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  • 1.
    Abbas, Alaa
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC.
    Palladium-Catalysed Carbonylative Synthesis of Acylamidines2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 2.
    Alfredsson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi.
    Synthesis and Characterization of Acrylfentanyl Metabolites2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Acrylfentanyl is a synthetic opioid that has been widely used in the last year. To help in the fight against synthetic drugs two potential metabolites of acrylfentanyl, one monohydroxy and one dihydroxy were synthesized. These metabolites will hopefully later be implemented in the analytical methods for metabolites of acrylfentanyl in urine by the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine.

    To have metabolites for analysis are very important as they are the main target in drug testing.

    The method used to synthesize the metabolites is a five-step synthesis with an additional 6th step for the dihydroxy metabolite. The methods used in the synthesis includes protection of amine with tert-butyloxycarbonyl, reductive amination with sodium triaceto boronhydride, alkylation and demethylation with boron tribromide. The methods used produced good results with high yields in nearly all steps.

  • 3.
    Antonsson, Cecilia
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013).
    Mjölk, gluten och ADHD: En litteraturundersökning om mjölk och glutens påverkan hos barn med ADHD2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is becoming a more common diagnosis of younger children. In recent years the perception that some ingredients in our food may have a negative effect regarding the symptoms in children with ADHD has grown stronger. Children with ADHD often suffer from irritated bowel syndromes which affect their ability to digest food. This may result in malnutrition as well as a release of substances that are harmful.The purpose of this report is to compile and illustrate the knowledge of how special food, particular milk protein and gluten, may affect the symptoms of children with ADHD. Also, the report aims to evaluate if there should be changes made in Kindergarten to increase the well-being of these children. The report is a summary of research results on the effects milk protein and gluten have on children with ADHD.The majority of children with ADHD demonstrate decreased symptoms if they receive a diet without milk protein and gluten.If children with ADHD would be given a special diet excluding milk protein and gluten it is realistic to assume that their ADHD-symptoms might be reduced with a greater sense of well-being and quality of life as a result.

  • 4.
    Bengtsson, Linda
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Odorant binding protein and olfactory receptors: plausible role as detectors in an odorant biosensor2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The development of an inexpensive, portable, stable, sensitive and selective biosensor for detection of odorants is a daunting task. Here, we hypothesized the development of a detector layer composed of the protein groups; the olfactory receptors (ORs) and the odorant binding proteins (OBPs), known to bind odorants in animal sensing. We report the design of 13 OR gene-vector constructs, and their subsequent transformation into

    Escherichia (E.) coli (BL21 (DE3)-STAR-pLysS) strain. Moreover, we report the expression of several ORs into an in vitro wheat germ extract using three separate detergent mixes for protein solubilization.

     

    In addition, we describe the design of an odorant binding protein from the Aenopheles gambiae mosquito PEST strain (OBP-PEST) gene-vector construct under an IPTG (Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside) inducible promoter. OBP-PEST was heterologously expressed in E.coli with an 8 amino acid long sequence (WSPQFEK) attached C-terminally, via a thrombin cleavage site and a flexible linker (GSSG). The WSPQFEK sequence, commonly referred to as a Strep-tag, enabled subsequent affinity chromatography purification of the protein, via binding to an engineered Streptavidin equivalent. Surprisingly, the OBP-PEST was found to contain a signal sequence leading to its truncation and secretion when expressed in E.coli.

     

    Biophysical analyses were established using Circular Dichroism (CD) for the analysis of two lipocalins: Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) and OBP-PEST. We studied the solubility, refoldability and the conformational transitions of BLG, as a result of change in solvent, pH and temperature. The secondary structure of OBP-PEST and its thermal stability was investigated.

     

    In conclusion, this thesis work has enabled biophysical analyses of OBP-PEST and future analogs of interest to the development of a stable protein detector layer. Although further experiments are needed to fully characterize the biophysical properties, and to find odorant substrates of OBP-PEST, it was found to be a suitable alternative to ORs in a biosensor detector layer application. More importantly, an inherent OBP-PEST signal sequence was found to mediate protein secretion when expressed heterologously in E.coli. To the best of our knowledge this is the first lipocalin discovered to be secreted upon heterologous expression in E.coli.

     

    We hypothesize that this signal peptide could be used as a means for targeted secretion and, hence, efficient protein purification.

  • 5.
    Blomkvist, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    The application of reversible covalent bonds in catalysis2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This work has been concerned with the study of ligand exchange of trimethylborate and its  ability to induce temporary intramolecularity. Experiments aimed at understanding the affinity of various alcohols and amines to boron centers by studying the formation of mixed borate species during equilibrium. Furthermore, a variety of reactions has been screened with the aim to perform catalysis by induced intramolecularity through the trimethylborate.

