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• 1.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
Highly hydrated cations: Deficiency, mobility and coordination of water in crystalline nonahydrated scandium(III), yttrium(III) and lanthanoid(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate2005In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 11, no 14, p. 4065-4077Article in journal (Refereed)

Trivalent lanthanide-like metal ions coordinate nine water oxygen atoms, which form a tricapped trigonal prism in a large number of crystalline hydrates. Water deficiency, randomly distributed over the capping positions, was found for the smallest metal ions in the isomorphous nonahydrated trifluoromethanesulfonates, [M(H2O)(n)]CF3SO3)(3), in which M=Sc-III, Lu-III, Yb-III, Tm-III or Er-III. The hydration number n increases (n=8.0(1), 8.4(1), 8.7(1), 8.8(1) and 8.96(5), respectively) with increasing ionic size. Deuterium (H-2) solid-state NMR spectroscopy revealed fast positional exchange between the coordinated capping and prism water molecules; this exchange started at temperatures higher than about 280 K for lutetium(m) and below 268 K for scandium(m). Similar positional exchange for the fully nonahydrated yttrium(m) and lanthanum(m) compounds started at higher temperatures, over about 330 and 360 K, respectively. An exchange mechanism is proposed that can exchange equatorial and capping water molecules within the restrictions of the crystal lattice, even for fully hydrated lanthanoid(III) ions. Phase transitions occurred for all the water-deficient compounds at; 185 K. The hydrated scandium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate transforms reversibly (Delta H degrees= -0.80(1) kJ mol(-1) on cooling) to a trigonal unit cell that is almost nine times larger, with the scandium ion surrounded by seven fully occupied and two partly occupied oxygen atom positions in a distorted capped trigonal prism. The hydrogen bonding to the trifluoromethanesulfonate anions stabilises the trigonal prism of water ligands, even for the crowded hydration sphere of the smallest metal ions in the series. Implications for the Lewis acid catalytic activity of the hydrated scandium(III) and lanthanoid(III) trifluoromethanesulfonates for organic syntheses performed in aqueous media are discussed.

• 2.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics. Univ Stockholm, Arrhenius Lab, Dept Organ Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden. Univ Stockholm, Arrhenius Lab, Dept Organ Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
Catalytic Enantioselective beta-Alkylation of alpha,beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes by Combination of Transition-Metal- and Aminocatalysis: Total Synthesis of Bisabolane Sesquiterpenes2011In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 17, no 32, p. 8784-8788Article in journal (Refereed)

Branching out! The first co-catalytic enantioselective (up to 98:2 e.r.) β-alkylation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes by combination of simple chiral amine and copper catalysts provides β-branched aldehydes in a one-pot protocol (see scheme). The methodology was applied to the short total syntheses of bisabolane sesquiterpenes (S)-(+)-curcumene, (E)-(S)-(+)-3- dehydrocurcumene and (S)-(+)-tumerone. © 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

• 3. Afewerki, Samson
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Direct Regiospecific and Highly Enantioselective Intermolecular α-Allylic Alkylation of Aldehydes by a Combination of Transition-Metal and Chiral Amine Catalysts2012In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 18, no 10, p. 2972-2977Article in journal (Refereed)

The first direct intermolecular regiospecific and highly enantioselective a-allylic alkylation of linear aldehydes by a combination of achiral bench-stable Pd0 complexes and simple chiral amines as co-catalysts is disclosed. The co-catalytic asymmetric chemoselective and regiospecific a-allylic alkylation reaction is linked in tandem with in situ reduction to give the corresponding 2-alkyl alcohols with high enantiomeric ratios (up to 98:2 e.r.; e.r.=enantiomeric ratio). It is also an expeditious entry to valuable 2-alkyl substituted hemiacetals, 2-alkyl-butane-1,4-diols, and amines. The concise co-catalytic asymmetric total syntheses of biologically active natural products (e.g., Arundic acid) are disclosed.

• 4.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
Direct Regiospecific and Highly Enantioselective Intermolecular α-Allylic Alkylation of Aldehydes By Combination of Transition Metal and amine Catalysts2012In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 18, no 10, p. 2972-2977Article in journal (Refereed)

The first direct intermolecular regiospecific and highly enantioselective α-allylic alkylation of linear aldehydes by a combination of achiral bench-stable Pd 0 complexes and simple chiral amines as co-catalysts is disclosed. The co-catalytic asymmetric chemoselective and regiospecificα-allylic alkylation reaction is linked in tandem with in situ reduction to give the corresponding 2-alkyl alcohols with high enantiomeric ratios (up to 98:2 e.r.; e.r.=enantiomeric ratio). It is also an expeditious entry to valuable 2-alkyl substituted hemiacetals, 2-alkyl-butane-1,4-diols, and amines. The concise co-catalytic asymmetric total syntheses of biologically active natural products (e.g., Arundic acid) are disclosed. Go organic! Directintermolecular regiospecific and highly enantioselective α-allylic alkylation of linear aldehydes by a combination of achiral bench-stable Pd 0complexes and simple chiral amines as co-catalysts is disclosed (see scheme). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

• 5. Agarwala, Hemlata
Correspondence of RuIIIRuII and RuIVRuIII Mixed Valent States in a SmallDinuclear Complex2012In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 18, p. 5667-5675Article in journal (Refereed)

The dirutheniumACHTUNGTRENUNG(III) compound[(m-oxa){RuACHTUNGTRENUNG(acac)2}2] [1, oxa2=oxamidato(2), acac=2,4-pentanedionato]exhibits an S=1 ground statewith antiferromagnetic spin-spin coupling(J=40 cm1). The molecularstructure in the crystal of 1·2C7H8 revealedan intramolecular metal–metaldistance of 5.433 and a notableasymmetry within the bridging ligand.Cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry(EPR, UV/Vis/NIR) of thetwo-step reduction and of the two-stepoxidation (irreversible second step)produced monocation and monoanionintermediates (Kc=105.9) with broadNIR absorption bands (e ca.2000m1cm1) and maxima at 1800 (1)and 1500 nm (1+). TD-DFT calculationssupport a RuIIIRuII formulationfor 1 with a doublet ground state. The1+ ion (RuIVRuIII) was calculated withan S=3/2 ground state and the doubletstate higher in energy (DE=694.6 cm1). The Mulliken spin densitycalculations showed little participationof the ligand bridge in the spin accommodationfor all paramagnetic species[(m-oxa){RuACHTUNGTRENUNG(acac)2}2]n, n=+1, 0, 1,and, accordingly, the NIR absorptionswere identified as metal-to-metal (intervalence)charge transfers. Whereasonly one such NIR band was observedfor the RuIIIRuII (4d5/4d6) system 1,the RuIVRuIII (4d4/4d5) form 1+ exhibitedextended absorbance over the UV/Vis/NIR range.

