeric excess (ee). The products were utilized as synthetic precursors for α-substituted ketones and lactones. DKR of a wide range of homoallylic alcohols afforded the products in good to high yields and with high ee. The homoallylic acetates were transformed into 5,6-dihydropyran-2-ones in a short reaction sequence. Furthermore, DKR of a wide range of aromatic β-chloroalcohols afforded the products in high yields and with excellent ee. The β-chloro acetates were further transformed into chiral epoxides.

  • 244.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    A perspective on the primary and three-dimensional structures of carbohydrates2013In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 378, p. 123-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbohydrates, in more biologically oriented areas referred to as glycans, constitute one of the four groups of biomolecules. The glycans, often present as glycoproteins or glycolipids, form highly complex structures. In mammals ten monosaccharides are utilized in building glycoconjugates in the form of oligo-(up to about a dozen monomers) and polysaccharides. Subsequent modifications and additions create a large number of different compounds. In bacteria, more than a hundred monosaccharides have been reported to be constituents of lipopolysaccharides, capsular polysaccharides, and exopolysaccharides. Thus, the number of polysaccharide structures possible to create is huge. NMR spectroscopy plays an essential part in elucidating the primary structure, that is, monosaccharide identity and ring size, anomeric configuration, linkage position, and sequence, of the sugar residues. The structural studies may also employ computational approaches for NMR chemical shift predictions (CASPER program). Once the components and sequence of sugar residues have been unraveled, the three-dimensional arrangement of the sugar residues relative to each other (conformation), their flexibility (transitions between and populations of conformational states), together with the dynamics (timescales) should be addressed. To shed light on these aspects we have utilized a combination of experimental liquid state NMR techniques together with molecular dynamics simulations. For the latter a molecular mechanics force field such as our CHARMM-based PARM22/SU01 has been used. The experimental NMR parameters acquired are typically H-1, H-1 cross-relaxation rates (related to NOEs), (3)JCH and (3)JCC trans-glycosidic coupling constants and H-1, C-13-and H-1, H-1-residual dipolar couplings. At a glycosidic linkage two torsion angles phi and psi are defined and for 6-substituted residues also the omega torsion angle is required. Major conformers can be identified for which highly populated states are present. Thus, in many cases a well-defined albeit not rigid structure can be identified. However, on longer timescales, oligosaccharides must be considered as highly flexible molecules since also anti-conformations have been shown to exist with H-C-O-C torsion angles of similar to 180 degrees, compared to syn-conformations in which the protons at the carbon atoms forming the glycosidic linkage are in close proximity. The accessible conformational space governs possible interactions with proteins and both minor changes and significant alterations occur for the oligosaccharides in these interaction processes. Transferred NOE NMR experiments give information on the conformation of the glycan ligand when bound to the proteins whereas saturation transfer difference NMR experiments report on the carbohydrate part in contact with the protein. It is anticipated that the subtle differences in conformational preferences for glycan structures facilitate a means to regulate biochemical processes in different environments. Further developments in the analysis of glycan structure and in particular its role in interactions with other molecules, will lead to clarifications of the importance of structure in biochemical regulation processes essential to health and disease.

  • 245.
    Wikmark, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Engineering Candida antarctica Lipase A for Enantioselective Transformations in Organic Synthesis: Design, Immobilization and Organic Solvent Screening of Smart Enzyme Libraries2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of enzymes as catalysts in organic synthesis constitutes an attractive alternative to conventional chemical catalysis. Enzymes are non-toxic and biodegradable and they can operate under mild reaction conditions. Furthermore, they often display high chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity, enabling specific reactions with single product outcome.

    By the use of protein engineering, enzymes can be altered for the specific needs of the researcher. The major part of this thesis describes engineering of lipase A from Candida antarctica (CalA), for improved enantioselectivity in organic synthetic transformations.