  • 6.
    Dhillon, Prakriti
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Cobalt-catalysed, regioselective C-H activation of amides with unsymmetrical 1,3-diynes using 8-aminoquinoline as a bidentate directing group2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A cobalt-catalysed, ortho-directed, C-H activation of 8-aminoquinoline amides for the preparation of functionalised isoquinolones is reported. The C-H activation was performed with the amide derived from 8-aminoquinoline which acts as a bidentate directing group to facilitate the C-H activation at the ortho carbon atom of the amide towards annulation/cyclisation, with unsymmetrical 1,3-diynes. The work presented here is an exploration of the regiochemical outcome of an efficient and a novel route of synthesis that tries to gain a deeper insight into the regioselective preference for C-H activated annulations that result in the formation of a diverse range of alkynylated regioisomeric heterocycles. Of the four possible regioisomers, only one is formed as the major product depending on the stereoelectronic properties of the diyne in combination with the nature of the 8-aminoquinoline amide.

  • 7.
    Dollevoet, Kim
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC, Organisk kemi.
    C-H activation of indoles catalyzed by a ruthenium-complex: Synthesis of 2-3-hexene-1-(pyrimidin-2-yl)1H-indole2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 8.
    Fauquet, Germain
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Reconnaissance biomoléculaire, Comparaison de l'impact du soufre et de l'oxygène dans la liaison glycosidique2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Interactions between carbohydrates and proteins play a key role in many biological processes. Cell-cell interactions, cell communication and cell proliferation are examples of processes based on highly specific interactions between proteins and complex oligosaccharides. The synthesis of carbohydrate mimics is essential for the study and understanding of such recognition processes, and has therefore become increasingly popular over the latest decades. In synthesis, thiol derivatives have several advantages. Thus, the combined nucleophilicity and chemical stability of sulfhydryl groups render thiol carbohydrate analogs as excellent building blocks for glycosylation processes. The objectives of the present project were to investigate the differences between naturally occurring oligosaccharides and their sulfur-analogs in biomolecular interactions with specific proteins. Convenient methodologies to the synthesis of a range of D-mannopyranose thioanalogs were developed. These strategies allows for the access to 1,2- and 1,6-linked dimannosides by glycosylation. A carbohydrate-protein interaction methodology to test the developed compounds against a mannose-specific lectin (Concanavalin A) using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) methodology was furthermore developed.

  • 9.
    Fors, Jonathan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Modeling and OpenFOAM simulation of streamers in transformer oil2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Electric breakdown in power transformers is preceded by pre-breakdown events such as streamers. The understanding of these phenomena is important in order to optimize liquid insulation systems. Earlier works have derived a model that describes streamers in transformer oil and utilized a finite element method to produce numerical solutions. This research investigates the consequences of changing the numerical method to a finite volume-based solver implemented in OpenFOAM. Using a standardized needle-sphere geometry, a number of oil and voltage combinations were simulated, and the results are for the most part similar to those produced by the previous method. In cases with differing results the change is attributed to the more stable numerical performance of the OpenFOAM solver. A proof of concept for the extension of the simulation from a two-dimensional axial symmetry to three dimensions is also presented.

  • 10.
    Fouilland, Laura
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Synthesis of novel 1.10-phenanthrolins and cyclic analogs, a potential anticancer and antimalarial agents2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The potential antimalarial and anticancer effect of molecules containing 1,10-phenanthroline skeleton has been suspected on several previous studies. It is why the goal of this project is to synthesize novel 1,10-phenanthrolines and cyclic analogs.

    The originality of this project is the synthesis way of these novel compounds. Indeed, these structures will be obtained through an original redox approach developed in the SMITH laboratory using the tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene (TDAE) reagent.

         The TDAE is an electron rich organic molecule which is an effective reducing agent capable of generating an anion from halogenated derivatives under mild conditions via a single electron transfer (SET). From the different substrate we will work with, the TDAE will generate an anion which will be additioned on the 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione.

    These different substrates will be aromatic and heterocyclic nitro-benzylic, and quinonic derivates as well as bromodifluoromethyl heteroarylated substrates.

    A one pot two step (reduction, dehydration) reaction will be done on these addition products, in order to obtain a cyclised product.

     

         It is the first time we try these reactions on these kind on molecules, it is why this project needs a lot of optimization and that the yield obtained are medium or equal to zero. However, we observed that the addition reaction with TDAE worked with 4 substrates out of 6.

    We tried the cyclisation reaction on only one addition product and we think that after some improvement of the reaction conditions and the work-up, we will be able to obtain the product with a good yield.

  • 11.
    Fyrner, Timmy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Synthesis of Structures Related to Antifreeze Glycoproteins2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, synthesis of structures related to antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) are presented. Synthetic routes to a protected carbohydrate derivative, 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-β-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-2-deoxy-2-azido-4,6-di-O-benzyl-β-D-thio-1-galactopyranoside, and a tBu-Ala-Thr-Ala-Fmoc tripeptide, are described. These compounds are meant to be used in the assembly of AFGPs and analogues thereof. A Gal-GlcN disaccharide was synthesized via glycosylation between the donor, bromo-2-O-benzoyl-3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-α-Dgalactopyranoside, and acceptor, ethyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-2-deoxy-2-N-phthalimido-β-D-1-thio-glucopyranoside, using silver triflate activation. Subsequent epimerization to a Gal-GalN disaccharide was achieved using Moffatt oxidation followed by L-selectride® reduction. The tripeptide was synthesized in a short and convenient manner using solid phase peptide synthesis with immobilized Fmoc-Ala on Wang® resins as starting point.