• 6. Agarwala, Hemlata
Four-Center Oxidation State Combinations and Near-Infrared Absorption in[Ru(pap)(Q)2]n (Q=3,5-Di-tert-butyl-N-aryl-1,2-benzoquinonemonoimine,pap=2-Phenylazopyridine)2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, p. 7384-7394Article in journal (Refereed)
• 7. Ahlberg, P.
Solvated CH5+ in liquid superacid2001In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 2501-2510Article in journal (Refereed)
• 8.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of Ketones Catalyzed by Amino Acid Derived Rhodium Complexes: On the Origin of Enantioselectivity and Enantioswitchability2009In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 15, no 42, p. 11197-11209Article in journal (Refereed)

Amino acid based thioamides, hydroxamic acids, and hydrazides have been evaluated as ligands in the rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of ketones in 2-propanol. Catalysts containing thioamide ligands derived from L-valine were found to selectively generate the product with an R configuration (95 % ee), whereas the corresponding L-valine-based hydroxamic acids or hydrazides facilitated the formation of the (S)-alcohols (97 and 91 % ee, respectively). The catalytic reduction was examined by performing a structure–activity correlation investigation with differently functionalized or substituted ligands and the results obtained indicate that the major difference between the thioamide and hydroxamic acid based catalysts is the coordination mode of the ligands. Kinetic experiments were performed and the rate constants for the reduction reactions were determined by using rhodium–arene catalysts derived from amino acid thioamide and hydroxamic acid ligands. The data obtained show that the thioamide-based catalyst systems demonstrate a pseudo-first-order dependence on the substrate, whereas pseudo-zero-order dependence was observed for the hydroxamic acid containing catalysts. Furthermore, the kinetic experiments revealed that the rate-limiting steps of the two catalytic systems differ. From the data obtained in the structure–activity correlation investigation and along with the kinetic investigation it was concluded that the enantioswitchable nature of the catalysts studied originates from different ligand coordination, which affects the rate-limiting step of the catalytic reduction reaction.

• 9.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of ketones catalyzed by amino acid derived rhodium complexes: on the origin of enantioselectivity and enantioswitchability: Corrigendum to vol 15(2009) 42, pp. 11197-2010In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 16, no 35, p. 10610-10610Article in journal (Refereed)
• 10.
Technical University of Denmark.
Technical University of Denmark. Technical Univeristy of Denmark.
An experimental and theoretical study of the mechanism of stannylcupration of alpha, beta-acetylenic ketones and esters2006In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 12, no 10, p. 2866-2873Article in journal (Refereed)

The title reaction has been investigated by experimental and computational (DFT) techniques, and subsequently compared to the corresponding carbocupration reaction, with particular emphasis oil the stereoselectivity. For stannylcupration of an ynone substrate, only the anti-addition product is observed, whereas for the corresponding ynoate substrate, the stereoselectivity can be affected by the reaction conditions: in the presence of methanol as proton donor, the initial syn-addition product can be trapped, whereas a syn/anti mixture is obtained in a non-protic solvent. This is in sharp contrast to the carbocupration of the same ynone substrate with a cyanocuprate (RCu(CN)Li), which is highly selective for syn-addition. The product selectivities can be understood from a detailed computational characterization of the reaction paths, and in particular from the relative stabilities of the vinyl cuprate and allenolate intermediates. It is suggested that the stereodetermining step is protonation of vinyl cuprate intermediates.

• 11. Ahlstrand, David A.
KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
Csp(3)-H Activation without Chelation Assistance in an Iridium Pincer Complex Forming Cyclometallated Products2017In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1748-1751Article in journal (Refereed)

Cyclometallation of 8-methylquinoline and 2-(dimethylamino)-pyridine in an iridium-based pincer complex is described. The C-H activation of 2-(dimethylamino) pyridine is not chelation assisted, which has not been described before for Csp(3)-H bonds in cyclometallation reactions. The mechanism of the cyclometallation of 2-(dimethylamino) pyridine was studied by DFT calculations and kinetic measurements.

• 12.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Tsuji-Trost Reaction of Non-Derivatized Allylic Alcohols2018In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 24, no 14, p. 3488-3498Article in journal (Refereed)

Palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution of non-derivatized enantioenriched allylic alcohols with a variety of uncharged N-, S-, C- and O-centered nucleophiles using a bidentate BiPhePhos ligand is described. A remarkable effect of the counter ion (X) of the XPd[kappa(2)-BiPhePhos][kappa(3)-C3H5] was observed. When ClPd[kappa(2)-BiPhePhos][eta(3)-C3H5] (complexI) was used as catalyst, non-reproducible results were obtained. Study of the complex by X-ray crystallography, (PNMR)-P-31 spectroscopy, and ESI-MS showed that a decomposition occurred where one of the phosphite ligands was oxidized to the corresponding phosphate, generating ClPd[kappa(1)-BiPhePhosphite-phosphate][eta(3)-C3H5] species (complexII). When the chloride was exchanged to the weaker coordinating OTf- counter ion the more stable Pd[kappa(2)-BiPhePhos][eta(3)-C3H5](+)+[OTf] (-) (complexIII) was formed. ComplexIII performed better and gave higher enantiospecificities in the substitution reactions. ComplexIII was evaluated in Tsuji-Trost reactions of stereogenic non-derivatized allylic alcohols. The desired products were obtained in good to excellent yields (71-98%) and enantiospecificities (73-99%) for both inter- and intramolecular substitution reactions with only water generated as a by-product. The methodology was applied to key steps in total synthesis of (S)-cuspareine and (+)-lentiginosine. A reaction mechanism involving a palladium hydride as a key intermediate in the activation of the hydroxyl group is proposed in the overall transformation.

• 13.
Stockholm Univ, Dept Organ Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
Stockholm Univ, Dept Organ Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics. Stockholm Univ, Dept Organ Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
Tsuji-Trost Reaction of Non-Derivatized Allylic Alcohols2018In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 24, no 14, p. 3488-3498Article in journal (Refereed)

Palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution of non-derivatized enantioenriched allylic alcohols with a variety of uncharged N-, S-, C- and O-centered nucleophiles using a bidentate BiPhePhos ligand is described. A remarkable effect of the counter ion (X) of the XPd[kappa(2)-BiPhePhos][kappa(3)-C3H5] was observed. When ClPd[kappa(2)-BiPhePhos][eta(3)-C3H5] (complexI) was used as catalyst, non-reproducible results were obtained. Study of the complex by X-ray crystallography, (PNMR)-P-31 spectroscopy, and ESI-MS showed that a decomposition occurred where one of the phosphite ligands was oxidized to the corresponding phosphate, generating ClPd[kappa(1)-BiPhePhosphite-phosphate][eta(3)-C3H5] species (complexII). When the chloride was exchanged to the weaker coordinating OTf- counter ion the more stable Pd[kappa(2)-BiPhePhos][eta(3)-C3H5](+)+[OTf] (-) (complexIII) was formed. ComplexIII performed better and gave higher enantiospecificities in the substitution reactions. ComplexIII was evaluated in Tsuji-Trost reactions of stereogenic non-derivatized allylic alcohols. The desired products were obtained in good to excellent yields (71-98%) and enantiospecificities (73-99%) for both inter- and intramolecular substitution reactions with only water generated as a by-product. The methodology was applied to key steps in total synthesis of (S)-cuspareine and (+)-lentiginosine. A reaction mechanism involving a palladium hydride as a key intermediate in the activation of the hydroxyl group is proposed in the overall transformation.