    The first part of the thesis describes a highly combinatorial method for the introduction of mutation sites in an enzyme library. By the simultaneous introduction of nine mutations, we found an enzyme variant with five out of the nine possible mutations. This quintuple variant had an enlarged active site pocket and was enantioselective and active for our model substrate, an ibuprofen ester. This is a bulky substrate for which the wild-type enzyme shows no enantioselectivity and very poor activity.

    In the second part of the thesis, we continued our approach of combinatorial, focused enzyme libraries. This time we aimed at decreasing the alcohol pocket of CalA, in order to increase the enantioselectivity for small and medium-sized secondary alcohols. The enzyme library was bound on microtiter plates and screened by a transacylation reaction in organic solvent. This library yielded an enzyme variant with high enantioselectivity for the model substrate 1-phenyl ethanol, and high to excellent selectivity for other alcohols tested. Screening in organic solvent is advantageous since a potential hit is more synthetically useful.

    In the third part of the thesis, we used manipulated beads of controlled porosity glass (EziG™) for enzyme immobilization, and demonstrated the generality of this carrier for several enzyme classes. EziG™ allowed fast enzyme immobilization with simultaneous purification and yielded active biocatalysts in all cases.

    The last project describes the function of the proposed active site flap in CalA. In our study, we removed this motif. The engineered variant was compared to the wild-type enzyme by testing the amount of interfacial activation and the selectivity for certain alcohols. We showed that the motif is indeed controlling the entrance to the active site and that the flap is not part of the enantioselectivity determining machinery. 

  • 246. Wu, Emilia L.
    et al.
    Fleming, Patrick J.
    Yeom, Min Sun
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Klauda, Jeffery B.
    Fleming, Karen G.
    Im, Wonpil
    E. coil Outer Membrane and Interactions with OmpLA2014In: Biophysical Journal, ISSN 0006-3495, E-ISSN 1542-0086, Vol. 106, no 11, p. 2493-2502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is a unique asymmetric lipid bilayer composed of phospholipids (PLs) in the inner leaflet and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in the outer leaflet. Its function as a selective barrier is crucial for the survival of bacteria in many distinct environments, and it also renders Gram-negative bacteria more resistant to antibiotics than their Gram-positive counterparts. Here, we report the structural properties of a model of the Escherichia coli outer membrane and its interaction with outer membrane phospholipase A (OmpLA) utilizing molecular dynamics simulations. Our results reveal that given the lipid composition used here, the hydrophobic thickness of the outer membrane is similar to 3 angstrom thinner than the corresponding PL bilayer, mainly because of the thinner LPS leaflet. Further thinning in the vicinity of OmpLA is observed due to hydrophobic matching. The particular shape of the OmpLA barrel induces various interactions between LPS and PL leaflets, resulting in asymmetric thinning around the protein. The interaction between OmpLA extracellular loops and LPS (headgroups and core oligosaccharides) stabilizes the loop conformation with reduced dynamics, which leads to secondary structure variation and loop displacement compared to that in a DLPC bilayer. In addition, we demonstrate that the LPS/PL ratios in asymmetric bilayers can be reliably estimated by the per-lipid surface area of each lipid type, and there is no statistical difference in the overall membrane structure for the outer membranes with one more or less LPS in the outer leaflet, although individual lipid properties vary slightly.

  • 247.
    Xu, Quan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Kerdphon, Sutthichat
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Andersson, Pher G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    C-C Coupling of Ketones with Methanol Catalyzed by a N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Phosphine Iridium Complex2015In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 21, p. 3576-3579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An N-heterocyclic carbene–phosphine iridium complex system was found to be a very efficient catalyst for the methylation of ketone via a hydrogen transfer reaction. Mild conditions together with low catalyst loading (1 mol %) were used for a tandem process which involves the dehydrogenation of methanol, CC bond formation with a ketone, and hydrogenation of the new generated double bond by iridium hydride to give the alkylated product. Using this iridium catalyst system, a number of branched ketones were synthesized with good to excellent conversions and yields.