  • 12.
    Fällman, Tove
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC.
    Capturing of the carbonyl oxide intermediate in ozonolysis using aldehydes and ketones2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 13.
    Goy, Michel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Jakobsson, Catharina
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Kartläggning av allergiframkallande hårfärgningsämnen i toningar i Stockholm2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    En vanlig källa till kontakallergiskt eksem är sensibiliserande (allergiframkallande) kemikalier som finns i hårfärger. Permanenta hårfärger innehåller kraftiga allergener, men det saknas kartläggande forskning på toningar. För att ta reda på vilka allergener som ingår i toningar behöver dagens utbud kartläggas. Detta projekt har skett i Stockholm och innehållet i sex olika märken har kartlagts. Toningar och permanenta hårfärger skiljer sig åt genom att permanenta hårfärger polymeriseras i håret genom oxidation med väteperoxid. Toningar innehåller kromofora ämnen som fäster i håret, antingen genom diffusion eller adsorption. Totalt kunde tio kromofora ämnen med kända sensibiliserande egenskaper hittas i toningarna varav en möjlig cancerogen. I varje produkt fanns i snitt 0,4–2,4, och som mest tre, kända sensibiliserande kromofora ämnen. Hårfärger utan sensibiliserande färgämnen kunde hittas i alla kulörer utom svart och brun. Även sensibiliserande parfymämnen och konserveringsmedel kunde påvisas. Eftersom det finns hårfärger i de flesta kulörer utan sensibiliserande färgämnen bör dessa ämnen fasas ut.

  • 14.
    Grandin, Anna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Synthetic Routes towards 2-thia-7,8-diaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthrene and 1-thia-7,8-diaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthrene for Molecular Electronics Applications2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Electric current is known to flow through the π-bonds in oligothiophenes. In order to use them as molecular wires it is important to use a technique where the potential gradients can be generated and maintained in supramolecular networks. A solution to this problem can be the use of metal complexes as junction points within such a network.

     In this project pathways to synthesize 2-thia-7,8-diaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthrene (1) and 1-thia-7,8-diaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthrene (2) for use in molecular electronic devices have been investigated. 4-(5-Bromo-thiophen-2-yl)2,2’-bipyridine (3) was prepared via Kröhnke reaction from 3-(5-bromothiophene-2-yl)acrolein and 1-(2-Oxo-2-pyridine-2-yl-ethyl)-pyridinium iodide in an overall yield of 14 %.  

     Several routes towards 2-thia-7,8-diaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthrene (1) and 1-thia-7,8-diaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthrene (2) were tested. Since the original planned pathway did not work, lack of time made it impossible to complete the series of experiments that were needed. The synthesis of 2-thia-7,8-diaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthrene (1) is almost finished. Due to the solvation problems, after the decarboxylation step, the product could not be analyzed by 1H-NMR in a satisfactory manner. The product was sent for analysis.

     A number of experiments towards 1-thia-7,8-diaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthrene (2) were tested but few of them worked as planned. There is a lot of work left to be done in the synthesis of this compound but the lack of time made it impossible.

     The chemistry that has been achieved is the synthesis of 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione in the synthesis of 2-thia-7,8-diaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthrene (1). The following Hinsberg thiophene synthesis probably worked but due to solvation problems the product could not be isolated. The final product after hydrolysis and decarboxylation of the remaining ester groups after the Hinsberg thiophene synthesis was tested but the results were difficult to confirm.

     In the synthesis of 1-thia-7,8-diaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthrene (2) several attempts to make 3,4-diamino-N,N-diethyl-benzamide were made. The attack from the primary amines on the carbonyl carbon made it necessary to protect them. The attempt to synthesize 3,4-bis-acetylamino-N,N-diethyl-benzamide also failed, both the attempt directly from the carboxylic acid and through the acylchloride, even though the amines were protected.  

  • 15.
    Hasan, Mohammad Nazmul
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström.
    Developing Glycopeptide based nanocarriers by ring opening polymerization for drug delivery applications2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Synthetic glycopeptides have attracted much interest in the biomedical field due to their structural similarities to the natural glycopeptides or glycoproteins. It is still difficult to synthesize glycopeptides with greater efficiency and ring opening polymerization remains an effective way to do so. Proteoglycans are a special class of glycoproteins with glycosaminoglycan chains. In this study, I tried to do controlled ring opening polymerization of Hyaluronic acid derivatives with smaller to higher molecular weight while avoiding side reactions. It is challenging to work with higher molecular weight molecules and do a click reaction in water effectively. Making nanopolymers with a desired size, studies of the characteristics, and how to build nanocarriers for drug delivery application was the focus of this work. Polymeric characteristics, e.g., modification and polymer formation were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance technique; Particle size was studied by dynamic light scattering and the loading of rhodamine B encapsulated into the polymer was measured by confocal imaging technique.

