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  • 151.
    Platero-Prats, Ana E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Argonne National Laboratory, USA.
    Bermejo Gómez, Antonio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Chapman, Karena W.
    Martin-Matute, Belén
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Functionalising metal-organic frameworks with metal complexes: the role of structural dynamics2015In: CrystEngComm, ISSN 1466-8033, E-ISSN 1466-8033, Vol. 17, no 40, p. 7632-7635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of iridium-functionalised UiO-67 metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were synthesised under conditions that simulate kinetically- and thermodynamically-controlled regimes. The degree of functionalisation depends on the reaction time and relative acidity of the native- and metallo-linkers, and can be optimised by controlling the reaction time.

  • 152.
    Platero-Prats, Ana E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bermejo Gómez, Antonio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Samain, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Martin-Matute, Belén
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    The First One-Pot Synthesis of Metal-Organic Frameworks Functionalised with Two Transition-Metal Complexes2015In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 861-866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis of a metal-organic framework (UiO-67) functionalised simultaneously with two different transition metal complexes (Ir and Pd or Rh) through a one-pot procedure is reported for the first time. This has been achieved by an iterative modification of the synthesis parameters combined with characterisation of the resulting materials using different techniques, including X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The method also allows the first synthesis of UiO-67 with a very wide range of loadings (from 4 to 43 mol%) of an iridium complex ([IrCp*(bpydc)(Cl)Cl](2-); bpydc=2,2'-bipyridine-5,5'-dicarboxylate, Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) through a pre-functionalisation methodology.

  • 153.
    Pu, Maoping
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Molecular Motion in Frustrated Lewis Pair Chemistry: insights from modelling2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanisms of reactions of the frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) with carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen (H2) are studied by using quantum chemical modelling. FLPs are relatively novel chemical systems in which steric effects prevent a Lewis base (LB) from donating its electron pair to a Lewis acid (LA). From the main group of the periodic table, a variety of the electron pair donors and acceptors can create an FLP and the scope of the FLP chemistry is rapidly expanding at present. Representative intermolecular FLPs are phosphines and boranes with bulky electron-donating groups on phosphorus and bulky electron-withdrawing groups on boron – e.g., the tBu3P/B(C6F5)3 pair. The intramolecular FLPs feature linked LB and LA centers in one molecule.

    Investigations of the FLP reaction mechanisms were carried out using the transition state (TS) and the potential energy surface (PES) calculations plus the Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) as an efficient and robust implementation of general ab initio molecular dynamics scheme. In BOMD simulations, quantum and classical mechanics are combined. The electronic structure calculations are fully quantum via the density functional theory (DFT). Molecular motion at finite (non-zero) temperature is explicitly accounted for at non-quantized level via Newton’s equations. Due to recent advancements of computers and algorithms, one can treat fairly large macromolecular systems with BOMD and even include significant portion of the first solvation shell surrounding a large reacting complex in the molecular model.

    Main results are as follows. It is shown that dynamics is significant for understanding of FLP chemistry. The multiscale nature of motion – i.e., light molecules such as CO2 or H2 versus a pair of heavy LB and LA molecules – affects the evolution of interactions in the reacting complex. Motion which is perpendicular to the reaction coordinate was found to play a role in the transit of the activated complex through the TS-region. Regarding the heterolytic cleavage of H2 by tBu3P/B(C6F5)3 FLP simulated in gas phase and with explicit solvent, it was found that (i) the reaction path includes shallow quasi-minima “imbedded” in the TS-region, and (ii) tBu3P/B(C6F5)3 are almost stationary while proton- and hydride-like fragments of H2 move toward phosphorous and boron respectively. For binding of CO2 by tBu3P/B(C6F5)3 FLP, it was found that (i) the reacting complex can “wander” along the “potential energy wall” that temporarily blocks the path to the product, and (ii) the mechanism can combine the concerted and two-step reaction paths in solution. The discovered two-step binding of CO2 by tBu3P/B(C6F5)3 FLP involves solvent-stabilized phosphorus-carbon interactions (dative bonding). These and other presented results are corroborated and explained using TS and PES calculations. With computations of observable characteristics of reactions, it is pointed out how it could be possible to attain experimental proof of the results.

  • 154.
    Quan, Xu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Hydrogenation, Transfer Hydrogenation and Hydrogen Transfer Reactions Catalyzed by Iridium Complexes2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work described in this thesis is focused on the development of new bidentate iridium complexes and their applications in the asymmetric reduction of olefins, ketones and imines. Three new types of iridium complexes were synthesized, which included pyridine derived chiral N,P-iridium complexes, achiral NHC complexes and chiral NHC-phosphine complexes. A study of their catalytic applications demonstrated a high efficiency of the N,P-iridium complexes for asymmetric hydrogenation of olefins, with good enantioselectivity. The carbene complexes were found to be very efficient hydrogen transfer mediators capable of abstracting hydrogen from alcohols and subsequently transfer it to other unsaturated bonds. This hydrogen transferring property of the carbene complexes was used in the development of C–C and C–N bond formation reactions via the hydrogen borrowing process. The complexes displayed high catalytic reactivity using 0.5–1.0 mol% of the catalyst and mild reaction conditions. Finally chiral carbene complexes were found to be activated by hydrogen gas. Their corresponding iridium hydride species were able to reduce ketones and imines with high efficiency and enantioselectivity without any additives, base or acid.

  • 155.
    Quan, Xu
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Parihar, Vijay Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bera, Milan
    University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Andersson, Pher G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Iridium Catalysts with Chiral Bicyclic Pyridine-Phosphane Ligands for the Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Olefins2014In: European Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 1434-193X, E-ISSN 1099-0690, Vol. 2014, no 1, p. 140-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New bicyclic pyridine-phosphane ligands were prepared, and their iridium complexes were evaluated in asymmetric hydrogenation of trisubstituted olefins with non-coordinating and weakly coordinating substituents. The iridium catalysts showed high reactivity and enantioselectivity for both types of olefins.

  • 156.
    Rabten, Wangchuk
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    The Use of N,P-Iridium and N,P-Palladium Complexes in Asymmetric Synthesis2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this thesis concerns asymmetric catalysis using chiral N,P-ligands and iridium or palladium transition metals. The first part  (Chapters 2 and 3) highlights the N,P-iridium catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of 1,4-cyclohexadienes having functionalized or unfunctionalized substituents, including allylsilane side chains. A series of N,P-iridium catalysts were synthesized and screened on a number of cyclohexadienes. The developed N,P-iridium catalysts have provided excellent chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivity for most of the products obtained. For substrates having an allylsilane sidechain, the chiral cyclic allylsilane products were used to induce stereocontrol in a subsequent Hosomi-Sakurai reaction using TiCl4 as Lewis acid and aldehydes as electrophiles. The corresponding homoallylic alcohols were obtained in good to excellent diastereoselectivity. 

    The second part (Chapter 4) describes the N,P-iridium catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of various vinyl fluorides. A number of tri- and tetrasubstituted vinyl fluorides were synthesized and evaluated for the asymmetric hydrogenation. The corresponding saturated chiral fluoro compounds were obtained in very high enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee). The defluorination, usually known to occur under the catalytic hydrogenation conditions, were not observed for the majority of the substrates. 

    Finally, Chapter 5 describes the application of N,P-ligands in the asymmetric cycloisomerization of 1,6-enynes using a palladium precatalyst. The enantioselectivities for the products were found to depend both on the substrate as well as the hydrogen source. These developed catalytic reactions provide attractive methods to create multiple stereogenic centers in a molecule in relatively few steps from readily available starting materials.

