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  • 1.
    Bielawski, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Malmgren, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Pardo, Leticia M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Wikmark, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    One-Pot Synthesis and Applications of N-Heteroaryl Iodonium Salts2014In: ChemistryOpen, ISSN 2191-1363, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 19-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient one-pot synthesis of N-heteroaryl iodonium triflates from the corresponding N-heteroaryl iodide and arene has been developed. The reaction conditions resemble our previous one-pot syntheses, with suitable modifications to allow N-heteroaryl groups. The reaction time is only 30min, and no anion exchange is required. The obtained iodonium salts were isolated in a protonated form, these salts can either be employed directly in applications or be deprotonated prior to use. The aryl groups were chosen to induce chemoselective transfer of the heteroaryl moiety to various nucleophiles. The reactivity and chemoselectivity of these iodonium salts were demonstrated by selectively introducing a pyridyl moiety onto both oxygen and carbon nucleophiles in good yields.

  • 2.
    Malmgren, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Iodonium Salts: Preparation, Chemoselectivity and Metal-Catalyzed Applications2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the preparation and use of diaryliodonium salts. In Project I various unsymmetrical diaryliodonium salts were reacted with three different nucleophiles in order to study the chemoselectivity of the reactions of the salts. The main focus of this project was to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying factors that affect the chemoselectivity in transition metal-free arylation reactions. They were found to be very nucleophile-dependent. Some nucleophiles were very sensitive to electronic effects, whereas others were sensitive to steric factors. Ultimately, some arenes are never transferred. A very interesting scrambling reaction was also observed under the reaction conditions, where unsymmetrical diaryliodonium salts form symmetrical salts in situ.

    Project II details the preparation of N-heteroaryliodonium salts via a one-pot procedure. The salts were designed so that the N-heteroaryl moiety was selectively transferred in applications both with and without transition metals. The chemoselectivity was demonstrated by selective transfer of the pyridyl group onto two different nucleophiles.

    The third project in the thesis discusses the synthesis of alkynyl(aryl)iodonium salts and alkynylbenziodoxolones from arylsilanes. This protocol could potentially be a very useful complement to the existing procedures, in which boronic acids are used.

    The last part of the thesis (Project IV) describes a C-2 selective arylation of indoles where diaryliodonium salts were used in combination with hetero-geneous palladium catalysis. This transformation was performed in water at ambient temperature to 50 °C, and tolerated variations of both the indole and the diaryliodonium salt. Importantly, several N-H indoles could be arylated. The MCF-supported Pd-catalyst showed very little leaching and it was demonstrated that the main part of the reaction occurred via heterogeneous catalysis.

  • 3.
    Malmgren, Joel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Nagendiran, Anuja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    C-2 Selective Arylation of Indoles with Heterogeneous Nanopalladium and Diaryliodonium Salts2014In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 20, no 42, p. 13531-13535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple and efficient method to prepare synthetically useful 2-arylindoles is presented, using a heterogeneous Pd catalyst and diaryliodonium salts in water under mild conditions. A remarkably low leaching of metal catalyst was observed under the applied conditions. The developed protocol is highly C-2 selective and tolerates structural variations both in the indole and in the diaryliodonium salt. Arylations of both NH indoles and N-protected indoles with ortho-substituted, electron-rich, electron-deficient, or halogenated diaryliodonium salts were achieved to give the desired products in high to excellent isolated yields within 6 to 15 h at room temperature or 40 °C.

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