  • 16.
    Heid, Berenice
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Enantioselective Preparation of ω-Functionalized O-Acylated Cyanohydrins2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A minor enantiomer recycling one-pot process usingω-functionalized prochiral aldehydes as starting materials and two reinforcing catalysts has been reported. The desired aldehyde for these process studies was 5-bromo-1-pentanal.

    In a two-phase solvent system, enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of the minor enantiomer regenerates continuously the prochiral starting material and Lewis acid catalysed addition of acetyl cyanide provides the O-acetylated cyanohydrins. The minor enantiomer recycling process has been studied and improved for 5-bromo-1-pentanal to receive high enantiomeric excess and yield of the expected O-acetylated cyanohydrin.

  • 17.
    Kinschel, Dominik
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Stable Redox Systems for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Dye sensitized solar cells are a new type of solar cells which open a new market thanks to their unique properties, which are semi transparency and the fact that they can be produced in various colors.

    After improving two existing syntheses for industrial applications, this thesis takes the approach to develop new redox mediators for devices with an aim on improving stability. Five redox mediators with cobalt, copper and iron as metal center were synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and UV/VIS spectrophotometry. Three of them were selected for evaluation in test cells. Most promising results were obtained with a copper complex, using the tandem redox approach a new record efficiency of 7.7% for copper based electrolytes in dye-sensitized solar cells was obtained.

  • 18.
    Krishna Prasad, Golla
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Synthesis of multicyclic 2-pyridones from a formyl and chlorometylene substituted precursor using a strategy of directed diversity-oriented synthesis2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Multi ring-fused 2-pyridones have shown interesting activity in a variety of biological systems. It would be of great interest to explore the biological application of even more multi heterocyclic ring fused 2-pyridones. ‘Diversity oriented synthesis’ is an excellent concept emerged in recent years to access compounds with structurally and stereochemically diverse skeletons. This served as an efficient avenue for synthesizing various ring fused 2-pyridones using formyl, chloromethylene substituted 2-pyridone (

    6) as a starting compound. By treating the starting material (6) with various nucleopliles, different sized heterocyclic ring fused 2-pyridones has been synthesized. Additionally, an improved methodology for the synthesis of naphthyridones was presented.

  • 19.
    Lidman, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Micro Scale Synthesis of Tritium LabeledIsoallopregnanolone for Use in RIA-analysis2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis it was shown that Isoallopregnanolone can be synthesized from

    Allopregnanolone by the Mitsunobu reaction as well as by oxidation with o-iodoxybenzoic

    acid (IBX) with subsequent reduction with NaBH

    4. It was shown that the oxidation with

    subsequent reduction was a better method for synthesis in microgram scale. The oxidationreduction

    method was carried out in microgram scale on tritium labeled Allopregnanolone

    (Pregnane-3α-ol-20one, 5α[9,11,12-

    3H(N)] to produce the corresponding tritium labeled

    Isoallopregnanolone. The possibility of synthesizing Tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone

    (THDOC) from Allopregnanolone in microgram scale was examined. Formation of a

    silylenol ether analog of Allopregnanolone and subsequent oxidation with m-CPBA was

    examined as a method to synthesizing THDOC. The synthesis of THDOC by this procedure

    was found not to be efficient enough to be used in microgram scale

  • 20.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Impact of increased production on TOC to the Waste Water Treatment Plant: Piteå 7502017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today there are strict demands regarding emissions to water and air from the Swedish industries. This degree project, conducted at Smurfit Kappa Piteå, will focus on the emissions of organic material in waste water from the paper mill. The overall goal was through dynamic simulations predict the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) emissions from the paper mill at the time a foreseen increase of production is implemented. The recovery boiler is currently a bottleneck in the process and the production of sulphate pulp has today its maximum capacity. This means that production growth will occur exclusively by increasing the intake of recycled fiber. The work started with a comprehensive mapping of TOC, in which ingoing pulps in pulp towers, head boxes and effluent flows were mapped. This was done over a period of two weeks and thus covered a whole production cycle. A TOC method evaluation was conducted where the most suitable analysis method was determined.

    Mapped data were thereupon evaluated and significant variables were identified. It was determined that use of recycled fiber was the single most important variable to TOC load from paper machine 1 (PM1), but also starch addition to paper machine 2 (PM2) was found to be significant.