  • 157.
    Ramstadius, Clinton
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Synthesis of Carbohydrate Mimics and Development of a Carbohydrate Epimerisation Method2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis the synthesis of several hydrolytically stable carbohydrate mimics with the potential to function as glycosidase or lectin inhibitors are described. This work is presented in Chapters 2-5.

    Chapters 2 and 3 describe synthetic efforts for producing carbasugars, and include the first synthesis of 1,2-bis-epi-valienamine and the preparation of two previously known aminocarbasugars. All three compounds were synthesised starting from D-mannose, using ring-closing metathesis as the key step. 1,2-Bis-epi-valienamine was found to inhibit Cellulomonas fimi β-mannosidase with a Ki value of 140 mM. Also included is the development of a novel synthetic route from cheap D-fructose to three mannose-mimicking carbasugars using a ring-closing metathesis strategy. Two of the compounds are potential inhibitors of the FimH adhesin.

    In Chapters 4 and 5 the synthesis of a number of pseudodisaccharides are presented; valienamine- and epi-valienamine-containing pseudodisaccharides and a small library of S-linked pseudodisaccharides were prepared. Various synthetic strategies were explored, including an alkylation strategy, Mitsunobu couplings, and sulfonate displacements. This is the first report on the synthesis of a valienamine pseudodisaccharide with β-lyxo-configuration. Two of the S-linked pseudodisaccharides were found to bind to Concanavalin A with high affinity.

    The final chapter (Chapter 6) of this thesis focuses on the development of a carbohydrate epimerisation method using transition metal catalysis. Two equilibrium constants involving gluco/manno- and gluco/allo-alcohols were determined via this method.

  • 158.
    Reitti, Marcus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Villo, Piret
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    One-Pot C-H Functionalization of Arenes by Diaryliodonium Salts2016In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 55, no 31, p. 8928-8932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A transition-metal-free, mild, and highly regioselective synthesis of nitroarenes from arenes has been developed. The products are obtained in a sequential one-pot reaction by nitration of iodine(III) reagents with two carbon ligands, which are formed in situ from iodine(I). This novel concept has been extended to formation of aryl azides, and constitutes an important step towards catalytic reactions with these hypervalent iodine reagents. An efficient nitration of isolated diaryl-iodonium salts has also been developed, and the mechanism is proposed to proceed by a [2,2] ligand coupling pathway.

  • 159.
    Rönnols, Jerk
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Structure, dynamics and reactivity of carbohydrates: NMR spectroscopic studies2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of this thesis is on the ring conformations of carbohydrate molecules; how the conformational equilibria and the rates of the associated interconversions are affected by the molecular constitution and their surroundings.

    The conformational equilibria of a group of amine linked pseudodisaccharides, designed as potential glycosidase inhibitors, comprising α-D-altrosides are described in Chapter 3. The OS2 conformation was largely populated, and the ring conformation was found to depend on the charge of the amine functionality.

    The conformations of β-D-xylopyranoside derivatives with naphthyl-based aglycones, which are potential anti-cancer agents, are described in chapter 4. Solvent dependent flexibility was observed. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds were concluded to be involved in the stabilization of 1C4 conformers in non-hydrogen bonding solvents of low polarity.

    Chapter 5 describes the first measurements of the conformational exchange rates of mannuronic acid ester derivatives between the 4C1 and 1C4 conformations, through DNMR measurements. The relative reactivity of glycosyl triflates as electrophiles in glycosylation reactions were investigated with NMR-based competition experiments.

    In Chapter 6, investigations of ruthenium-catalyzed epimerizations of the allylic alcohols of glycal derivatives, and stereoselective synthesis of esters through a DYKAT protocol, are described. The kinetics of the epimerizations were elaborated through different NMR-spectroscopic methods.

    Chapter 7 describes additions of NMR chemical shift data of mono- and oligosaccharides to database of the computer program CASPER, and applications thereof.

  • 160.
    Sahoo, Suman
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Lundberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Edén, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Physical Chemistry.
    Ahlsten, Nanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Wan, Wei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Martín-Matute, Belén
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Single Site Supported Cationic Rhodium(I) Complexes for the Selective Redox Isomerization of Allylic Alcohols2012In: ChemCatChem, ISSN 1867-3880, E-ISSN 1867-3899, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 243-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The isomerization of allylic alcohols to carbonyl compounds by a heterogeneous rhodium complex is reported. Different silica material supports and catalyst/ligand systems were evaluated. The most efficient catalyst in terms of catalytic activity and stability was found to be a cationic rhodium(I) complex with sulfonated phosphine ligands anchored on a mesoporous aluminosilica AlSBA-15. The heterogeneous complex catalyzed the isomerization of a variety of allylic alcohols in excellent yields with very low catalyst loadings (0.5 mol %). The catalyst could be recycled without significant loss of activity or selectivity. The optimized catalyst was characterized by N2 sorption, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, as well as solution and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopies.

  • 161.
    Samec, Joseph S M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogen transfer involving amines and imines: Mechanistic studies and synthetic applications2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogen transfer involving amines and imines and is divided into two parts.

    In Part 1 a mechanistic study has been performed. The complexation of the imine to the catalyst and the decomplexation patterns of the formed ruthenium-amine complexes, isotope studies, and exchange studies show that the mechanism of the hydrogen transfer involving amines and imines is different from the hydrogen transfer involving alcohols and carbonyls.

    In Part 2 synthetic applications of the hydrogen transfer is presented. First the rutheniumcatalyzed transfer hydrogenation of imines by 2-propanol in an unpolar solvent was investigated. The corresponding amines were isolated in good to excellent yields. Even imines bearing labile functional groups were smoothly transferred to amines with very low catalyst loadings and short reaction times employing microwave heating. Then the reverse reaction, transfer dehydrogenation of amines to imines, was investigated using either MnO2 or oxygen as terminal oxidant. Important products such as aldimines, ketimines, and non benzylic anilines were prepared in the aerobic oxidation. We also demonstrated that the aerobic oxidation is compatible with proline-mediated organocatalysis, yielding amines in high yields and ee:s. Finally the racemization of chiral amines was investigated. A cumbersome side product formation was investigated and hampered by the use of a mild hydrogen donor, giving a mild and efficient racemization process for both primary and secondary amines.

  • 162.
    Sandström, Anders G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Protein Engineering of Candida antarctica Lipase A: Enhancing Enzyme Properties by Evolutionary and Semi-Rational Methods2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzymes are gaining increasing importance as catalysts for selective transformations in organic synthetic chemistry. The engineering and design of enzymes is a developing, growing research field that is employed in biocatalysis. In the present thesis, combinatorial protein engineering methods are applied for the development of Candida antarctica lipase A (CALA) variants with broader substrate scope and increased enantioselectivity. Initially, the structure of CALA was deduced by manual modelling and later the structure was established by X-ray crystallography. The elucidation of the structure of CALA revealed several biocatalytically interesting features. With the knowledge derived from the enzyme structure, enzyme variants were produced via iterative saturation mutagenesis (ISM), a powerful protein engineering approach. Several of these variants were highly active and enantioselective towards bulky esters. Furthermore, an extensively combinatorial protein engineering approach was developed and investigated. A CALA variant with a spacious substrate binding pocket that can accommodate an unusually bulky substrate, an ester derivate of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (S)-ibuprofen, was obtained with this approach.