• 14. Alfonso E., Garcia-Bennett
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
Bicontinuous Cubic Mesoporous Materials with Biphasic Structures2011In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 17, no 48, p. 13510-13516Article in journal (Refereed)

The replication of amphiphilic systems within an inorganic silica matrix allows the study of the fundamental properties of mesostructural changes, that is, kinetic and structural parameters. Herein we report a detailed study of the transition between cubic bicontinuous mesostructure with space groups Ia$\bar 3$d and Pn$\bar 3$m symmetry, which are associated with the minimal G and D surfaces, respectively. The transition may be induced through micellar swelling of the anionic amphiphilic surfactant N-lauroyl alanine by trimethylbenzene. Rich kinetic behaviour is observed and has been exploited to prepare particles with biphasic structures. Transmission electron microscopy evidence indicates that there is epitaxial growth from one mesostructure to the other involving the [111] and [110] orientations of the Ia$\bar 3$d and Pn$\bar 3$m symmetry structures, respectively. From kinetic studies, we show that the formation of the Ia$\bar 3$d mesophase is preceded by a hexagonal phase (plane group p6mm) and an epitaxial relationship has been observed involving the sixfold or $\bar 3$ axis orientations of both structures. Our data suggests that the Pn$\bar 3$m mesostructure is kinetically stable at low temperatures whereas the Ia$\bar 3$d mesostructure is the more stable structure after prolonged periods of hydrothermal treatment. We present evidence from transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray diffractograms and also electron crystallography modelling of the unit cells at particular points in the structural change.

• 15.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
Unraveling the Electronic Structure, Spin States, Optical and Vibrational Spectra of Malaria Pigment2015In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 21, no 23, p. 8544-8553Article in journal (Refereed)

A detailed knowledge of the electronic structure and magnetic and optical properties of hemozoin, the malaria pigment, is essential for the design of effective antimalarial drugs and malarial diagnosis. By employing state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations, we have performed an in-depth investigation of the malaria pigment. Specifically, molecular bond lengths and spin states of the two Fe-III heme centers and their exchange interaction, the UV/Vis absorption spectrum, and the IR vibrational spectra were calculated and compared with available experimental data. Our density functional theory (DFT)-based calculations predict a singlet ground spin state that stems from an S=5/2 spin state on each of the Fe heme centers with a very weak antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between them. Our theoretical UV/Vis and IR spectra provide explanations for various spectroscopic studies of hemozoin and -hematin (a synthetic analogue of hemozoin). A good comparison of calculated and measured properties demonstrates the convincing unveiling of the electronic structure of the malaria pigment. Based on the predicted vibrational spectra, we propose a unique spectral band from the nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) results that could be used as a key fingerprint for malarial detection.

• 16.
Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem Organ Chem, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Chem, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
Setting the stage for new catalytic functions in designed proteins - Exploring the imine pathway in the efficient decarboxylation of oxaloacetate by an Arg-Lys site in a four-helix bundle protein scaffold2002In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 2549-2560Article in journal (Refereed)

Fourteen 42-residue polypeptides have been designed to identify reactive sites for the catalysis of the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate, a chemical transformation that proceeds through the formation of an imine intermediate. The sequences fold into helix-loop-helix motifs and dimerise to four-helix bundles. The catalytically active lysine residues were incorporated in several surface exposed positions, but also in positions characterised by hydrophobic properties to reduce their pK(a) values. The molecular environments of the Lys residues were systematically varied, to find which residues were able to stabilise and bind the imine intermediate in the decarboxylation reaction. A two-residue Arg-Lys site formed the main component of the reactive site of the helix-loop-helix dimer Decarb-K34_R33, which obeyed saturation kinetics in catalysing the reaction with a k(cat)/K-M of 0.59m(-1) s(-1). The rate constant measured was nearly three orders of magnitude larger than the second-order rate constant of the butylamine-catalysed reaction (0.0011 M-1 s(-1)), and four orders of magnitude larger than the pseudo first-order rate constant of the uncatalysed reaction (1.3 x 10(-5) s(-1)). The sequence of Decarb-K34_R33 contained only a single lysine residue. It was flanked by an arginine in the preceding position in the sequence. A flanking Arg residue provided more efficient catalysis than a flanking Lys or Gln residue. Arginines in flanking positions in the helix, in positions four residues before or after the Lys in the sequence, are not as important in catalysis as the Arg of the Arg-Lys pair. The effect of pK(a) on the catalytic efficiency of the Lys residue in the decarboxylation reaction is well known. The identification of the role of the flanking Arg residue in catalysing decarboxylation, its optimal position, and the importance of conformational stability reported here sets the stage for developing a number of catalytic systems that depend on the formation of imine intermediates, but that lead to different reaction products.

• 17. Amorati, Riccardo
Multi-faceted reactivity of alkyltellurophenols towards peroxyl radicals: Catalytic antioxidant versus thiol-depletion effect2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, no 23, p. 7510-7522Article in journal (Refereed)

Hydroxyaryl alkyl tellurides are effective antioxidants both in organic solution and aqueous biphasic systems. They react by an unconventional mechanism with ROO. radicals with rate constants as high as 107 M−1 s−1 at 303 K, outperforming common phenols. The reactions proceed by oxygen atom transfer to tellurium followed by hydrogen atom transfer to the resulting RO. radical from the phenolic OH. The reaction rates do not reflect the electronic properties of the ring substituents and, because the reactions occur in a solvent cage, quenching is more efficient when the OH and TeR groups have an ortho arrangement. In the presence of thiols, hydroxyaryl alkyl tellurides act as catalytic antioxidants towards both hydroperoxides (mimicking the glutathione peroxidases) and peroxyl radicals. The high efficiency of the quenching of the peroxyl radicals and hydroperoxides could be advantageous under normal cellular conditions, but pro-oxidative (thiol depletion) when thiol concentrations are low.