    The work then continued with the simulation phase, consisting of two main parts. The first part consisted of preparatory work where the model was developed to be able to accurately measure TOC load to the waste water treatment plant. This part also included work to identify necessary process changes as a result of an increased production. The second part consisted of the simulation. Three different scenarios were simulated for each paper machine plus two scenarios for the recycled fiber plant. The dynamic simulation model was successively calibrated with respect to TOC concentration and trends followed the ones expected by experience. In the production increase scenario simulated, TOC load distribution between PM1, PM2 and recycled fiber plant will more evenly distributed compared to current production. The largest increase of TOC load will come from the recycled fiber plant, which according to the simulation will increase with about 30 %.

  • 21.
    Mirmohades, Mohammad
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Fysikalisk kemi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Molekylär biomimetik.
    Towards a Novel Donor-Sensitizer-Catalyst Triad Entirely Composed of Earth Abundant Elements2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 22.
    Mirpourzadeh, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för biokemi och organisk kemi.
    Development of new mimetics for the Tyr-pair of the Epoxide Hydrolase2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 23.
    MOTOKI, YOSHIDA
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Synthesis of Ruthenium-based Water Oxidation Catalysts and Mechanistic Study2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Two series of new mononuclear ruthenium complexes with hydrophobic or hydrophilic ligands [Ru(bda)L2] and [Ru(pdc)L3] (H2bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid; H2pdc = 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid; L = pyridyl ligands) were synthesized and their electrochemical properties and catalytic activity toward water oxidation were examined. It was revealed that the hydrophobic ligands introduced to [Ru(bda)L2 ] improved the catalytic performance, ahnost twofold TON and TOF values were achieved compared to the [Ru(bda)] catalyst with hydrophilic ligands. The cyclic voltammogram of [Ru(bda)L2] exhibited marginal difference between the catalysts with hydrophobic ligands and hydrophilic ones, implying that the hydrophobic ligands promoted the catalytic activity by :lacilitating formation of a reaction intermediate dimer.

  • 24.
    MRIDHA, MD MONIRUZZAMAN
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC.
    HIGHLY STEREOSELECTIVE ALDOL REACTION BY THE COMBINATION OF AMINOACID AND HYDROGEN BOND DONATING CATALYSTS IN WATER AND APPLICATION FOR CONCISE SYNTHESIS OF D-Lyxo-PHYTOSPHINGOSINE.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
  • 25.
    Nygren, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Bioorganisk fastfas syntes för att skapa intelligenta ytor2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Oppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates three different surface modifications, and the route to design and synthesize them. The thesis is therefore divided into three sub- projects. (i.) Design and synthesis of a peptide which secondary structure could be controlled by a negatively charged surface. (ii.) Design and synthesis of a cyclic peptide, that would self-organize prior to surface interaction, using the type I anti-freeze protein of a winter flounder as template. (iii.) The use of solid-phase synthesis to make the synthesis of SAM-molecules easier.

  • 26.
    Okabayashi, Yohei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Synthesis of azide- and alkyne-terminated alkane thiols and evaluation of their application in Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition ("click") reactions on gold surfaces2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Immobilization of different bio- and organic molecules on solid supports is fundamental within many areas of science. Sometimes, it is desirable to obtain a directed orientation of the molecule in the immobilized state. In this thesis, the copper (I) catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, referred to as a “click chemistry” reaction, was explored as a means to perform directed immobilization of small molecule ligands on gold surfaces. The aim was to synthesize alkyne- and azide-terminated alkanethiols that would form well-organized self assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold from the commercially available substances orthoethylene glycol and bromo alkanoic acid. N-(23-azido-3,6,9,12,15,18,21-heptaoxatricosyl)-n-mercaptododekanamide/hexadecaneamide (n = 12, 16) were successfully synthesized and allowed to form SAMs of different compositions to study how the differences in density of the functional groups on the surface would influence the structure of the monolayer and the click chemistry reaction. The surfaces were characterized by different optical methods: ellipsometry, contact angle goniometry and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). The click reaction was found to proceed at very high yields on all investigated surfaces. Finally, the biomolecular interaction between a ligand immobilized by click chemistry on the gold surfaces and a model protein (bovine carbonic anhydrase) was demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance using a Biacore system.

  • 27.
    Rydergren, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - BMC, Syntetisk organisk kemi.
    Chemical Modifications of Hyaluronan using DMTMM-Activated Amidation2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    An alternative approach to chemically modifying hyaluronan (HA) has been investigated. The triazine derivative 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium (DMTMM) has been used to activate carboxylic groups on HA, which react further to form stable amide bonds with primary and secondary amines. The reaction can either be used to couple monoamines to HA or to produce hydrogels by using diamines that form crosslinks between the HA chains. The reaction between HA and DMTMM has been investigated and optimized in regard to degree of substitution (DS). Analysis using SEC-LC-UV demonstrated that the reaction was successful in coupling benzylamine to HA with a DS of 40%. Gel formation was successful using hexamethylene diamine as a crosslinker. Results also show that the reaction can be controlled by either the DMTMM or the amine concentration so that a specific degree of substitution or crosslinking is achieved. The stability of DMTMM has also been examined, and degradation studies of DMTMM in H2O at 50 °C with 1H NMR analysis show that 11% of the starting material remains after 48 hours. The reaction has proven to be an effective alternative to other modification methods with cheap reagents, simple procedures and the ability to control the amount of modification. Further investigations are nonetheless required in order to determine the full potential the DMTMM-activated amidation of HA.