  • 163.
    Sandström, Anders G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Wikmark, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Engström, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Nyhlén, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Combinatorial reshaping of the Candida antarctica lipase A substrate pocket for enantioselectivity using an extremely condensed library2012In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 78-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A highly combinatorial structure-based protein engineering method for obtaining enantioselectivity is reported that results in a thorough modification of the substrate binding pocket of Candida antarctica lipase A (CALA). Nine amino acid residues surrounding the entire pocket were simultaneously mutated, contributing to a reshaping of the substrate pocket to give increased enantioselectivity and activity for a sterically demanding substrate. This approach seems to be powerful for developing enantioselectivity when a complete reshaping of the active site is required. Screening toward ibuprofen ester 1, a substrate for which previously used methods had failed, gave variants with a significantly increased enantioselectivity and activity. Wild-type CALA has a moderate activity with an E value of only 3.4 toward this substrate. The best variant had an E value of 100 and it also displayed a high activity. The variation at each mutated position was highly reduced, comprising only the wild type and an alternative residue, preferably a smaller one with similar properties. These minimal binary variations allow for an extremely condensed protein library. With this highly combinatorial method synergistic effects are accounted for and the protein fitness landscape is explored efficiently.

  • 164. Sapu, Chicco Manzuna
    et al.
    Görbe, Tamás
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Lihammar, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Deska, Jan
    Migratory Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of Carbocyclic Allylic Alcohols2014In: Organic Letters, ISSN 1523-7060, E-ISSN 1523-7052, Vol. 16, no 22, p. 5952-5955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel migratory dynamic kinetic resolution based on the interplay between an enzyme acylation catalyst and a heterogeneous Bronsted acid as an isomerization/racemization catalyst gives rise to carbocyclic allylic esters with excellent stereoselectivity from readily available tertiary carbinols. An easy-to-use teabag setup combining resin-bound catalysts, a biphasic isooctanewater solvent system, and a highly lipophilic acyl donor efficiently suppresses side reactions and allows for the preparation of functionalized carbocyclic building blocks in high yields and optical purity.

  • 165.
    Sebelius, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis and Transformation of Organoboranes2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the development of new palladium-catalyzed transformations involving synthesis and application of allylborane reagents. In these reactions various palladium sources, including pincer complexes and commonly used catalysts were applied.

    A new transformation for allylation of aldehyde and imine substrates was devised using allyl acetates, diboronate reagents and catalytic amounts of Pd2(dba)3. By employment of commercially available chiral diboronates enantioenriched homoallyl alcohols could be obtained.

    We have also developed a palladium-catalyzed method for synthesis of functionalized allylboronic acids from vinyl cyclopropane, vinyl aziridine, allyl acetate and allyl alcohol substrates using diboronic acid as reagent. In this process a highly selective selenium based pincer-complex was used as catalyst. The resulting allylboronic acid products were converted to potassium trifluoro(allyl)borates or allylboronates.

    The functionalized allylboronic acids generated in the above procedure were employed as reagents in two synthetic transformations. One of these transformations involves a palladium(0)-catalyzed coupling reaction between allylboronic acids and aryl iodides. The reaction was regioselective for the branched allylic product, typically difficult to prepare in the absence of directing groups. We also developed another transformation for allylation of aldehydes with allyl alcohols via allylboronic acid intermediate. This procedure can be performed as a simple one-pot sequence affording homoallyl alcohols with excellent stereo- and regioselectivity.

  • 166.
    Sebelius, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Kálmán J., Szabó
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Allylation of aldehyde and imine substrates with in situ generated allylboronates - a simple route to enantioenriched homoallyl alcohols2005In: European Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 1434-193X, E-ISSN 1099-0690, no 12, p. 2539-2547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allylation of aldehyde and imine substrates was achieved using easily available allylacetates and diboronate reagents in the presence of catalytic amounts of palladium. This operationally simple one-pot reaction has a broad synthetic scope, as many functionalities including, acetate, carbethoxy, amido and nitro groups are tolerated. The allylation reactions proceed with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity affording the branched allylic isomer. By employment of commercially available chiral diboronates enantioenriched homoallyl alcohols (up to 53% ee) could be obtained. The mechanistic studies revealed that the in situ generated allylboronates react directly with the aldehyde substrates, however the allylation of the sulfonylimine substrate requires palladium catalysis.

  • 167.
    Selander, Nicklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Catalytic Functionalization of Allylic Substrates by Palladium Pincer Complexes2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on the development of novel catalytic reactions for the synthesis and application of organometallic reagents. The main focus is directed towards organoboronate derivatives. We developed an efficient procedure for converting allylic alcohols to the corresponding allylboronates using palladium pincer complexes as catalysts. The reactions were performed under mild conditions with high selectivity, allowing further one-pot transformations. Using this approach, a variety of stereodefined homoallylic alcohols and amino acid derivatives were synthesized via trapping of the in situ generated allylboronate derivatives with an appropriate electrophile. The synthetic scope of these types of multi-component reactions is broad as many different substrate allylic alcohols may be used together with various electrophiles. Several aspects of these reactions were studied, including different reagents, catalysts and electrophiles.

    Furthermore, we studied the possibility to use oxidizing reagents as an essential component in the functionalization of olefins. Two main strategies were utilized for these catalytic methods using palladium pincer complexes. The functional group was either transferred from the oxidizing reagent, or introduced via an oxidation-transmetallation route. We propose that both methods involve palladium(IV) intermediates thus expanding both the coordination sphere of palladium and the synthetic scope of pincer complex catalysis.

  • 168.
    Selander, Nicklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Development of Multi-Component Reactions using Catalytically Generated Allyl Metal Reagents2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis is based on the development of catalytic reactions for the synthesis and application of organometallic reagents. By use of palladium pincer-complex catalysts, we have developed an efficient procedure for the synthesis of allylboronates starting from allylic alcohols. These reactions were further extended by including various one-pot multi-component reactions, using the in situ generated allylboronates. Furthermore, novel unsymmetrical palladium pincer-complexes were synthesized and studied in auto-tandem catalysis.

  • 169. Silva, Luiz F., Jr.
    et al.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of natural products2011In: Natural product reports (Print), ISSN 0265-0568, E-ISSN 1460-4752, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1722-1754Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the recent applications of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of natural products. The large diversity of high-yielding and chemoselective reactions that can be achieved, even for highly functionalized molecules, is summarized, demonstrating that hypervalent iodine reagents have become an essential tool in synthetic organic chemistry.

  • 170. Siqueira, Fernanda A.
    et al.
    Ishikawa, Eloisa E.
    Fogaça, André
    Faccio, Andréa T.
    Carneiro, Vânia M. T.
    Soares, Rafael R. S.
    Utaka, Aline
    Tébéka, Iris R. M.
    Bielawski, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Silva Jr., Luiz F.
    Metal-Free Synthesis of Indanes by Iodine(III)-Mediated Ring Contraction of 1,2-Dihydronaphthalenes2011In: Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, ISSN 0103-5053, E-ISSN 1678-4790, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1795-1807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A metal-free protocol was developed to synthesize indanes by ring contraction of 1,2-dihydronaphthalenes promoted by PhI(OH)OTs (HTIB or Koser’s reagent). This oxidative rearrangement can be performed in several solvents (MeOH, CH3CN, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE), 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), and a 1:4 mixture of TFE:CH2Cl2) under mild conditions. The ring contraction diastereoselectively gives functionalized trans-1,3-disubstituted indanes, which are difficult to obtain in synthetic organic chemistry.

  • 171.
    Slagbrand, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Development and Applications of Molybdenum-Catalyzed Chemoselective Amide Reduction2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis covers the development of catalytic methodologies for the mild and chemoselective hydrosilylation of amides. The first part describes the investigation of the Mo(CO)6-catalyzed reduction of carboxamides. It was found that the reduction could be controlled by tuning the reaction temperature and either amines or aldehydes could be obtained selectively. The system showed an unprecedented chemoselectivity and the amide reduction could take place in the presence of other reducible functional groups such as ketones, aldehydes, and imines. Moreover, the transformation could be performed on a preparative scale and was further employed in the synthesis of Donepezil, a pharmaceutical drug used in the treatment of Alzheimer´s disease.