• 18. Amorati, Riccardo
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
Multi-faceted reactivity of alkyltellurophenols towards peroxyl radicals: Catalytic antioxidant versus thiol-depletion effect2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, no 23, p. 7510-7522Article in journal (Refereed)

Hydroxyaryl alkyl tellurides are effective antioxidants both in organic solution and aqueous biphasic systems. They react by an unconventional mechanism with ROO. radicals with rate constants as high as 107M1s1 at 303K, outperforming common phenols. The reactions proceed by oxygen atom transfer to tellurium followed by hydrogen atom transfer to the resulting RO. radical from the phenolic OH. The reaction rates do not reflect the electronic properties of the ring substituents and, because the reactions occur in a solvent cage, quenching is more efficient when the OH and TeR groups have an ortho arrangement. In the presence of thiols, hydroxyaryl alkyl tellurides act as catalytic antioxidants towards both hydroperoxides (mimicking the glutathione peroxidases) and peroxyl radicals. The high efficiency of the quenching of the peroxyl radicals and hydroperoxides could be advantageous under normal cellular conditions, but pro-oxidative (thiol depletion) when thiol concentrations are low.

• 19.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. ORGFARM. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
Microwave-promoted palladium(II)-catalyzed C-P bond formation by using arylboronic acids or aryltrifluoroborates.2009In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 15, no 47, p. 13069-13074Article in journal (Refereed)

The first Pd-II-catalyzed P arylation has been performed by using palladium acetate, the rigid bidentate ligand dmphen (dmphen=2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline), and without the addition of base or acid. Couplings of arylboronic acids or aryl trifluoroborates with H-phosphonate dialkyl esters were conducted in 30 min with controlled microwave (MW) heating under non-inert conditions. Aryl phosphites were also synthesized at room temperature with atmospheric air as the sole reoxidant. The arylated phosphonates were isolated in 44-90% yields. The excellent chemoselectivity of the method was illustrated in the synthesis of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine synthetase (MTB-GS) inhibitor. Online ESIMS was used to detect cationic palladium species in ongoing reactions directly, and a catalytic cycle has been proposed based on these results.

• 20.
Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Chem, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Chem, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
Control of lysine reactivity in four-helix bundle proteins by site-selective pK(a) depression: Expanding the versatility of proteins by postsynthetic functionalisation2002In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 8, no 16, p. 3687-3697Article in journal (Refereed)

Five 42-residue polypeptides have been designed to fold into hairpin helix-loop-helix motifs that dimerise to form four-helix bundles, and to serve as protein scaffolds for the elucidation at the molecular level of the principles that control and fine-tune lysine and ornithine reactivities in a protein context. Site-selective control of Lys and Orn reactivity provides a mechanism for addressing directly individual residues and is a prerequisite for the site-selective functionalisation of folded proteins. Several lysine and one ornithine residues were introduced on the surface and in the hydrophobic core of the folded motif. The reactivity of each residue was determined by measuring the degree of acylation of the trypsin cleaved fragments by HPLC and mass spectrometry. The most reactive residues were Orn34 and Lys19, both of which were located in d positions in the heptad repeat, and therefore in hydrophobic environments. Upon reaction of the helix-loop-helix dimer KA-I with one equivalent of mono-p-nitrophenyl fumarate, Orn34 was acylated approximately three times more efficiently than Lys19, whereas Lys10 (b position), Lys15 (g position), and Lys33 (c position) remained unmodified. In the sequence KA-I-A(15) Lys15 was replaced by an alanine residue and the selectivity of Orn34 over Lys19 increased to approximately a factor of six, probably because Lys15 had the capacity to reduce the pK(a) value of Lys19 and 85 % of site-selectively monoacylated product was obtained. The pH dependence of the acylation reaction was determined and showed that the pK(a) of the reactive residues were 9.3, more than a pK(a) unit below the magnitude of the corresponding residue in a solvent exposed position. Introducing Lys and Orn residues into a or d positions of the heptad repeat therefore serves as a mechanism of depressing their pKa to increase their reactivity site selectively. Extensive NMR and CD spectroscopic analyses showed that the sequences fold according to prediction.

• 21. Andreoni, Alessio
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy of Labeled Azurin Reveals Photoinduced Electron Transfer between Label and Cu Center2018In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 646-654Article in journal (Refereed)

Fluorescent labeling of biomacromolecules enjoys increasing popularity for structural, mechanistic, and microscopic investigations. Its success hinges on the ability of the dye to alternate between bright and dark states. Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is an important source of fluorescence modulation. Photo-induced electron transfer (PET) may occur as well, but is often considered only when donor and acceptor are in van der Waals contact. In this study, PET is shown between a label and redox centers in oxidoreductases, which may occur over large distances. In the small blue copper protein azurin, labeled with ATTO655, PET is observed when the label is at 18.5 angstrom, but not when it is at 29.1 angstrom from the Cu. For Cu-II, PET from label to Cu occurs at a rate of (4.8 +/- 0.3) x 10(4) s(-1) and back at (0.7 +/- 0.1) x 10(3) s(-1). With Cu-I the numbers are (3.3 +/- 0.7) x 10(6) s(-1) and (1.0 +/- 0.1) x 10(4) s(-1). Reorganization energies and electronic coupling elements are in the range of 0.8-1.2 eV and 0.02-0.5 cm(-1), respectively. These data are compatible with electron transfer (ET) along a through-bond pathway although transient complex formation followed by ET cannot be ruled out. The outcome of this study is a useful guideline for experimental designs in which oxidoreductases are labelled with fluorescent dyes, with particular attention to single molecule investigations. The labelling position for FRET can be optimized to avoid reactions like PET by evaluating the structure and thermodynamics of protein and label.

• 22.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Palladium- and Nickel-Catalyzed Alkenylation of Enolates2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1858-1871Article, review/survey (Refereed)

Transition-metal-catalyzed alkenylation of enolates provides a direct method to synthesize broadly useful ,-unsaturated carbonyl compounds from the corresponding carbonyl compound and alkenyl halides. Despite being reported in the early seventies, this reaction class saw little development for many years. In the past decade, however, efforts to develop this reaction further have increased considerably, and many research groups have reported efficient coupling protocols, including enantioselective versions. These reactions most commonly employ palladium catalysts, but there are also some important reports using nickel. There are many examples of this powerful transformation being used in the synthesis of complex natural products.

• 23.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
Microwave-assisted transition-metal-catalyzed synthesis of N-shifted and ring-expanded buflavine analogues2007In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 13, no 22, p. 6452-6460Article in journal (Other academic)

Two novel and efficient strategies for the synthesis of hitherto unknown N-shifted and ring-expanded buflavine analogues are presented. Construction of the medium-sized ring system of the title molecules, a difficult task due to the high activation energy needed for the ring-closure with the additional rigidity imposed by the biaryl skeleton, was achieved by using Suzuki-Miyaura biaryl coupling and a ring-closing metathesis reaction as the key steps. The combination of a second-generation Grubbs catalyst and microwave irradiation proved to be highly useful in generating the otherwise difficult to obtain medium-sized ring system of the buflavine analogues.