  • 28.
    Saarinen, Gabrielle
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Development of Synthetic Routes for Preparation of 2,6-Disubstituted Spiro[3.3]heptanes.2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    2,6-Disubstituted spiro[3.3]heptanes were synthesized to investigate and develop synthetic methods for preparation of these compounds. Possibilities for introducing different functionalities like nitriles and sulfonamides were also investigated.

     

    Synthetic routes presented describe successive [2+2] cycloadditions between dichloroketene and olefins to give the sought after spiro compounds with low to moderate yields throughout the multi-step synthesis. [2+2] Cycloadditions offered low turnovers and chromatography was required for purification.

     

    A synthetic route with cyclisations through double substitution reactions between di-electrophiles and di-nucleophiles resulting in a 2,6-disubstituted spiro[3.3]heptane is also described. This multi-step synthesis offered higher turnover and yields and often there was no need for purification through chromatography.

  • 29.
    Saur, Ann-Kathrin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Synthesis of α1,2- and α1,6, linked Dimannosides for Analysis of Protein Carbohydrate Interactions2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project was to synthesize α1,2-linked and α1,6-linked dimannosides linked through either an oxygen-atom or a sulphur-atom, and subsequently test the binding properties of the dimannosides to lectins with known specificity towards mannose-containing glycans. Thedimannosides were prepared by a glycosylation reaction using selectively protected monosaccharides containing a thiol or alcohol nucleophilic glycosyl acceptor and a series of different glycosyl donors. The synthetic routes to the different building blocks were designed to efficiently make use of common intermediate compounds to streamline the synthesis. The glycosyl acceptors used forthe synthesis of α1,2-linked as well as α1,6-linked dimannosides were synthesized in few steps and diversified only in the last steps of the synthesis. The glycosyl donors used in the study were synthesized from commercially available starting material in a straightforward and convenientsynthesis in 7 to 8 steps.

  • 30.
    SEIGEL, KAROLINA
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Hydrogen Bonding Catalysis of Imine Exchange with Thiourea and Squaramide Donors2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work has been to investigate the ability of aromatic thiourea and squaramide compounds to catalyze the reversible imine exchange reaction via hydrogen bonding catalysis. The primary goal was to find an organocatalyst that could replace or complement the currently used catalysts, to enable new applications. Parameters such as the catalyst structure and loading, solvent dependence and water content have been explored. The results show that a low pKa of the hydrogen bond-donating hydrogens and a non-coordinating and polar solvent are very important to obtain a short equilibration time. Furthermore, the catalysts are proved to have great activity even at low loadings and to catalyze more than one step in the exchange reaction. The equilibrium time was determined by measuring the integrals of the 1H NMR signals from the imines as the reaction proceeded.

  • 31.
    Sjölin, Olof
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Synthesis of Substituted Pyrrolidines2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The task of medicinal chemists in a drug discoveryproject is to synthesize/design analogues to the screening hits, simultaneouslyincreasing target potency and optimizing the pharmacological properties.  This requires a wide selection of moleculesto be synthesized, where both synthetic feasibility and price of startingmaterials are of great importance. In this work, a synthetic pathway from cheapand readily available starting materials to highly modifiable 2,4-disubstitutedpyrrolidines is demonstrated. Previously reported procedures to similarpyrrolidines use expensive catalysts, requires harsh conditions and requiresnon-commercially available starting materials. The suggested pathway herein has demonstrated great possibility forvariation in the 4-position, including fluoro, difluoro, nitrile and alcoholfunctional groups. There are several areas in which the synthesis can beimproved and expanded upon. Improvements can be made by optimizing thedescribed reaction conditions and further expansion of possible modificationsin both 2- and 4-position could be explored.

  • 32.
    Song, Yan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Regio- and Stereoselectivity in Glycosyl Disulfide Desulfurization. Generation of S-linked Disaccharides2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the synthesis of thiomonosaccharides and the subsequent oxidation to carbohydrate disulfides followed by evaluation of a desulfurization reaction with the aim of developing a facile method for production of S-linked oligosaccharides. The carbohydrate disulfides were synthesized in few steps from commercially available starting materials. Small and simple disulfides were used to evaluate the desulfurization process yielding important information about choice of solvent, catalyst and temperature required for the desulfurization to occur. The optimized conditions were then applied to the carbohydrate disulfides. Results showed that the reactivity of the carbohydrate disulfides depends a lot on the position of the disulfide. One of the carbohydrate disulfides was efficiently desulfurized giving the thioether linked disaccharide, as determined by mass spectrometry. However, more work is needed to develop a general procedure for the desulfurization working on many different carbohydrate disulfides.