    The third chapter concerns the development of the Mo(CO)6-mediated hydrosilylation protocol for the reduction of carboxamides containing acidic α-hydrogens. In this case, enamines were formed and a high level of chemoselectivity was observed. Enamines containing sensitive functional groups such as ketones, aldehydes and imines were generated. The enamines were not isolated but used in subsequent catalytic reductive functionalization of amides, which is described in the last part of the thesis (Chapters 4 – 7). The in situ formed enamines were reacted with a wide variety of electrophiles, generating heterocyclic compounds as triazolines, triazoles, 4,5-dihydroisoxazoles and pyrimidinediones. N-sulfonylformamidines as well as thioacrylamides could also be prepared with this approach. The protocols for the synthesis of triazolines, triazoles and N-sulfonylformamidines could additionally be performed on a preparative scale, showing the practicality of the methodology.

  • 172.
    Slättegård, Rikard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Synthesis of Structures Related to the Capsular Polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup A and to Mycothiol2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the synthesis of structures related to the capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A and the synthesis of analogues of mycothiol, a compound produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The first part of the thesis describes the synthesis of structural elements present in the native capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A. In this part, an improved synthesis of 2-azido-2-deoxy-D-mannopyranose is included. The second part of the thesis describes the formation of stable C-phosphonate analogues related to the capsular polysaccharide. The last part outlines the formation of analogues of mycothiol, where the syntheses of a bicyclic analogue and a thioglycosidic analogue are described.

  • 173.
    Stewart, Beverly
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Nyhlén, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Martin-Matute, Belén
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Privalov, Timofei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    A computational study of the CO dissociation in cyclopentadienyl ruthenium complexes relevant to the racemization of alcohols2013In: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 927-934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of an active 16-electron ruthenium sec-alkoxide complex via loss of the CO ligand is an important step in the mechanism of the racemization of sec-alcohols by (eta(5)-Ph5C5) Ru(CO)(2)X ruthenium complexes with X = Cl and OtBu. Here we show with accurate DFT calculations the potential energy profile of the CO dissociation pathway for a series of relevant (eta(5)-Ph5C5) Ru(CO) 2X complexes, where X = Cl, OtBu, H and (COOBu)-Bu-t. We have found that the CO dissociation energy increases in the following order: OtBu (lowest), Cl, COOtBu and H (highest). Using the distance between ruthenium and C-CO, r = Ru-C-CO, as a constraint, and by optimizing all other degrees of freedom for a range of Ru-CO distances, we obtained relative energies, Delta E(r) and geometries of a sufficient number of transient structures with the elongated Ru-CO bond up to r = 3.4 angstrom. Our calculations provide a quantitative understanding of the CO ligand dissociation in (eta(5)-Ph5C5) Ru(CO)(2)Cl and (eta(5)-Ph5C5) Ru(CO) 2(OtBu) complexes, which is relevant to the mechanism of their catalytic activity in the racemization of alcohols. We recently reported that exchange of the CO ligand by isotopically labeled (CO)-C-13 in the Ru-(OBu)-Bu-t complex occurs twenty times faster than that in the Ru-Cl complex. This corresponds to a difference of 1.8 kcal mol(-1) in the CO dissociation energy (at room temperature). This is in very good agreement with the calculated difference between the two potential energy curves for Ru-OtBu and Ru-Cl complexes, which is about 1.8-2 kcal mol(-1) around the corresponding transition states of the CO dissociation. The calculated difference in the total energy for CO dissociation in (eta(5)-Ph5C5) Ru(CO)(2)X complexes is related to the stabilization provided by the X group in the final 16-electron complexes, which are formed via product-like transition states. In addition to the calculated transition states of CO dissociation in Ru-OtBu and Ru-Cl complexes, the calculated transient structures with the elongated Ru-CO bond provide insight into how the geometry of the ruthenium complex with a potent heteroatom donor group (X) gradually changes when one of the COs is dissociating.

  • 174.
    Stridfeldt, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Hypervalent Iodine Reagents in Metal-Free Arylations and Vinylations: Investigation of Suitable Coupling Partners and Synthesis of New Reagents2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the development of metal-free reactions to obtain carbon-heteroatom and carbon-carbon bonds. This is achieved by transferring carbon ligands from hypervalent iodine reagents to suitable nucleophiles.

    The bulk of the work presented herein concerns arylation of oxygen and nitrogen nucleophiles, using the well-known diaryliodonium salts as aryl sources. In the first project, O-arylation of the oxime ethyl acetohydroxamate was studied. It was found that electron-poor as well as electron-rich aryl moieties could be transferred successfully to this nucleophile. Furthermore, the protocol could be extended to a sequential one-pot synthesis of benzo[b]furans. This method allowed for a fast synthesis of the natural product stemofuran A and formal syntheses of other natural products.

    In a successive project, O-arylation of hydroxide and aliphatic alkoxides was investigated. It is known that electron-poor aryl moieties can be transferred to these nucleophiles in moderate to high yields. However, combined with more electron-rich diaryliodonium salts, a large amount of side products were formed. These were suppressed upon addition of aryne traps, suggesting that aryne pathways are competing with the desired ligand coupling. It was also observed that secondary alcohols were oxidized to the corresponding ketones. The mechanism for this oxidation was investigated and aryne pathways could be excluded. Instead we suggest that the carbinol hydrogen gets deprotonated via an internal mechanism, after the alkoxide has coordinated to the iodonium salt. Highly sterically congested alkyl aryl ethers could be obtained in high yields by combining tertiary alcohols with ortho-blocked diaryliodonium salts. 

    Next, N-arylation of secondary acyclic amides was studied using acetanilide as the model substrate. This procedure was suitable for transfer of electron-poor as well as ortho-substituted aryl moieties, but attempts to transfer very electron-rich aryl groups were unsuccessful. On the other hand, the amides displayed a complementary reactivity, allowing phenylation of electron-rich amides. 

    In the final project, a one-pot synthesis of the cyclic iodonium reagent vinylbenziodoxolone is presented. These compounds have not been explored as reagents earlier. Initial screenings showed that the vinyl moiety could be transferred to nitrocyclohexane with opposite regioselectivity compared to the acyclic analogue of the reagent.

  • 175.
    Stridfeldt, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Lindstedt, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Reitti, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Blid, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Norrby, Per-Ola
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Competing Pathways in O-Arylations with Diaryliodonium Salts: Mechanistic Insights2017In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 23, no 53, p. 13249-13258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mechanistic study of arylations of aliphatic alcohols and hydroxide with diaryliodonium salts, to give alkyl aryl ethers and diaryl ethers, has been performed using experimental techniques and DFT calculations. Aryne intermediates have been trapped, and additives to avoid by-product formation originating from arynes have been found. An alcohol oxidation pathway was observed in parallel to arylation; this is suggested to proceed by an intramolecular mechanism. Product formation pathways via ligand coupling and arynes have been compared, and 4-coordinated transition states were found to be favored in reactions with alcohols. Furthermore, a novel, direct nucleophilic substitution pathway has been identified in reactions with electron-deficient diaryliodonium salts.

  • 176.
    Ståhle, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Structure Elucidations of Bacterial Polysaccharides using NMR Spectroscopy and Bioinformatics2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbohydrates are ubiquitous components in nature involved in a range of tasks. They cover every cell and contribute both structural stability as well as identity. Lipopolysaccharides are the outermost exposed part of the bacterial cell wall and the primary target for host-pathogen recognition. Understanding the structure and biosynthesis of these polysaccharides is crucial to combat disease and develop new medicine. Structural determinations can be carried out using NMR spectroscopy, a powerful tool giving information on an atomistic scale. This thesis is focused on method development to study polysaccharide structures as well as application on bacterial lipopolysaccharides. The focus has been to incorporate a bioinformatics approach prior to analysis by NMR spectroscopy, and then computer assisted methods to aid in the subsequent analysis of the spectra.