• 24. Aramburo, Luis R.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
The Porosity, Acidity, and Reactivity of Dealuminated Zeolite ZSM-5 at the Single Particle Level: The Influence of the Zeolite Architecture2011In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 17, no 49, p. 13773-13781Article in journal (Refereed)

A combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), focused-ion-beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM), and UV/Vis and synchrotron-based IR microspectroscopy was used to investigate the dealumination processes of zeolite ZSM-5 at the individual crystal level. It was shown that steaming has a significant impact on the porosity, acidity, and reactivity of the zeolite materials. The catalytic performance, tested by the styrene oligomerization and methanol-to-olefin reactions, led to the conclusion that mild steaming conditions resulted in greatly enhanced acidity and reactivity of dealuminated zeolite ZSM-5. Interestingly, only residual surface mesoporosity was generated in the mildly steamed ZSM-5 zeolite, leading to rapid crystal coloration and coking upon catalytic testing and indicating an enhanced deactivation of the zeolites. In contrast, harsh steaming conditions generated 550 nm mesopores, extensively improving the accessibility of the zeolites. However, severe dealumination decreased the strength of the Bronsted acid sites, causing a depletion of the overall acidity, which resulted in a major drop in catalytic activity.

• 25.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Physical Organic Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
Redox Switching in Ethenyl- Bridged Bisphospholes2014In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 20, no 49, p. 16083-16087Article in journal (Refereed)

A 2e(-)/2H(+) redox platform has been implemented in the ethenyl-bridged bisphosphol-3-ol 1 to afford the first phospholes that feature chemically reversible oxidations. Oxidation of the title compounds to the corresponding bisphosphol-3-one 2 leads to a change in conjugation topology and a concomitant hypsochromic shift of the lowest-energy absorption maximum by 100nm. Electrochemical oxidation proceeds without any detectable intermediates, whereas the deprotonated form of 1 can be observed in an aprotic medium during the reduction of 2. This dianionic intermediate 3 is characterized by end absorptions that are bathochromically shifted by circa 200nm compared to those of 2.

• 26.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
Oxaphospholes and Bisphospholes from Phosphinophosphonates and alpha,beta-Unsaturated Ketones2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, no 41, p. 13692-13704Article in journal (Refereed)

The reaction of a {W(CO)(5)}-stabilized phosphinophosphonate 1, (CO)(5)WPH(Ph)P(O)(OEt)(2), with ethynyl- (2a-f) and diethynylketones (7-11, 18, and 19) in the presence of lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) is examined. Lithiated 1 undergoes nucleophilic attack in the Michael position of the acetylenic ketones, as long as this position is not sterically encumbered by bulky (iPr)(3)Si substituents. Reaction of all other monoacetylenic ketones with lithiated 1 results in the formation of 2,5-dihydro-1,2-oxaphospholes 3 and 4. When diacetylenic ketones are employed in the reaction, two very different product types can be isolated. If at least one (Me)(3)Si or (Et)(3)Si acetylene terminus is present, as in 7, 8, and 19, an anionic oxaphosphole intermediate can react further with a second equivalent of ketone to give cumulene-decorated oxaphospholes 14, 15, 24, and 25. Diacetylenic ketones 10 and 11, with two aromatic acetylene substituents, react with lithitated 1 to form exclusively ethenyl-bridged bisphospholes 16 and 17. Mechanisms that rationalize the formation of all heterocycles are presented and are supported by DFT calculations. Computational studies suggest that thermodynamic, as well as kinetic, considerations dictate the observed reactivity. The calculated reaction pathways reveal a number of almost isoenergetic intermediates that follow after ring opening of the initially formed oxadiphosphetane. Bisphosphole formation through a carbene intermediate G is greatly favored in the presence of phenyl substituents, whereas the formation of cumulene-decorated oxaphospholes is more exothermic for the trimethylsilyl-containing substrates. The pathway to the latter compounds contains a 1,3-shift of the group that stems from the acetylene terminus of the ketone substrates. For silyl substituents, the 1,3-shift proceeds along a smooth potential energy surface through a transition state that is characterized by a pentacoordinated silicon center. In contrast, a high-lying transition state TS(E-F)(R=Ph) of 37kcalmol(-1) is found when the substituent is a phenyl group, thus explaining the experimental observation that aryl-terminated diethynylketones 10 and 11 exclusively form bisphospholes 16 and 17.

• 27. Auer, F
YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
Switchable assembly of stable, ordered molecular layers1999In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 5, p. 1150-1159Article in journal (Refereed)

Bisamidines can be assembled on self-assembled monolayers of mercaptoalkanoic acids on gold to form stable and ordered but pH-switchable layers (see diagram). At basic pH the layers are stable and charge selective towards charged surfactants and plasma proteins. The system can potentially be used to reversibly introduce new surface properties for given applications that use one single substrate.

• 28.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics. uppsala university. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics. uppsala university.
Cyclopropyl Group: An Excited-State Aromaticity Indicator?2017In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 23, no 55, p. 13684-13695Article in journal (Refereed)

The cyclopropyl (cPr) group, which is a well-known probe for detecting radical character at atoms to which it is connected, is tested as an indicator for aromaticity in the first * triplet and singlet excited states (T-1 and S-1). Baird's rule says that the -electron counts for aromaticity and antiaromaticity in the T-1 and S-1 states are opposite to Huckel's rule in the ground state (S-0). Our hypothesis is that the cPr group, as a result of Baird's rule, will remain closed when attached to an excited-state aromatic ring, enabling it to be used as an indicator to distinguish excited-state aromatic rings from excited-state antiaromatic and nonaromatic rings. Quantum chemical calculations and photoreactivity experiments support our hypothesis; calculated aromaticity indices reveal that openings of cPr substituents on [4n]annulenes ruin the excited-state aromaticity in energetically unfavorable processes. Yet, polycyclic compounds influenced by excited-state aromaticity (e.g., biphenylene), as well as 4n-electron heterocycles with two or more heteroatoms represent limitations.

• 29.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Biomimetic Aerobic Oxidation of Amino Alcohols to Lactams2012In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 18, no 37, p. 11524-11527Article in journal (Refereed)
• 30.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Aerobic Oxidative Coupling of Arenes and Olefins through a Biomimetic Approach2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, no 13, p. 4140-4145Article in journal (Refereed)
• 31.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
Carbocations as Lewis Acid Catalysts in Diels-Alder and Michael Addition Reactions2014In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 1066-1072Article in journal (Refereed)

In general, Lewis acid catalysts are metal-based compounds that owe their reactivity to a low-lying empty orbital. However, one potential Lewis acid that has received negligible attention as a catalyst is the carbocation. We have demonstrated the potential of the carbocation as a highly powerful Lewis acid catalyst for organic reactions. The stable and easily available triphenylmethyl (trityl) cation was found to be a highly efficient catalyst for the Diels-Alder reaction for a range of substrates. Catalyst loadings as low as 500ppm, excellent yields, and good endo/exo selectivities were achieved. Furthermore, by changing the electronic properties of the substituents on the tritylium ion, the Lewis acidity of the catalyst could be tuned to control the outcome of the reaction. The ability of this carbocation as a Lewis acid catalyst was also further extended to the Michael reaction.

