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  • 1.
    Ahlsten, Nanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bermejo Gomez, Antonio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Martin-Matute, Belen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Iridium-Catalyzed 1,3-Hydrogen Shift/Chlorination of Allylic Alcohols2013In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 52, no 24, p. 6273-6276Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Ahmad, Anees
    et al.
    Scarassati, Paulo
    Jalalian, Nazli
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Silva, Luiz F., Jr.
    Oxidative rearrangement of alkenes using in situ generated hypervalent iodine(III)2013In: Tetrahedron Letters, ISSN 0040-4039, E-ISSN 1359-8562, Vol. 54, no 43, p. 5818-5820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel protocol for the oxidative rearrangement of alkenes using in situ generated hypervalent iodine(III) was developed. This approach uses inexpensive, readily available, and stable chemicals (PhI, mCPBA, and TsOH) giving rearrangement products in yields comparable to those obtained using the more expensive commercially available [hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodo]benzene [HTIB or Koser's reagent]. Additionally, an alternative protocol for the synthesis of 1-methyl-2-tetralone through the one-step epoxidation/rearrangement of 4-methyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene using mCPBA and TsOH was developed.

  • 3.
    Bartoszewicz, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ahlsten, Nanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Martin-Matute, Belen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Enantioselective Synthesis of Alcohols and Amines by Iridium-Catalyzed Hydrogenation, Transfer Hydrogenation, and Related Processes2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, no 23, p. 7274-7302Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The preparation of chiral alcohols and amines by using iridium catalysis is reviewed. The methods presented include the reduction of ketones or imines by using hydrogen (hydrogenations), isopropanol, formic acid, or formate (transfer hydrogenations). Also dynamic and oxidative kinetic resolutions leading to chiral alcohols and amines are included. Selected literature reports from early contributions to December 2012 are discussed.

  • 4. Battistel, Marcos D.
    et al.
    Pendrill, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Freedberg, Daron I.
    Direct Evidence for Hydrogen Bonding in Glycans: A Combined NMR and Molecular Dynamics Study2013In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 117, no 17, p. 4860-4869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the abundant hydroxyl groups of glycans as NMR handle's and structural probes to expand the repertoire of tools for structure function studies on glycans in solution. To this end, we present the facile detection and assignment of hydroxyl groups in a Wide range of sample concentrations (0.5-1700 mM) and temperatures, ranging from -5 to 25 degrees C.,We then exploit this information to directly detect hydrogen bonds, well-known for their importance in molecular structural determination through NMR. Via HSQC-TOCSY, we were able to determine the directionality; of these hydrogen bonds in sucrose Furthermore, by means Of molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with NMR, we establish that one Out of the three detected hydrogen bonds arises from intermolecular interactions. This finding may shed light on glycan glycan interactions and glycan recognition by proteins.

  • 5. Cadu, Alban
    et al.
    Andersson, Pher G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Council for Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) - South Africa .
    Iridium catalysis: application of asymmetric reductive hydrogenation2013In: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 42, no 40, p. 14345-14356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iridium, despite being one of the least abundant transition metals, has found several uses. N,P-ligated iridium catalysts are used to perform many highly selective reactions. These methodologies have been developed extensively over the past 15 years. More recently, the application of iridium N,P catalysts in asymmetric hydrogenation has been a focus of research to find novel applications and to expand on their current synthetic utility. The aim of this perspective is to highlight the advances made by the Andersson group.

  • 6. Cadu, Alban
    et al.
    Upadhyay, Puspesh K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Andersson, Pher G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. University of Kwazulu Natal, South Africa.
    Iridium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Substituted Pyridines2013In: Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 2193-5807, Vol. 2, no 12, p. 1061-1065Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asymmetric hydrogenation of ortho-substituted pyridines catalyzed by N,P-ligated iridium is demonstrated. To facilitate this reaction, the aromaticity of the pyridines was weakened by forming N-iminopyridium ylides. The reactions give very high conversions, and after a single recrystallization, excellent ee of up to 98% was obtained. This method lends itself to the synthesis of chiral piperidine building blocks.