    The third chapter deals with the recent developments of ECODAB, a tool that can help predict structural fragments in Escherichia coli O-antigens. It was migrated to a relational database and the aforementioned predictions can now be made automatically by ECODAB. The fourth chapter gives insight into the program CASPER, a computer program that helps with structure determination of oligo- and polysaccharides. An approach to determine substituent positions in polysaccharides was investigated. The underlying database was also expanded and the improved capabilities were demonstrated by determining O-antigenic structures that could not previously be solved. The fifth chapter is an application to O‑antigen structures of E. coli strains. This is done by a combination of NMR spectroscopy and bioinformatics to predict components as well as linkages prior to spectra analysis. In the first case, a full structure elucidation was performed on E. coli serogroup O63, and in the second case a demonstration of the bioinformatics approach is done to E. coli serogroup O93. In the sixth chapter, a new version of the CarbBuilder software is presented. This includes a more robust building algorithm that helps build sterically crowded polysaccharide structures, as well as a general expansion of possible components. 

  • 177.
    Säwén, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    NMR spectroscopy and MD simulations of carbohydrates2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the structure, conformation and dynamics of carbohydrates is important in our understanding of the way carbohydrates function in biological systems, for example in intermolecular signaling and recognition. This thesis is a summary of five papers studying these properties in carbohydrate-containing molecules with NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations.

    In paper I, the ring-conformations of the six-membered rings of two carbaiduronic analogs were investigated. These carbasugars could potentially be used as hydrolytically stable mimics of iduronic acid in drugs. The study showed that the equilibrium is entirely shifted towards the 4C1 conformation.

    Paper II is an investigation of the conformational flexibility and dynamics of two (1→6)-linked disaccharides related to an oligosaccharide epitope expressed on malignant tumor cells.

    In paper III, the conformational space of the glycosidic linkage of an alfa-(1→2) linked mannose disaccharide present in N- and O-linked glycoproteins, was studied. A maximum entropy analysis using different priors as background information was used and four new Karplus equations for 3JC,C and 3JC,H coupling constants, related to the glycosidic linkage, were presented.

    Paper IV describes a structural elucidation of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Streptococcus thermophilus ST1, a major dairy starter used in yoghurt and cheese production. The EPS contains a hexasaccharide repeating unit of d-galactose and d-glucose residues, which is a new EPS structure of the S. thermophilus species.

    In paper V, the dynamics of three generations of glycodendrimers were investigated by NMR diffusion and 13C NMR relaxation studies. Three different correlations times were identified, one global correlation time describing the rotation of the dendrimer as a whole, one local correlation time describing the reorientation of the C-H vectors, and one correlation time describing the pulsation of a dendrimer branch.

  • 178.
    Teodorovic, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Synthesis of oligosaccharides related to the capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serotype A2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to find suitable stable vaccine candidates against Neisseria meningitidis group A, several structures related to the capsular polysaccharide have been synthesised. The first part of the thesis describes the synthesis of C-phosphonate analogues starting from glucose. The key step is a Mitsunobu coupling of a methyl C-phosphonate monomer to the 6-hydroxyl group of a 2-acetamido mannose derivative. Contained within this work is a description of an improved synthesis of 2-azido-2-deoxy-D-mannopyranose. The second part outlines the synthesis of structural elements present in the native capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serotype A including different acetylation and phosphorylation patterns. The final chapter describes an improved synthesis of the Lewis b hexasaccharide needed for purification of and interaction studies with the Helicobacter pylori adhesin BabA.

  • 179.
    Tinnis, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Stridfeldt, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Lundberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Adolfsson, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Metal-Free N-Arylation of Secondary Amides at Room Temperature2015In: Organic Letters, ISSN 1523-7060, E-ISSN 1523-7052, Vol. 17, no 11, p. 2688-2691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The arylation of secondary acyclic amides has been achieved with diaryliodonium salts under mild and metal-free conditions. The methodology has a wide scope, allows synthesis of tertiary amides with highly congested aryl moieties, and avoids the regioselectivity problems observed in reactions with (diacetoxyiodo)benzene.

  • 180.
    Tinnis, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Verho, Oscar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Gustafson, Karl P. J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Adolfsson, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Efficient Palladium-Catalyzed Aminocarbonylation of Aryl Iodides Using Palladium Nanoparticles Dispersed on Siliceous Mesocellular Foam2014In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 20, no 20, p. 5885-5889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A highly dispersed nanopalladium catalyst supported on mesocellular foam (MCF), was successfully used in the heterogeneous catalysis of aminocarbonylation reactions. During the preliminary evaluation of this catalyst it was discovered that the supported palladium nanoparticles exhibited a “release and catch” effect, meaning that a minor amount of the heterogeneous palladium became soluble and catalyzed the reaction, after which it re-deposited onto the support.

  • 181.
    Tolnai, Gergely L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Nilsson, Ulf J.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Efficient O-Functionalization of Carbohydrates with Electrophilic Reagents2016In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 55, no 37, p. 11226-11230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel methodology for O-functionalization of carbohydrate derivatives has been established using bench-stable and easily prepared iodonium(III) reagents. Both electron-withdrawing and electron-donating aryl groups were introduced under ambient conditions and without precautions to exclude air or moisture. Furthermore, the approach was extended both to full arylation of cyclodextrin, and to trifluoroethylation of carbohydrate derivatives. This is the first general approach to introduce traditionally non-electrophilic groups into any of the OH groups around the sugar backbone. The methodology will be useful both in synthetic organic chemistry and biochemistry, as important functional groups can be incorporated under simple and robust reaction conditions in a fast and efficient manner.

  • 182.
    Tran, Lien-Hoa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Biomimetic Reactions: Water Oxidation and Aerobic Oxidation2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals mainly with two oxidation reactions: water oxidation and aerobic oxidation, both of which have been applied in a biomimetic fashion. In the former reaction molecular oxygen is generated whereas in the latter it was used as terminal oxidant in oxidation reactions.

    The first part of this thesis describes the synthesis of different ruthenium and manganese complexes that could potentially act as catalysts for water oxidation. This part includes a discussion of the stability and reactivity of a new manganese(III) amide-type complex, that has been used as a catalyst for both epoxidation of stilbene and alcohol oxidation.

    The second part of this thesis discusses the synthesis of two new hybrid catalysts consisting of hydroquinone linked cobalt(II) salophen and cobalt(II) salmdpt, which have been used as oxygen-activating catalysts in aerobic oxidation reactions. The former catalyst was applied to the Pd-catalyzed reactions such as 1,4-diacetoxylation of cyclohexadiene whereas the latter was applied to the Ru-catalyzed oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones. Moreover, these two hybrid catalysts could be used in the Pd-catalyzed carbocyclization of enallenes. In all cases molecular oxygen was used as the stoichiometric oxidant.

     

  • 183.
    Träff, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Asymmetric transformation of ß- and γ-functionalized alcohols: Study of combined ruthenium-catalyzed racemization and enzymatic resolution2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The major part of this thesis describes the asymmetric synthesis of β- and γ-amino alcohols through the combination of ruthenium catalyzed racemization and enzymatic kinetic resolution.