• 32. Bai, Linyi
KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
Iron( III)-Quantity-Dependent Aggregation-Dispersion Conversion of Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles2014In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 20, no 14, p. 4032-4037Article in journal (Refereed)

Developing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with well-designed functionality is highly desirable for boosting the performance and versatility of inorganic-organic hybrid materials. In an attempt to achieve ion recognition with specific signal expressions, we present here 4-piperazinyl-1,8-naphthalimide-functionalized AuNPs for the realization of quantitative recognition of Fe-III ions with dual (colorimetric and fluorescent) output. The research takes advantage of 1)quantity-controlled chelation-mode transformation of the piperazinyl moiety on the AuNPs towards Fe-III, thereby resulting in an aggregation-dispersion conversion of the AuNPs in solution, and 2)photoinduced electron transfer of a naphthaimide fluorophore on the AuNPs, thus leading to reversible absorption and emission changes. The functional AuNPs are also responsive to pH variations. This strategy for realizing the aggregation-dispersion conversion of AuNPs with returnable signal output might exhibit application potential for advanced nanoscale chemosensors.

• 33.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Enantioselective Synthesis of Alcohols and Amines by Iridium-Catalyzed Hydrogenation, Transfer Hydrogenation, and Related Processes2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, no 23, p. 7274-7302Article, review/survey (Refereed)

The preparation of chiral alcohols and amines by using iridium catalysis is reviewed. The methods presented include the reduction of ketones or imines by using hydrogen (hydrogenations), isopropanol, formic acid, or formate (transfer hydrogenations). Also dynamic and oxidative kinetic resolutions leading to chiral alcohols and amines are included. Selected literature reports from early contributions to December 2012 are discussed.

• 34.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Synthesis of b-Hydroxy Ketones from Allylic Alcohols via Catalytic Formation of Ruthenium Enolates2008In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 14, no 34, p. 10547-10550Article in journal (Refereed)

The most efficient Ru-catalyzed isomerization–aldol reaction from allylic alcohols has been achieved by using [η5-(Ph5Cp)Ru(CO)2Cl] as the catalyst. The bulky pentaphenylcyclopentadienyl ligand on the ruthenium atom prevents protonation at the oxygen of the Ru–enolate intermediate and completely suppresses the formation of unwanted ketone byproducts (see scheme). The domino transformation is as good as it can be: aldols are obtained in quantitative yields at ambient temperature.

• 35.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
A Highly Active Bifunctional Iridium Complex with an Alcohol/Alkoxide-Tethered N-Heterocyclic Carbene for Alkylation of Amines with Alcohols2012In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 18, no 45, p. 14510-14519Article, review/survey (Refereed)

A series of new iridium(III) complexes containing bidentate N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) functionalized with an alcohol or ether group (NHC?OR, R=H, Me) were prepared. The complexes catalyzed the alkylation of anilines with alcohols as latent electrophiles. In particular, biscationic IrIII complexes of the type [Cp*(NHC-OH)Ir(MeCN)]2+2[BF4-] afforded higher-order amine products with very high efficiency; up to >99?% yield using a 1:1 ratio of reactants and 12.5 mol?% of Ir, in short reaction times (216 h) and under base-free conditions. Quantitative yields were also obtained at 50?degrees C, although longer reaction times (4860 h) were needed. A large variety of aromatic amines have been alkylated with primary and secondary alcohols. The reactivity of structurally related iridium(III) complexes was also compared to obtain insights into the mechanism and into the structure of possible catalytic intermediates. The IrIII complexes were stable towards oxygen and moisture, and were characterized by NMR, HRMS, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and elemental analyses.

• 36.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
A Density Functional Study of a Biomimetic Non-Heme Iron Catalyst: Insights into Alkane Hydroxylation and Olefin Oxidation by a Formally HO-Fe(V)=O Oxidant2004In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 692-705Article in journal (Refereed)

The reactivity of [HO(tpa)FeVO] (TPA=tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine), derived from OO bond heterolysis of its [H2O(tpa)FeIIIOOH] precursor, was explored by means of hybrid density functional theory. The mechanism for alkane hydroxylation by the high-valent iron–oxo species invoked as an intermediate in Fe(tpa)/H2O2 catalysis was investigated. Hydroxylation of methane and propane by HOFeVO was studied by following the rebound mechanism associated with the heme center of cytochrome P450, and it is demonstrated that this species is capable of stereospecific alkane hydroxylation. The mechanism proposed for alkane hydroxylation by HOFeVO accounts for the experimentally observed incorporation of solvent water into the products. An investigation of the possible hydroxylation of acetonitrile (i.e., the solvent used in the experiments) shows that the activation energy for hydrogen-atom abstraction by HOFeVO is rather high and, in fact, rather similar to that of methane, despite the similarity of the HCH2CN bond strength to that of the secondary CH bond in propane. This result indicates that the kinetics of hydrogen-atom abstraction are strongly affected by the cyano group and rationalizes the lack of experimental evidence for solvent hydroxylation in competition with that of substrates such as cyclohexane.

• 37.
University of Florence, Italy .
University of Cagliari, Italy . University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy E China University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China . E China University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China . University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy . University of Cagliari, Italy . University of Cagliari, Italy . University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy St Petersburg State University, Russia . E China University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China . Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Ist Neurosci CNR Cagliari, Italy . University of Cagliari, Italy . University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy . University of Bologna, Italy . University of Bologna, Italy . University of Bologna, Italy .
Multimodal Use of New Coumarin-Based Fluorescent Chemosensors: Towards Highly Selective Optical Sensors for Hg2+ Probing2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, no 43, p. 14639-14653Article in journal (Refereed)

Despite several types of fluorescent sensing molecules have been proposed and examined to signal Hg2+ ion binding, the development of fluorescence-based devices for in-field Hg2+ detection and screening in environmental and industrial samples is still a challenging task. Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of three new coumarin-based fluorescent chemosensors featuring mixed thia/aza macrocyclic framework as receptors units, that is, ligands L1-L3. These probes revealed an OFF-ON selective response to the presence of Hg2+ ions in MeCN/H2O 4:1 (v/v), which allowed imaging of this metal ion in Cos-7 cells in vitro. Once included in silica core-polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell nanoparticles or supported on polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-based polymeric membranes, ligands L1-L3 can also selectively sense Hg2+ ions in pure water. In particular we have developed an optical sensing array tacking advantage of the fluorescent properties of ligand L3 and based on the computer screen photo assisted technique (CSPT). In the device ligand L3 is dispersed into PVC membranes and it quantitatively responds to Hg2+ ions in natural water samples.