  • 7. Chassagne, Pierre
    et al.
    Fontana, Carolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Guerreiro, Catherine
    Gauthier, Charles
    Phalipon, Armelle
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Mulard, Laurence A.
    Structural Studies of the O-Acetyl-Containing O-Antigen from a Shigella flexneri Serotype 6 Strain and Synthesis of Oligosaccharide Fragments Thereof2013In: European Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 1434-193X, E-ISSN 1099-0690, no 19, p. 4085-4106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive analysis by NMR spectroscopy of the delipidated lipopolysaccharide of Shigella flexneri serotype 6 strain MDC 2924-71 confirmed the most recently reported structure of the O-antigen repeating unit as {4)--D-GalpA-(13)--D-GalpNAc-(12)--L-Rhap3Ac/4Ac-(12)--L-Rhap-(1}, and revealed the non-stoichiometric acetylation at O-3C/4C. Input from the CASPER program helped to ascertain the fine distribution of the three possible patterns of O-acetylation. The non-O-acetylated repeating unit (ABCD) corresponded to about 2/3 of the population, while 1/4 was acetylated at O-3C (3AcCDAB), and 1/10 at O-4C (4AcCDAB). Di- to tetrasaccharides with a GalpA residue (A) at their reducing end were synthesized as their propyl glycosides following a multistep linear strategy relying on late-stage acetylation at O-3C. Thus, the 3C-O-acetylated and non-O-acetylated targets were synthesized from common protected intermediates. Rhamnosylation was most efficiently achieved by using imidate donors, including at O-4 of a benzyl galacturonate acceptor. In contrast, a thiophenyl 2-deoxy-2-trichloroacetamido-D-galactopyranoside precursor was preferred for chain elongation involving residue B. Final Pd/C-mediated deprotection ensured O-acetyl stability. All of the target molecules represent parts of the O-antigen of S. flexneri 6, a prevalent serotype. Non-O-acetylated oligosaccharides are also fragments of the Escherichia coli O147 O-antigen.

  • 8.
    Deiana, Luca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Development of Catalytic Enantioselective Approaches for the Synthesis of Carbocycles and Heterocycles2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In biological systems, most of the active organic molecules are chiral. Some of the main constituents of living organisms are amino acids and sugars. They exist predominantly in only one enantiomerically pure form. For example, our proteins are built-up by L-amino acids and as a consequence they are enatiomerically pure and will interact in different ways with enantiomers of chiral molecules. Indeed, different enantiomers or diastereomers of a molecule could often have a drastically different biological activity. It is of paramount importance in organic synthesis to develop new routes to control and direct the stereochemical outcome of reactions. The aim of this thesis is to investigate new protocols for the synthesis of complex chiral molecules using simple, environmentally friendly proline-based organocatalysts. We have investigated, the aziridination of linear and branched enals, the stereoselective synthesis of β-amino acids with a carbene co-catalyst, the synthesis of pyrazolidines, the combination of heterogeneous transition metal catalysis and amine catalysis to deliver cyclopentenes bearing an all-carbon quaternary stereocenter and a new heterogeneous dual catalyst system for the carbocyclization of enals. The reactions presented in this thesis afforded the corresponding products with high levels of chemo-, diastero- and enantioselectivity.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Kristofer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Development and Applications of Surface-Confined Transition Metal Complexes: Heterogeneous Catalysis and Anisotropic Particle Surfaces2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of this thesis has been directed towards developing novel surface-confined transition metal complexes for applications in heterogeneous catalysis and for the preparation of anisotropic particle surfaces. The first part describes the heterogenization of a homogeneous transition metal-based catalyst tetraphenyl cobalt porphyrin (CoTPP) on silicon wafers and on silica particles. The activity in hydroquinone oxidation for the silica particle-immobilized CoTPPs was found to be increased 100-fold compared to its homogeneous congener whereas the silicon wafer-immobilized CoTPPs achieved lower activity due to the formation of clusters of catalyst molecules on the support surface as detected with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The second part of this thesis describes the development and characterization of anisotropic particle-surfaces by electrochemical site-specific oxidation of surface-confined thiols. Reactive patches or gold gradients could be obtained on the particle surfaces depending on the type of working electrode used and on the electrolyte composition. The particle surface functionalities were characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the particle-surface-confined patches and gradients were conjugated with proteins to obtain fluorescence for investigation using fluorescence microscopy. Gold-functionalized siliceous mesocellular foams were further demonstrated to be highly efficient and selective catalysts in the cycloisomerization of 4-alkynoic acids to lactones. The final part of this thesis describes the preparation and characterization of palladium nanoparticles heterogenized in the pores of siliceous mesocellular foam. The nanoparticles were analyzed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and found to have a size of 1-2 nm. Primary- and secondary benzylic- and allylic alcohols were oxidized by the heterogeneous palladium nanoparticles in high to excellent yields using air atmosphere as the oxygen source. The nanopalladium catalyst was used up to five times without any decrease in activity and the size of the nanoparticles was retained according to TEM.