  • 33.
    Starkholm, Allan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Synthesis of Water-Soluble Catalysts for Olefin Metathesis2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The need of efficient and sustainable chemical processes in the field of organic chemistry is essential in order to meet the environmental demands that societies and industries require from us. One key chemical reaction that is widely used in industrial plants is olefin metathesis, a reaction that involves exchange and formation of C-C double bonds. It is a crucial reaction in polymerization reactions and as a means of connecting building blocks together. Consequently it is necessary to enable these reactions to work in aqueous media for increased sustainability and for applications in biochemistry. Carbenes are a class of compounds that constitute a crucial role as ligands in olefin metathesis catalysts. This project will aim to explore the water applicability of a certain category of carbenes, cyclic (alkyl)-(amino)carbenes (CAAC), which recently have caught attention due to their remarkable catalytic activity in organometallic catalysis. The CAAC based catalysis display high stability towards air and moisture, and thus making them attractive alternatives for industrial applications. Throughout the project, synthetic routes towards water soluble CAAC:s have been designed and investigated. Moreover, an approach of evaluating a CAAC-ruthenium catalyst in micellar solutions have been investigated and illustrated promising results regarding activity and stability.

  • 34.
    Svensson, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Synthesis and characterisation of polyelectrolytes based on polymers of diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride and poly(styrene-co-butadiene)2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In printed electronics there are many polyelectrolytes to choose from. While polyelectrolytes such as polystyrene sulfonic acid can fulfill many ofthe desired functionalities of a semiconductor, there is a need for other polyelectrolytes with other functionalities, such as functionality at low airhumidity and better cross-linking possibilities, while still functioning as a good semiconductor.Within this thesis, there is a description of general polyelectrolytes, as well as various usages.The synthesis and characterization of new polyelectrolytes that have been developed, based upon diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DADMAC)and a derivative of polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSH) is described.The study and experimental testing of the polymers as polyelectrolytes under different conditions is described.

  • 35.
    Svensson, Fredric
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Identification, Synthesis and Characterization of Semiochemicals of some Forest Beetles2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This work consists of three parts. Part one deals with the syntheses of a number of common Cerambycidae and bark beetle semiochemicals. Additionally, syntheses for three new suspected Cerambycidae semiochemicals were developed. In part two, the elution order and Kovats retention indices of various bark beetle associated semiochemicals were determined on an enantioselective GC-column. In part three, SPME/GC-MS analyses of bark beetle associated fungi cultivations on terpenes were undertaken to find fungal degradation products with known electrophysical activity to bark beetles. A large number of bark beetle semiochemicals were found, including two bark beetle pheromones.

  • 36.
    Thinprakong, Chorpure
    Linköpings universitet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik.
    Excitation transfer between conjugated polyelectrolytes and triplet emitter confined in protein nanowires2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorescent metal complexes can be incorporated into amyloid-like fibrils, and these fibrils can be decorated with conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs). In this study, fac-tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]irdium(III) complexes [Ir(piq)3] were used as the phosphorescence emitter and Sodium-poly(3-thiophene acetic acid) (PTAA-Na) compounds were used as CPEs. Herein we study the energy transfer processes between the iridium complexes and the CPEs. To investigate these mechanisms, the analysis of the emission quenching and time-resolved measurements were done. Our measurements show that energy can be transfered from singlet state of PTAA to the singlet state of Ir(piq)3. Moreover, incorporation of iridium into amyloid fibrils decreases the importance of energy transfer by the Dexter mechanism. Finally we propose a geometry of interaction to explain the obtained results.

  • 37.
    Trupina, Snjezana
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Synthesis of Metalloporphyrins with Oligothiophenes as Probes for Amyloid Diseases2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abnormal aggregation of misfolded proteins is related to numerous neurodegenerative diseases, which include Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease and prion diseases. Luminescent conjugated probes (LCPs) have been used as dyes for these supramolecular assemblies termed amyloid fibrils. To these probes, metalloporphyrin (MP) derivates have been attached to achieve new spectroscopic properties, which will allow for new ways to study protein aggregation diseases.

    In this thesis the synthesis of two different LCPs anchored porphyrin derivates are described. The LCPs are synthesized from 3-thiopheneacetic acid and additional thiophene units are added with the use of Suzuki cross coupling reaction. The porphyrin is synthesized from pyrrol, benzaldehyde and methyl-4- formylbenzoate in a condensation reaction. In the first target molecule (TM) the porphyrin and thiophene are coupled with a spacer and the second one is a direct coupling between the two compounds.

  • 38.
    Waltersson, Johanna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling. Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för biologi och kemiteknik.
    The metal binding properties of kraft lignin2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong driving force to increase the competitiveness of the pulping industry by finding new business opportunities. In this context full utilisation of the wood raw material used in conventional pulping mills is of vital importance. One focus area is to increase the utilisation areas of lignin. LignoBoost is a new method to obtain kraft lignin of high purity.