• 38.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Asymmetric Synthesis of 2,4,5-Trisubstituted (2)-Thiazolines2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, no 30, p. 9916-9922Article in journal (Refereed)

(2)-Thiazolines are interesting heterocycles that display a wide variety of biological characteristics. They are also common in chiral ligands used for asymmetric syntheses and as synthetic intermediates. Herein, we present asymmetric routes to 2,4,5-trisubstituted (2)-thiazolines. These (2)-thiazolines were synthesized from readily accessible/commercially available ,-unsaturated methyl esters through a Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation and an ON acyl migration reaction as key steps. The final products were obtained in good yields with up to 97% enantiomeric excess.

• 39.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
The Nature of Activated Non-classical Hydrogen Bonds: A Case Study on Acetylcholinesterase-Ligand Complexes2016In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 2672-2681Article in journal (Refereed)

Molecular recognition events in biological systems are driven by non-covalent interactions between interacting species. Here, we have studied hydrogen bonds of the CHY type involving electron-deficient CH donors using dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT) calculations applied to acetylcholinesterase-ligand complexes. The strengths of CHY interactions activated by a proximal cation were considerably strong; comparable to or greater than those of classical hydrogen bonds. Significant differences in the energetic components compared to classical hydrogen bonds and non-activated CHY interactions were observed. Comparison between DFT and molecular mechanics calculations showed that common force fields could not reproduce the interaction energy values of the studied hydrogen bonds. The presented results highlight the importance of considering CHY interactions when analysing protein-ligand complexes, call for a review of current force fields, and opens up possibilities for the development of improved design tools for drug discovery.

• 40.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Iridium-Catalyzed Isomerization/Bromination of Allylic Alcohols: Synthesis of alpha-Bromocarbonyl Compounds2014In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 20, no 34, p. 10703-10709Article in journal (Refereed)

alpha-Brominated ketones and aldehydes, with two adjacent electrophilic carbon atoms, are highly valuable synthetic intermediates in organic synthesis, however, their synthesis from unsymmetrical ketones is very challenging, and current methods suffer from low selectivity. We present a new, reliable, and efficient method for the synthesis of alpha-bromocarbonyl compounds in excellent yields and with excellent selectivities. Starting from allylic alcohols as the carbonyl precursors, the combination of a 1,3-hydrogen shift catalyzed by iridium(III) with an electrophilic bromination gives alpha-bromoketones and aldehydes in good to excellent yields. The selectivity of the process is determined by the structure of the starting allylic alcohol; thus, alpha-bromoketones formally derived from unsymmetrical ketones can be synthesized in a straightforward and selective manner.

• 41. Biosca, Maria
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Extending the Substrate Scope of Bicyclic P-Oxazoline/Thiazole Ligands for Ir-Catalyzed Hydrogenation of Unfunctionalized Olefins by Introducing a Biaryl Phosphoroamidite Group2015In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 3455-3464Article in journal (Refereed)

This study identifies a series of Ir-bicyclic phosphoroamidite-oxazoline/thiazole catalytic systems that can hydrogenate a wide range of minimally functionalized olefins (including E-and Z-tri- and disubstituted substrates, vinylsilanes, enol phosphinates, tri- and disubstituted alkenylboronic esters, and alpha,beta-unsaturated enones) in high enantioselectivities (ee values up to 99%) and conversions. The design of the new phosphoroamidite-oxazoline/thiazole ligands derives from a previous successful generation of bicyclic N-phosphane-oxazoline/thiazole ligands, by replacing the N-phosphane group with a pi-acceptor biaryl phosphoroamidite moiety. A small but structurally important family of Ir-phosphoroamidite-oxazoline/thiazole precatalysts has thus been synthesized by changing the nature of the N-donor group (either oxazoline or thiazole) and the configuration at the biaryl phosphoroamidite moiety. The substitution of the N-phosphane by a phosphoroamidite group in the bicyclic N-phosphane-oxazoline/thiazole ligands extended the range of olefins that can be successfully hydrogenated.

• 42. Biswas, Srijit
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Atom-Efficient Gold(I)-Chloride-Catalyzed Synthesis of alpha-Sulfenylated Carbonyl Compounds from Propargylic Alcohols and Aryl Thiols: Substrate Scope and Experimental and Theoretical Mechanistic Investigation2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, no 52, p. 17939-17950Article in journal (Refereed)

Gold(I)-chloride-catalyzed synthesis of -sulfenylated carbonyl compounds from propargylic alcohols and aryl thiols showed a wide substrate scope with respect to both propargylic alcohols and aryl thiols. Primary and secondary aromatic propargylic alcohols generated -sulfenylated aldehydes and ketones in 60-97% yield. Secondary aliphatic propargylic alcohols generated -sulfenylated ketones in yields of 47-71%. Different gold sources and ligand effects were studied, and it was shown that gold(I) chloride gave the highest product yields. Experimental and theoretical studies demonstrated that the reaction proceeds in two separate steps. A sulfenylated allylic alcohol, generated by initial regioselective attack of the aryl thiol on the triple bond of the propargylic alcohol, was isolated, evaluated, and found to be an intermediate in the reaction. Deuterium labeling experiments showed that the protons from the propargylic alcohol and aryl thiol were transferred to the 3-position, and that the hydride from the alcohol was transferred to the 2-position of the product. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations showed that the observed regioselectivity of the aryl thiol attack towards the 2-position of propargylic alcohol was determined by a low-energy, five-membered cyclic protodeauration transition state instead of the strained, four-membered cyclic transition state found for attack at the 3-position. Experimental data and DFT calculations supported that the second step of the reaction is initiated by protonation of the double bond of the sulfenylated allylic alcohol with a proton donor coordinated to gold(I) chloride. This in turn allows for a 1,2-hydride shift, generating the final product of the reaction.

• 43.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Synthetical Organic Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Physical Organic Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Synthetical Organic Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Synthetical Organic Chemistry.
Atom-Efficient Gold(I)-Chloride-Catalyzed Synthesis of alpha-Sulfenylated Carbonyl Compounds from Propargylic Alcohols and Aryl Thiols: Substrate Scope and Experimental and Theoretical Mechanistic Investigation2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, no 52, p. 17939-17950Article in journal (Refereed)

Gold(I)-chloride-catalyzed synthesis of -sulfenylated carbonyl compounds from propargylic alcohols and aryl thiols showed a wide substrate scope with respect to both propargylic alcohols and aryl thiols. Primary and secondary aromatic propargylic alcohols generated -sulfenylated aldehydes and ketones in 60-97% yield. Secondary aliphatic propargylic alcohols generated -sulfenylated ketones in yields of 47-71%. Different gold sources and ligand effects were studied, and it was shown that gold(I) chloride gave the highest product yields. Experimental and theoretical studies demonstrated that the reaction proceeds in two separate steps. A sulfenylated allylic alcohol, generated by initial regioselective attack of the aryl thiol on the triple bond of the propargylic alcohol, was isolated, evaluated, and found to be an intermediate in the reaction. Deuterium labeling experiments showed that the protons from the propargylic alcohol and aryl thiol were transferred to the 3-position, and that the hydride from the alcohol was transferred to the 2-position of the product. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations showed that the observed regioselectivity of the aryl thiol attack towards the 2-position of propargylic alcohol was determined by a low-energy, five-membered cyclic protodeauration transition state instead of the strained, four-membered cyclic transition state found for attack at the 3-position. Experimental data and DFT calculations supported that the second step of the reaction is initiated by protonation of the double bond of the sulfenylated allylic alcohol with a proton donor coordinated to gold(I) chloride. This in turn allows for a 1,2-hydride shift, generating the final product of the reaction.