  • 10.
    Fontana, Carolina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Weintraub, Andrej
    Karolinska Institute.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Facile Structural Elucidation of Glycans Using NMR Spectroscopy Data and the Program CASPER: Application to the O-Antigen Polysaccharide of Escherichia coli O1552013In: ChemPlusChem, ISSN 2192-6506, Vol. 78, no 11, p. 1327-1329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The program CASPER was successfully employed to rapidly elucidate a new O-antigen polysaccharide structure (obtained from a strain of Escherichia coli serogroup O155), using solelyunassigned NMR spectroscopy data as input information. Thus, what is considered the most tedious and time-consuming part of the structural elucidation process has been reduced from several hours (or even days) of manual interpretation to about four minutes of automated analysis.

  • 11. Harper, James K.
    et al.
    Tishler, Derek
    Richardson, David
    Lokvam, John
    Pendrill, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Solid-State NMR Characterization of the Molecular Conformation in Disordered Methyl alpha-L-Rhamnofuranoside2013In: Journal of Physical Chemistry A, ISSN 1089-5639, E-ISSN 1520-5215, Vol. 117, no 26, p. 5534-5541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A combination of solid-state C-13 NMR tensor data and DFT computational methods is utilized to predict the conformation in disordered methyl alpha-L-rhamnofuranoside. This previously uncharacterized solid is found to be crystalline and consists of at least six distinct conformations that exchange on the kHz time scale. A total of 66 model structures were evaluated, and six were identified as being consistent with experimental C-13 NMR data. All feasible structures have very similar carbon and oxygen positions and differ most significantly in OH hydrogen orientations. A concerted rearrangement of OH hydrogens is proposed to account for the observed dynamic disorder. This rearrangement is accompanied by smaller changes in ring conformation and is slow enough to be observed on the NMR time scale due to severe steric crowding among ring substituents. The relatively minor differences in non-hydrogen atom positions in the final structures suggest that characterization of a complete crystal structure by X-ray powder diffraction may be feasible.

  • 12. He, Xibing
    et al.
    Hatcher, Elizabeth
    Eriksson, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    MacKerell, Alexander D., Jr.
    Bifurcated Hydrogen Bonding and Asymmetric Fluctuations in a Carbohydrate Crystal Studied via X-ray Crystallography and Computational Analysis2013In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 117, no 25, p. 7546-7553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of the O-methyl glycoside of the naturally occurring 6-O-[(R)-1-carboxyethyl]-alpha-D-galactopyranose, C10H18O8, has been determined by X-ray crystallography at 100 K, supplementing the previously determined structure obtained at 293 K (Acta Crystallogr. 1996, C52, 2285-2287). Molecular dynamics simulations of this glycoside were Performed in the crystal environment with different numbers of units cells included in the primary simulation system at both 100 and 293 K. The Calculated unit cell Parameters and the intramolecular geometries (bonds, angles, and dihedrals) agree well with experimental results. Atomic fluctuations, including B-factors and anisotropies, are in good agreement with respect to the relative values on an atom-by-atom basis. In addition, the fluctuations increase with increasing simulation system size, with the simulated values converging to values lower than those observed experimentally indicating that the simulation model is not accounting for all possible contributions to the experimentally observed B-factors, which may be related to either the simulation time scale or size. In the simulation's, the hydroxyl group of O7 is found to from bifurcated hydrogen bonds with O6 and O8 of an adjacent molecule, with the interactions dominated by the interaction HO7-O6 interaction. Quantum mechanical calculations support this observation.