    The dynamic kinetic resolution, DKR, protocol for chlorohydrins was improved by employing Bäckvall’s catalyst, which is a base activated racemization catalyst, in combination with Burkholderia cepacia lipase. These optimized conditions broadened the substrate scope and improved the yields and ee’s of the obtained chlorohydrin acetates. The utility of the method was demonstrated in the synthesis of (S)-salbutamol.

    In the second part of the thesis, DKR was utilized in the enantio-determining step of the total synthesis of (R)-duloxetine. Optimized DKR conditions, combining Bäckvall’s catalyst together with Candida antarctica lipase B, afforded a β-cyano acetate in high yield and ee. (R)-Duloxetine was accessible through synthetic alterations of the enantioenriched β-cyano acetate in high overall yield.

    A dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation, DYKAT, protocol to obtain enantio- and diastereomerically pure γ-amino alcohols was developed. In a first step N-Boc-aminoketones were obtained in high enantiomeric purity through a proline-catalyzed Mannich reaction. Subsequent in situ reduction coupled with a highly efficient DYKAT yielded γ-amino acetates in high dr and ee. The γ-amino alcohols were available through simple hydrolysis/deprotection with retained stereochemistry.

    In the final part of the thesis a heterogeneous bifunctional catalytic system is reported, which combines the catalytic properties of transition metal-catalyzed racemization with enzymatic acylation. A novel ruthenium-phosphonate complex was synthesized and then covalently anchored to the active site of solid supported Candida antarctica lipase B. The partially inhibited beads proved to be catalytically active both in racemization as well as enzymatic acylation.

  • 184.
    Utas, Josefin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Hydrogen Bonded Phenols as Models for Redox-Active Tyrosines in Enzymes2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the impact of hydrogen bonding on the properties of phenols. The possibility for tyrosine to form hydrogen bonds to other amino acids has been found to be important for its function as an electron transfer mediator in a number of important redox enzymes. This study has focused on modeling the function of tyrosine in Photosystem II, a crucial enzyme in the photosynthetic pathway of green plants.

    Hydrogen bonds between phenol and amines in both inter- and intramolecular systems have been studied with quantum chemical calculations and also in some solid-state structures involving phenol and imidazole.

    Different phenols linked to amines have been synthesized and their possibilities of forming intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds have been studied as well as the thermodynamics and kinetics of the generation of phenoxyl radicals via oxidation reactions.

    Since carboxylates may in principle act as hydrogen bond acceptors in a manner similar to imidazole, proton coupled electron transfer has also been studied for a few phenols intramolecularly hydrogen bonded to carboxylates with the aim to elucidate the mechanism for oxidation. Electron transfer in a new linked phenol—ruthenium(II)trisbipyridine complex was studied as well.

    The knowledge is important for the ultimate goal of the project, which is to transform solar energy into a fuel by an artificial mimic of the natural photosynthetic apparatus

  • 185.
    Utas, Josefin E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Åkermark, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Efficient Synthesis of 2-Substituted Imidazoles by Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling with Benzylzinc Reagents2006In: Synlett: Accounts and Rapid Communications in Synthetic Organic Chemistry, ISSN 0936-5214, E-ISSN 1437-2096, no 12, p. 1965-1967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Substituted benzylzinc reagents have been used in novel cross-coupling reactions with 2-iodo imidazoles to form compounds containing both a phenol and an imidazole moiety. The ­intramolecular hydrogen-bonding properties of these compounds were subsequently studied.

  • 186.
    van der Werf, Angela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Hribersek, Matic
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Selander, Nicklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    N-Trifluoromethylation of Nitrosoarenes with Sodium Triflinate2017In: Organic Letters, ISSN 1523-7060, E-ISSN 1523-7052, Vol. 19, no 9, p. 2374-2377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A highly efficient N-trifluoromethylation of nitro-soarenes is reported. The inexpensive and convenient Langlois reagent (sodium triflinate) is employed as a Ch(3)-radical source in combination with a copper catalyst and an oxidant. N-Trifluoromethylated hychoxylamines are obtained in high yields within 1 h at room temperature. The addition of hydroquinone was found to be instrumental to prevent the formation of side products. The method is high-yielding is scalable, and displays a high functional group tolerance.

  • 187.
    van der Werf, Angela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Selander, Nicklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Para-Selective Halogenation of Nitrosoarenes with Copper(II) Halides2015In: Organic Letters, ISSN 1523-7060, E-ISSN 1523-7052, Vol. 17, no 24, p. 6210-6213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The para-selective direct bromination and chlorination of nitrosoarenes with copper(II) bromide and chloride is reported. Under mild reaction conditions, a rang of halogenated arylnitroso compounds are obtained in moderate to good yields with high regioselectivity. Additionally, the versatility of the method is demonstrated by the development of a One-pot procedure to obtain the corresponding para-halogenated aniline- and nitrobenzene derivatives.

  • 188.
    Vazquez-Romero, Ana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bermejo Gomez, Antonio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Martin-Matute, Belén
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Acid- and Iridium-Catalyzed Tandem 1,3-Transposition/3,1-Hydrogen Shift/Chlorination of Allylic Alcohols2015In: ACS Catalysis, ISSN 2155-5435, E-ISSN 2155-5435, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 708-714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for the selective synthesis of alpha-chlorocarbonyls from allylic alcohols is presented. The reaction occurs through an acid- and iridium-catalyzed tandem process that combines a 1,3-transposition, a 3,1-hydrogen shift, and a chlorination process, and can be applied to a wide range of alpha-aromatic and heteroaromatic secondary allylic alcohols. Saturated non-chlorinated ketones or other side-products derived from overchlorination were not detected.

  • 189. Verendel, J. Johan
    et al.
    Pamies, Oscar
    Dieguez, Montserrat
    Andersson, Pher G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Chem, Durban, South Africa.
    Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Olefins Using Chiral Crabtree-type Catalysts: Scope and Limitations2014In: Chemical Reviews, ISSN 0009-2665, E-ISSN 1520-6890, Vol. 114, no 4, p. 2130-2169Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 190.
    Verho, Oscar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Transition Metal-Catalyzed Redox Reactions: A Journey from Homogeneous Ruthenium to Heterogeneous Palladium Catalysis2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first part of the thesis covers the development and utilization of electronically modified (pentaarylcyclopentadienyl)Ru-complexes in the racemization of secondary alcohols. This study revealed that the electronic properties of the substrate were the main factors dictating whether β-hydride elimination or hydride re-addition becomes the rate-determining step of the racemization process. With this knowledge in hand, it proved to be possible to design more efficient racemization protocols by matching the electronic properties of catalyst and substrate.

    The second part describes mechanistic work that aimed at elucidating the role of CO dissociation in the mechanism of secondary alcohol racemization catalyzed by a (pentaarylcyclopentadienyl)Ru-complex. From CO exchange studies, we demonstrated that CO dissociation occurred in the catalytically active tert-BuO-species as well as in the chloride precatalyst. Furthermore, an inhibition study showed that an increase of the partial pressure of CO had a negative influence on the racemization rate. Together, these two observations provide strong support for CO dissociation as a key step in the racemization of secondary alcohols.

    The third part concerns the improved synthesis and characterization of a heterogeneous catalyst consisting of Pd nanoparticles immobilized on aminopropyl-functionalized siliceous mesocellular foam. The developed Pd nanocatalyst was found to be a highly efficient and recyclable catalyst for the aerobic oxidation of a wide range of primary and secondary alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones.

    The fourth part deals with the successful application of the Pd nanocatalyst in chemically-induced H2O oxidation, when using either ceric ammonium nitrate or [Ru(bpy)3]3+ as the terminal oxidant. Remarkably, the Pd nanocatalyst proved to catalyze this reaction with high efficiency and the measured TOF was found to greatly exceed those of current state-of-the-art metal oxide catalysts.