  • 248.
    Xu, Yunhua
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Synthesis and Photoinduced Electron Transfer of Donor-Sensitizer-Acceptor Systems2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial systems involving water oxidation and solar cells are promising ways for the conversion of solar energy into fuels and electricity. These systems usually consist of a photosensitizer, an electron donor and / or an electron acceptor. This thesis deals with the synthesis and photoinduced electron transfer of several donor-sensitizer-acceptor supramolecular systems.

    The first part of this thesis describes the synthesis and properties of two novel dinuclear ruthenium complexes as electron donors to mimic the donor side reaction of Photosystem II. These two Ru2 complexes were then covalently linked to ruthenium trisbipyridine and the properties of the resulting trinuclear complexes were studied by cyclic voltammetry and transient absorption spectroscopy.

    The second part presents the synthesis and photoinduced electron transfer of covalently linked donor-sensitizer supramolecular systems in the presence of TiO2 as electron acceptors. Electron donors are tyrosine, phenol and their derivatives, and dinuclear ruthenium complexes. Intramolecular electron transfer from the donor to the oxidized sensitizer was observed by transient absorption spectroscopy after light excitation of the Ru(bpy)32+ moiety. The potential applications of Ru2-based electron donors in artificial systems for water oxidation and solar cells are discussed.

    In the final part, the photoinduced interfacial electron transfer in the systems based on carotenoids and TiO2 is studied. Carotenoids are shown to act as both sensitizers and electron donors, which could be used in artificial systems to mimic the electron transfer chain in natural photosynthesis.

  • 249.
    Yang, Bin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Catalytic Stereoselective Formation of C–O, C–C and C–B Bonds: A Voyage from Asymmetric Reactions Enabled by Lipases to Stereoselective Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative Transformations of Enallenes2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been focused on enzymatic kinetic resolutions and stereoselective oxidative transformations of enallenes catalyzed by PdII.

    In the first part of the thesis, a detailed discussion on Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB)-catalyzed kinetic resolution (KR) of δ-functionalized alkan-2-acetates is shown. We gained a deeper insight into the mechanism of enzyme-substrate recognition. Changing from an anhydrous solvent to water or a water-containing organic solvent enhanced the enantioselectivity. The effect of –OH was also confirmed by a lipase mutant suggesting that the water molecule mentioned above can be partly mimicked.

    In the second part of the thesis, we developed an efficient KR for allenic alcohols. On this basis, a novel synthesis of optically pure 2-substituted 2,3-dihydrofurans from allenic alcohols via a Ru-catalyzed cycloisomerization was reported. The developed protocol enabled us to assemble an optically pure precursor for total synthesis with three chiral centers from readily available allenol in 2 days.

    In the third part, we reported a class of reactions involving C–H cleavage under mild conditions: PdII-catalyzed oxidative transformations of enallenes. These reactions are particularly attractive since a number of meticulous structures have been achieved from readily accessible starting materials. The directing effect of an unsaturated hydrocarbon was found to be key for these transformations.

    In the final part, we developed the carbonylative insertion reaction discussed in the third part of the thesis into an asymmetric version. By using this methodology, a number of cyclopentenone compounds were obtained in good to excellent enantioselectivity.

  • 250.
    Yang, Bin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Lihammar, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Investigation of the Impact of Water on the Enantioselectivity Displayed by CALB in the Kinetic Resolution of δ-Functionalized Alkan-2-ol Derivatives2014In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 20, no 42, p. 13517-13521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is shown that the low enantioselectivity of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB)-catalyzed transesterification of a δ-functionalized alkan-2-ol to its acetate does not correlate at all with the high enantioselectivity of the CALB-catalyzed hydrolysis of the corresponding acetate in water. This lack of correlation is unusual and for unfunctionalized alkan-2-ol derivatives there is a very good correlation between the enantioselectivity of transesterification of the alcohol and hydrolysis of the corresponding acetate (E>200 in both cases). The results confirm previous predictions from molecular modeling. The water effect was mimicked by CALB variant Ala281Ser, which showed an enhanced enantioselectivity in transesterification of δ-functionalized alkan-2-ols compared to wild-type CALB.

23456 201 - 250 of 260
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