  • 13.
    Jalalian, Nazli
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Synthesis of Koser’s Reagent and Derivatives2013In: Organic Syntheses, ISSN 0078-6209, Vol. 90, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Küpper, Frithjof C.
    et al.
    Feiters, Martin C.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Kaiho, Tatsuo
    Yanagida, Shozo
    Zimmermann, Michael B.
    Carpenter, Lucy J.
    Luther, George W.
    Lu, Zunli
    Jonsson, Mats
    Kloo, Lars
    Purple fumes: the importance of iodine2013In: Science in School, ISSN 1818-0353, E-ISSN 1818-0361, no 27, p. 10p. 45-53Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Larsson, Johanna M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Transition metal-catalyzed allylic and vinylic functionalization: Method development and mechanistic investigations2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of small molecule building blocks in, for example, pharmaceutical research and new material development, creates a need for new and improved organic synthesis methods. The use of transition metals as mediators and catalysts opens up new reaction pathways that have made the synthesis of completely new compounds possible as well as greatly improved the synthetic routes to known compounds.

    Herein, the development of new metal-mediated and catalyzed reactions for construction of vinylic and allylic carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds is described.  The use of iodonium salts as coupling partners in Pd-catalyzed Heck type reactions with alkenes is shown to improve the current substrate scope. Results from a mechanistic study indicate that the reaction proceeds via high oxidation state palladium intermediates.

    The use of IIII reagents is also believed to facilitate a PdII/PdIV catalytic cycle in allylic silylation of alkenes using (SiMe3)2, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first method developed for metal-catalyzed allylic C-H silylation.

    The same silyl-source, (SiMe3)2, has previously been used in a Pd-catalyzed allylic substitution reaction in which allylic silanes are formed from allylic alcohols. A detailed mechanistic investigation of this reaction is described in which by-products as well as intermediates, including the resting state of the catalyst, are identified using 1H, 11B, 19F and 29Si NMR spectroscopy. Kinetic experiments are performed that give information about the turn-over limiting step and the mechanism of the analogous borylation using B2pin2 is also investigated. Insights from this study further made it possible to improve the stereoselectivity of this reaction.

    Additionally, a new method for Cu-mediated trifluoromethylation of allylic halides is presented in which linear products are formed exclusively from both linear and branched allylic substrates at room temperature.  Identification of allylic fluorides as by-products during the reaction also led to the development of a similar Cu-mediated reaction for the fluorination of allylic halides.

  • 16. Li, Jia-Qi
    et al.
    Andersson, Pher G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Room temperature and solvent-free iridium-catalyzed selective alkylation of anilines with alcohols2013In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 49, no 55, p. 6131-6133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A bidentate iridium NHC-phosphine complex has been developed and applied to the N-monoalkylation of aromatic amines with a wide range of primary alcohols and to the N-heterocyclization of amino alcohols. This reaction resulted in high isolated product yields, even at room temperature and under solvent-free conditions.

  • 17.
    Lindberg, Bo G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Merritt, Eleanor A.
    Rayl, Melanie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Liu, Chenxiao
    Parmryd, Ingela
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Faye, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Immunogenic and Antioxidant Effects of a Pathogen-Associated Prenyl Pyrophosphate in Anopheles gambiae2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 8, p. e73868-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite efficient vector transmission, Plasmodium parasites suffer great bottlenecks during their developmental stages within Anopheles mosquitoes. The outcome depends on a complex three-way interaction between host, parasite and gut bacteria. Although considerable progress has been made recently in deciphering Anopheles effector responses, little is currently known regarding the underlying microbial immune elicitors. An interesting candidate in this sense is the pathogen-derived prenyl pyrophosphate and designated phosphoantigen (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP), found in Plasmodium and most eubacteria but not in higher eukaryotes. HMBPP is the most potent stimulant known of human V gamma 9V delta 2 T cells, a unique lymphocyte subset that expands during several infections including malaria. In this study, we show that V(Y)9V delta 2 T cells proliferate when stimulated with supernatants from intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum cultures, suggesting that biologically relevant doses of phosphoantigens are excreted by the parasite. Next, we used Anopheles gambiae to investigate the immune-and redox-stimulating effects of HMBPP. We demonstrate a potent activation in vitro of all but one of the signaling pathways earlier implicated in the human V(Y)9V delta 2 T cell response, as p38, JNK and PI3K/Akt but not ERK were activated in the A. gambiae 4a3B cell line. Additionally, both HMBPP and the downstream endogenous metabolite isopentenyl pyrophosphate displayed antioxidant effects by promoting cellular tolerance to hydrogen peroxide challenge. When provided in the mosquito blood meal, HMBPP induced temporal changes in the expression of several immune genes. In contrast to meso-diaminopimelic acid containing peptidoglycan, HMBPP induced expression of dual oxidase and nitric oxide synthase, two key determinants of Plasmodium infection. Furthermore, temporal fluctuations in midgut bacterial numbers were observed. The multifaceted effects observed in this study indicates that HMBPP is an important elicitor in common for both Plasmodium and gut bacteria in the mosquito.