• 44.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Synthetical Organic Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Synthetical Organic Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Synthetical Organic Chemistry.
Tandem Pd/Au-Catalyzed Route to alpha-Sulfenylated Carbonyl Compounds from Terminal Propargylic Alcohols and Thiols2014In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 2159-2163Article in journal (Refereed)

An efficient and highly atom-economical tandem Pd/Au-catalyzed route to -sulfenylated carbonyl compounds from terminal propargylic alcohols and thiols has been developed. This one-step procedure has a wide substrate scope with respect to substituents at the -position of the alcohol. Both aromatic and aliphatic thiols generated the -sulfenylated carbonyl products in good to excellent yields. A mechanism is proposed in which the reaction proceeds through a Pd-catalyzed regioselective hydrothiolation at the terminal triple bond of the propargyl alcohol followed by an Au-catalyzed 1,2-hydride migration.

• 45.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Accelrys, 334 Science Park, Cambridge, CB4 0WN, United Kingdom.
Towards Design Rules for Covalent Nanostructures on Metal Surfaces2014In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 928-934Article in journal (Refereed)

The covalent molecular assembly on metal surfaces is explored, outlining the different types of applicable reactions. Density functional calculations for on-surface reactions are shown to yield valuable insights into specific reaction mechanisms and trends across the periodic table. Finally, it is shown how design rules could be derived for nanostructures on metal surfaces.

• 46.
Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada..
Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.. Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada; Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.. Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada..
Microsphere Assemblies via Phosphonate Monoester Coordination Chemistry2018In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 1533-1538Article in journal (Refereed)

By complexing a bent phosphonate monoester ligand with cobalt(II), coupled with in situ ester hydrolysis, coordination microspheres (CALS=CALgary Sphere) are formed whereas the use of the phosphonic acid directly resulted in a sheet-like structure. Manipulation of the synthetic conditions gave spheres with different sizes, mechanical stabilities, and porosities. Time-dependent studies determined that the sphere formation likely occurred through the formation of a Co2+ and ligand chain that propagates in three dimensions through different sets of interactions. The relative rates of these assembly processes versus annealing by ester hydrolysis and metal dehydration determine the growth of the microspheres. Hardness testing by nanoindentation is carried out on the spheres and sheets. Notably, no templates or capping agents are employed, the growth of the spheres is intrinsic to the ligand geometry and the coordination chemistry of cobalt(II) and the phosphonate monoester.

• 47.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Universität Rostock, Germany.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Evaluation of Fe and Ru Pincer-Type Complexes as Catalysts for the Racemization of Secondary Benzylic Alcohols2016In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 22, no 33, p. 11583-11586Article in journal (Refereed)

Fe and Ru pincer-type catalysts are used for the racemization of benzylic alcohols. Racemization with the Fe catalyst was achieved within 30 minutes under mild reaction conditions, with a catalyst loading as low as 2 mol %. This reaction constitutes the first example of an iron-catalyzed racemization of an alcohol. The efficiency for racemization of the Fe catalyst and its Ru analogue was evaluated for a wide range of sec-benzylic alcohols. The commercially available Ru complex proved to be highly robust and even tolerated the presence of water in the reaction mixture.

• 48.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
General One-Pot Synthesis of Alkynyliodonium Salts and Alkynyl Benziodoxolones from Aryl Iodides2012In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 18, no 45, p. 14242-14245Article in journal (Refereed)
• 49. Boutet, Julien
Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, CSIC, Spain.
Detailed Investigation of the Immunodominant Role of O-Antigen Stoichiometric O-Acetylation as Revealed by Chemical Synthesis, Immunochemistry, Solution Conformation and STD-NMR Spectroscopy for Shigella flexneri 3a2016In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 22, no 31, p. 10892-10911Article in journal (Refereed)

Shigella flexneri 3a causes bacillary dysentery. Its O-antigen has the {2)-[alpha-d-Glcp-(1 -> 3)]-alpha-L-Rhap-(1 -> 2)-alpha-L-Rhap-( 1 -> 3)-[Ac -> 2]-alpha-L-Rhap-(1 ->)-[Ac -> 6](approximate to 40%)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 ->} ([(E)AB(Ac)C(Ac)D]) repeating unit, and the non-Oacetylated equivalent defines S. flexneri X. Propyl hepta-, octa-, and decasaccharides sharing the (E') A'BAcCD(E) A sequence, and their non-O-acetylated analogues were synthesized from a fully protected BAcCD(E) A allyl glycoside. The stepwise introduction of orthogonally protected mono-and disaccharide imidate donors was followed by a two-step deprotection process. Monoclonal antibody binding to twenty-six S. flexneri types 3a and X di-to decasaccharides was studied by an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and STD-NMR spectroscopy. Epitope mapping revealed that the 2(C)-acetate dominated the recognition by monoclonal IgG and IgM antibodies and that the BAcCD segment was essential for binding. The glucosyl side chain contributed to a lesser extent, albeit increasingly with the chain length. Moreover, tr-NOESY analysis also showed interaction but did not reveal any meaningful conformational change upon antibody binding.

• 50. Brandt, Peter
Chromium-salen-mediated alkene epoxidation: a theoretical and experimental study indicates the importance of spin-surface crossing and the presence of a discrete intermediate.2002In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 8, no 18, p. 4299-307Article in journal (Refereed)

The mechanism of alkene epoxidation by chromium(v) oxo salen complexes has been studied by DFT and experimental methods. The reaction is compared to the closely related Mn-catalyzed process in an attempt to understand the dramatic difference in selectivity between the two systems. Overall, the studies show that the reactions have many similarities, but also a few critical differences. In agreement with experiment, the chromium system requires a change from low- to high-spin in the catalytic cycle, whereas the manganese system can proceed either with spin inversion or entirely on the high-spin surface. The low-spin addition of metal oxo species to an alkene leads to an intermediate which forms epoxide either with a barrier on the low-spin surface or without a barrier after spin inversion. Supporting evidence for this intermediate was obtained by using vinylcyclopropane traps. The chromium(v) oxo complexes can adopt a stepped shape or form a more concave surface, analogous to previous results on manganese salen complexes.

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