    The aim of the project was to investigate and increase the ability of LignoBoost kraft lignins to bind metals in aqueous solutions.

    The metal binding property of kraft lignins was evaluated using copper (II) ions. The metal binding capacities were 1.76 mg Cu2+/g LignoBoost softwood kraft lignin, 0.96 mg Cu2+/g LignoBoost hardwood kraft lignin and 1.12 mg Cu2+/g condensed softwood kraft lignin. The metal binding capacities of the softwood and hardwood kraft lignins from LignoBoost were lower than expected, when compared to the metal binding capacities of other lignins found in literature. The highest copper binding capacity of a kraft lignin found in literature was almost 50 times greater than that of the LignoBoost softwood kraft lignin.

     

    The Mannich reaction was used to increase the nitrogen content in softwood lignin, and thereby increase its electron-donating capacity. An increase in electron-donating capacity should promote its metal binding capacity.

     

    The Mannich reaction occurs in the vacant ortho position of the phenolic groups of lignin, introducing an aminomethyl group at that position. The only vacant ortho position in the phenol unit for reaction is in the guaicyl unit. Softwood lignin underwent a Mannich reaction, since softwood contains a greater number of guaiacyl units than hardwoods.

     

    A screening of the products from this Mannich reaction on LignoBoost softwood kraft lignin was performed to optimise the reaction conditions. The reaction time, temperature, amount of formaldehyde and dimethylamine were varied. The Mannich products were evaluated by elemental analysis. The conditions giving the highest nitrogen content in the product were used further in a Mannich reaction of condensed softwood kraft lignin. The condensed softwood kraft lignin (7 g) was treated with dimethylamine (0.35 mol) and formaldehyde (0.35 mol) at 80°C for 24 hours.

     

    The metal binding experiment could not be carried out with Mannich-modified condensed softwood kraft lignin since the lignin dissolved in the copper solution.

     

    When introducing nitrogen functionalities into lignin the electron-donating capacity should increase. An increase in donor groups should promote the metal binding capacity of the lignin. A problem that occurred when introducing aminomethyl groups was an increase in solubility of the lignin. Water solubility of the lignin derivative is undesirable in the envisaged utilization area, metal binding in, for example mine deposits, from where contaminated water may be a concentrated source of heavy metals.

  • 39.
    Widing, Joakim
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Preparation of Affinity Based Probes to Elucidate the Mode of Action of y-Secretase Modulators2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    γ-Secretase is an enzyme that takes part of the breakdown of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Aβ-peptides from this process can be linked to Alzheimer’s disease. γ-Secretase modulators (GSMs) have been reported in the literature to reduce the potentially dangerous variant of Aβ-peptides. However, the mechanism of the binding site for these modulators is poorly understood. In this report substances of affinity based probes (AfBPs) have been prepared that can be used as a method to extract the binding site. The AfBPs were constituted of a cross-linking group, a biotinyl group and a γ-secretase modulator. Different variants of the biotin probe were prepared to investigate if the activity of the original modulator could be retained. The report will show that this could be done.

    In the future, the synthesised affinity based probes could be used to understand the mode of action of γ-secretase modulators. For instance the modulator could be incubated with the enzyme and the crosslinking group, when activated, covalently bind to a residue near the binding site. The complex could then be captured on avidin and the binding site be determined.

  • 40.
    Willén, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Synthesis of azidoethyl 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-α-D-mannopyranoside for future bioconjugation in PET studies2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Positron emission tomography is a powerful imaging method capable of diagnosing and studyingdiseases at atomic levels. The following thesis involves the synthesis of a 2 -deoxy-2 -[18F]uoro-D-glucose derivative able to participate in click chemisty conjugation. The synthesis involves six stepswith D-mannopyranose as starting material; regioselective acetylation and protection of the hydroxylgroup on C-2 of the monosaccharide, glycosylation with 2-azidoethanol, removal of the selectiveprotecting group and substitution of the hydroxyl group on C-2 with uorine. The potential toconjugate the glycoside to other biomolecules and obtain PET data might have uses in diagnosticaland medicinal chemistry.

  • 41.
    Zetterström, Susanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Isolation and synthesis of curcumin2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate pre-existing methods for isolation and synthesis of curcumin. Two different isolation methods were used, where only the extraction step differs from each other. To obtain pure curcumin, column chromatography was needed to separate the compound from its analogues. As for the isolation the synthesis was also carried out by two different methods, the first in a conventional way and the second one by using irradiation of microwaves.

    The result of the experiments shows that by comparing the effectiveness and expense of the methods, the synthesis would probably be the easiest way of obtaining pure compound. Because of the more straightforward method, without cumbersome separation steps from the curcumin analogues, the synthesis was a faster way of obtaining the compound and gave more pure curcumin than the isolation procedures from turmeric.

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