    The fifth and final part describes the co-immobilization of Pd nanoparticles and the enzyme Candida Antarctica Lipase B into the same cavities of mesocellular foam, to generate a “metalloenzyme-like” hybrid catalyst for the dynamic kinetic resolution of a primary amine. The close proximity of the two catalytic species led to an enhanced cooperativity between them and resulted in an overall more efficient tandem process. 

  • 191.
    Verho, Oscar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Gao, Feifei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Johnston, Eric V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Wan, Wei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Nagendiran, Anuja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Zheng, Haoquan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles applied as a support for Pd and Au nanocatalysts in cycloisomerization reactions2014In: APL materials, ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 2, no 11, p. 113316-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultra-small mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been synthesized at room temperature with particle sizes ranging from 28 to 45 nm. These MSNs have been employed as heterogeneous supports for palladium and gold nanocatalysts. The colloidal nature of the MSNs is highly useful for catalytic applications as it allows for better mass transfer properties and a more uniform distribution of the nanocatalysts in solution. The two nanocatalysts were evaluated in the cycloisomerization of alkynoic acids and demonstrated to produce the corresponding alkylidene lactones in good to excellent yields under mild conditions. In addition to their high activity, the catalysts exhibit low degree of metal leaching and straight-forward recycling, which highlight the practical utility of MSNs as supports for nanocatalysts. (C) 2014 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

  • 192.
    Verho, Oscar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Gustafson, Karl P. J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Nagendiran, Anuja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Mild and Selective Hydrogenation of Nitro Compounds using Palladium Nanoparticles Supported on Amino-Functionalized Mesocellular Foam2014In: ChemCatChem, ISSN 1867-3880, E-ISSN 1867-3899, Vol. 6, no 11, p. 3153-3159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the utilization of a heterogeneous catalyst comprised of Pd nanoparticles supported on aminopropyl-functionalized siliceous mesocellular foam (Pd-0-AmP-MCF) for the selective hydrogenation of aromatic, aliphatic, and heterocyclic nitro compounds to the corresponding amines. In general, the catalytic protocol exclusively affords the desired amine products in excellent yields within short reaction times with the reactions performed at room temperature under ambient pressure of H-2. Moreover, the reported Pd nanocatalyst displayed excellent structural integrity for this transformation as it could be recycled multiple times without any observable loss of activity or leaching of metal. In addition, the Pd nanocatalyst could be easily integrated into a continuous-flow device and used for the hydrogenation of 4-nitroanisole on a 2.5 g scale, where the product p-anisidine was obtained in 95% yield within 2 h with a Pd content of less than 1 ppm.

  • 193.
    Verho, Oscar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Nagendiran, Anuja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Johnston, Eric V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Nanopalladium on Amino-Functionalized Mesocellular Foam as an Efficient and Recyclable Catalyst for the Selective Transfer Hydrogenation of Nitroarenes to Anilines2014In: ChemCatChem, ISSN 1867-3880, E-ISSN 1867-3899, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 205-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, we report on the use of nanopalladium on amino-functionalized siliceous mesocellular foam as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the transfer hydrogenation of nitroarenes to anilines. In all cases, the protocol proved to be highly selective and favored the formation of the desired aniline as the single product in high yields with short reaction times if naturally occurring and renewable -terpinene was employed as the hydrogen donor. Furthermore, the catalyst displayed excellent recyclability over five cycles and negligible leaching of metal into solution, which makes it an eco-friendly and economic catalyst to perform this transformation. The scalability of the protocol was demonstrated with the reduction of 4-nitroanisole on a 2g scale, in which p-anisidine was isolated in 98% yield.

  • 194.
    Volkov, Alexey
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Catalytic Amide Reductions under Hydrosilylation Conditions2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis covers the development of catalytic methodologies for the mild and chemoselective reductions of amides. The first part of the thesis describes the use of a Fe(II)/NHC catalyst for the deoxygenation of aromatic tertiary amides to corresponding amines. The protocol is characterized by low catalyst loading, mild reaction conditions and the use of air and moisture stable polymethylhydrosilaxane (PMHS) as the hydride source.

    The second part concerns the development of a protocol for the room temperature deoxygenation of a wide range of tertiary amides to amines using catalytic amounts of Et2Zn and LiCl together with PMHS. The system displayed high levels of chemoselectivity tolerating various reducible groups such as nitro, nitrile, and olefin functionalities, and was shown to be applicable for the reduction of aromatic, heteroaromatic and aliphatic tertiary amides.

    The attempts to expand the scope of the Fe-based protocol to accommodate benzylic tertiary amides led to the development of a transition metal-free catalytic system based on KOtBu for the formation of enamines. The final products constitute an important class of precursors for a wide range of valuable compounds in organic chemistry. Moreover, avoiding the use of transition metals in the protocol allowed the desired products to be obtained without the hazardous metal contaminants.

    The last chapter of the thesis describes the Mo(CO)6-catalyzed hydrosilylation of amides. The Mo-based catalyst was proven to mediate the deoxygenation of α,β-unsaturated tertiary and secondary amides to the corresponding allylamines without reduction of the olefinic bonds. Further development of the catalytic system revealed an unprecedented chemoselectivity in the hydrosilylation of aromatic and certain aliphatic tertiary amides in the presence of a variety of reducible groups along with aldehydes and imines that were tolerated for the first time. Moreover, it was possible to control the reaction outcome by variation of the reaction temperature to obtain either amines or aldehydes as the major products. The synthetic utility of the developed Mo(CO)6-catalyzed protocols was further demonstrated in the synthesis of the pharmaceuticals Naftifine and Donepezil.

  • 195.
    Volla, Chandra M. R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative Domino Carbocyclization- Carbonylation-Alkynylation of Enallenes2014In: Organic Letters, ISSN 1523-7060, E-ISSN 1523-7052, Vol. 16, no 16, p. 4174-4177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An oxidative carbocyclization-carbonylation-alkynylation reaction cascade has been developed using catalytic amounts of palladium(II) salts. The domino reaction proceeds efficiently, giving the corresponding ynones in good to excellent yields under operationally simple conditions. A wide range of aromatic and aliphatic terminal alkynes with various functional groups are tolerated under the reaction conditions.

  • 196.
    Volla, Chandra M. R.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Mazuela, Javier
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative Carbocyclization-Carbonylation of Allenynes and Enallenes2014In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 20, no 25, p. 7608-7612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A highly efficient oxidative carbocyclization-carbonylation reaction cascade of allenynes and enallenes has been developed using a Pd-II salt in low catalytic amounts under ambient temperature and pressure (1 atm of carbon monoxide). The use of DMSO as an additive was found to be important for an efficient reaction. A wide range of alcohols as trapping reagents were used to give the corresponding esters in good yields.

  • 197.
    Wallner, Olov
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis and Transformations of Organometallic Compounds2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is focused on two important fields of palladium catalysis: the development of electrophilic allylic substitution reactions via bis-allylpalladium intermediates; and application of palladium pincer-complexes in the synthesis and transformations of organometallic compounds.

    Palladium-catalyzed electrophilic allylation of aldehyde and imine substrates could be achieved using readily available allyl chlorides and acetates by employing hexamethylditin or bis(pinacolato)diboron reagents. The reaction proceeds under mild and neutral reaction conditions with high regioselectivity, providing the branched homoallylic products. The stereoselectivity of the reaction depends on the steric and electronic effects of the allylic substituents of the substrates. DFT modeling of the electrophilic attack on the bis-allylpalladium intermediate of the reaction revealed the origin of the regio- and stereoselectivity of the reaction.

    Palladium pincer-complexes were employed as catalysts in a variety of reactions such as stannylation, selenylation, allylation, and cross coupling reactions with various electrophiles. Allylic stannylation in the presence of hexamethylditin was achieved by use of an NCN palladium pincer-complex catalyst. In contrast to the reactions catalyzed by traditional palladium catalysts, isolation of functionalized allyl stannanes was possible due to the special features of the pincer-complex catalyst. Extension of the scope of the palladium pincer-complex catalyzed electrophilic allylation reactions was achieved by using potassium trifluoro(allyl)borate instead of allyl stannanes. In addition, asymmetric electrophilic allylation of sulfonimines was achieved by employment of novel BINOL-based palladium pincer-complexes. The enantioselectivity of the pincer-complex catalyst was fine-tuned by employment of substituted analogs of BINOL.

  • 198.
    Warner, Madeleine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ruthenium-Catalyzed Hydrogen Transfer Reactions: Mechanistic Studies and Chemoenzymatic Dynamic Kinetic Resolutions2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of this thesis lies on transition metal-catalyzed hydrogen transfer reactions. In the first part of the thesis, the mechanism for racemization of sec-alcohols with a ruthenium complex, Ru(CO)2Cl(η5-C5Ph5) was studied.

    The reaction between 5-hexen-2-ol and Ru(CO)2(Ot-Bu)(η5-C5Ph5) was studied with the aim to elucidate the origin of the slow racemization observed for this sec-alcohol. Two diastereomers of an alkoxycarbonyl complex, which has the double bond coordinated to ruthenium, were characterized by NMR and in situ FT-IR spectroscopy. The observed inhibition of the rate of racemization for substrates with double bonds provided further confirmation of the importance of a free coordination site on ruthenium for β-hydride elimination. Furthermore, we observed that CO exchange, monitored by 13C NMR using 13CO, occurs with both the precatalyst, Ru(CO)2Cl(η5-C5Ph5), and the active catalytic intermediate, Ru(CO)2(Ot-Bu)(η5-C5Ph5). It was also found that added CO has an inhibitory effect on the rate of racemization of (S)-1-phenylethanol. Both these observations provide strong support for reversible CO dissociation as a key step in the racemization mechanism.

    In the second part of this thesis, Ru(CO)2Cl(η5-C5Ph5) was combined with an enzymatic resolution catalyzed by a lipase, leading to several efficient dynamic kinetic resolutions (DKR). DKR of exocyclic allylic alcohols afforded the corresponding acetates in high yields and with excellent enantiomeric excess (ee). The products were utilized as synthetic precursors for α-substituted ketones and lactones. DKR of a wide range of homoallylic alcohols afforded the products in good to high yields and with high ee. The homoallylic acetates were transformed into 5,6-dihydropyran-2-ones in a short reaction sequence. Furthermore, DKR of a wide range of aromatic β-chloroalcohols afforded the products in high yields and with excellent ee. The β-chloro acetates were further transformed into chiral epoxides.

  • 199.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    A perspective on the primary and three-dimensional structures of carbohydrates2013In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 378, p. 123-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbohydrates, in more biologically oriented areas referred to as glycans, constitute one of the four groups of biomolecules. The glycans, often present as glycoproteins or glycolipids, form highly complex structures. In mammals ten monosaccharides are utilized in building glycoconjugates in the form of oligo-(up to about a dozen monomers) and polysaccharides. Subsequent modifications and additions create a large number of different compounds. In bacteria, more than a hundred monosaccharides have been reported to be constituents of lipopolysaccharides, capsular polysaccharides, and exopolysaccharides. Thus, the number of polysaccharide structures possible to create is huge. NMR spectroscopy plays an essential part in elucidating the primary structure, that is, monosaccharide identity and ring size, anomeric configuration, linkage position, and sequence, of the sugar residues. The structural studies may also employ computational approaches for NMR chemical shift predictions (CASPER program). Once the components and sequence of sugar residues have been unraveled, the three-dimensional arrangement of the sugar residues relative to each other (conformation), their flexibility (transitions between and populations of conformational states), together with the dynamics (timescales) should be addressed. To shed light on these aspects we have utilized a combination of experimental liquid state NMR techniques together with molecular dynamics simulations. For the latter a molecular mechanics force field such as our CHARMM-based PARM22/SU01 has been used. The experimental NMR parameters acquired are typically H-1, H-1 cross-relaxation rates (related to NOEs), (3)JCH and (3)JCC trans-glycosidic coupling constants and H-1, C-13-and H-1, H-1-residual dipolar couplings. At a glycosidic linkage two torsion angles phi and psi are defined and for 6-substituted residues also the omega torsion angle is required. Major conformers can be identified for which highly populated states are present. Thus, in many cases a well-defined albeit not rigid structure can be identified. However, on longer timescales, oligosaccharides must be considered as highly flexible molecules since also anti-conformations have been shown to exist with H-C-O-C torsion angles of similar to 180 degrees, compared to syn-conformations in which the protons at the carbon atoms forming the glycosidic linkage are in close proximity. The accessible conformational space governs possible interactions with proteins and both minor changes and significant alterations occur for the oligosaccharides in these interaction processes. Transferred NOE NMR experiments give information on the conformation of the glycan ligand when bound to the proteins whereas saturation transfer difference NMR experiments report on the carbohydrate part in contact with the protein. It is anticipated that the subtle differences in conformational preferences for glycan structures facilitate a means to regulate biochemical processes in different environments. Further developments in the analysis of glycan structure and in particular its role in interactions with other molecules, will lead to clarifications of the importance of structure in biochemical regulation processes essential to health and disease.

  • 200.
    Wikmark, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Engineering Candida antarctica Lipase A for Enantioselective Transformations in Organic Synthesis: Design, Immobilization and Organic Solvent Screening of Smart Enzyme Libraries2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of enzymes as catalysts in organic synthesis constitutes an attractive alternative to conventional chemical catalysis. Enzymes are non-toxic and biodegradable and they can operate under mild reaction conditions. Furthermore, they often display high chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity, enabling specific reactions with single product outcome.

    By the use of protein engineering, enzymes can be altered for the specific needs of the researcher. The major part of this thesis describes engineering of lipase A from Candida antarctica (CalA), for improved enantioselectivity in organic synthetic transformations.

    The first part of the thesis describes a highly combinatorial method for the introduction of mutation sites in an enzyme library. By the simultaneous introduction of nine mutations, we found an enzyme variant with five out of the nine possible mutations. This quintuple variant had an enlarged active site pocket and was enantioselective and active for our model substrate, an ibuprofen ester. This is a bulky substrate for which the wild-type enzyme shows no enantioselectivity and very poor activity.

    In the second part of the thesis, we continued our approach of combinatorial, focused enzyme libraries. This time we aimed at decreasing the alcohol pocket of CalA, in order to increase the enantioselectivity for small and medium-sized secondary alcohols. The enzyme library was bound on microtiter plates and screened by a transacylation reaction in organic solvent. This library yielded an enzyme variant with high enantioselectivity for the model substrate 1-phenyl ethanol, and high to excellent selectivity for other alcohols tested. Screening in organic solvent is advantageous since a potential hit is more synthetically useful.

    In the third part of the thesis, we used manipulated beads of controlled porosity glass (EziG™) for enzyme immobilization, and demonstrated the generality of this carrier for several enzyme classes. EziG™ allowed fast enzyme immobilization with simultaneous purification and yielded active biocatalysts in all cases.

    The last project describes the function of the proposed active site flap in CalA. In our study, we removed this motif. The engineered variant was compared to the wild-type enzyme by testing the amount of interfacial activation and the selectivity for certain alcohols. We showed that the motif is indeed controlling the entrance to the active site and that the flap is not part of the enantioselectivity determining machinery. 

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