  • 18.
    Lindstedt, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ghosh, Raju
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Metal-Free Synthesis of Aryl Ethers in Water2013In: Organic Letters, ISSN 1523-7060, E-ISSN 1523-7052, Vol. 15, no 23, p. 6070-6073Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first arylation of allylic and benzylic alcohols with diaryliodonium salts is reported. The reaction yields alkyl aryl ethers under mild and metal-free conditions. Phenols are arylated to diaryl ethers in good to excellent yields. The reaction employs diaryliodonium salts and sodium hydroxide in water at low temperature, and excess amounts of the coupling partners are avoided.

  • 19.
    Lundborg, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ali, Eunus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    An in silico virtual screening study for the design of norovirus inhibitors: fragment-based molecular docking and binding free energy calculations2013In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 378, p. 133-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gastrointestinal infections caused by noroviruses may be prevented by the inhibition of their binding to histo-blood group carbohydrate antigens. A fragment-based virtual screening approach was used, employing docking followed by molecular dynamics simulations in order to enable binding free energy calculations using the linear interaction energy method. The resulting structures, composed of high-affinity fragments, can be a good starting point for lead optimizations and four molecules that pass both REOS and SYLVIA filters, which can remove known toxic features and assess the synthetic accessibility, respectively, are proposed as inhibitors.

  • 20. Mally, Manuela
    et al.
    Fontana, Carolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    LeibundGut-Landmann, Salome
    Laacisse, Lamia
    Fan, Yao-Yun
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Aebi, Markus
    Glycoengineering of host mimicking type-2 LacNAc polymersand Lewis X antigens on bacterial cell surfaces2013In: Molecular Microbiology, ISSN 0950-382X, E-ISSN 1365-2958, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 112-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial carbohydrate structures play a central role in mediating a variety of host-pathogen interactions. Glycans can either elicit protective immune response or lead to escape of immune surveillance by mimicking host structures. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component on the surface of Gram-negative bacteria, is composed of a lipid A-core and the O-antigen polysaccharide. Pathogens like Neisseria meningitidis expose a lipooligosaccharide (LOS), which outermost glycans mimick mammalian epitopes to avoid immune recognition. Lewis X (Gal beta 1-4(Fuc alpha 1-3)GlcNAc) antigens of Helicobacter pylori or of the helminth Schistosoma mansoni modulate the immune response by interacting with receptors on human dendritic cells. In a glycoengineering approach we generate human carbohydrate structures on the surface of recombinant Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium that lack O-antigen. A ubiquitous building block in mammalian N-linked protein glycans is Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc, referred to as a type-2 N-acetyllactosamine, LacNAc, sequence. Strains displaying polymeric LacNAc were generated by introducing a combination of glycosyltransferases that act on modified lipid A-cores, resulting in efficient expression of the carbohydrate epitope on bacterial cell surfaces. The poly-LacNAc scaffold was used as an acceptor for fucosylation leading to polymers of Lewis X antigens. We analysed the distribution of the carbohydrate epitopes by FACS, microscopy and ELISA and confirmed engineered LOS containing LacNAc and Lewis X repeats by MALDI-TOF and NMR analysis. Glycoengineered LOS induced pro-inflammatory response in murine dendritic cells. These bacterial strains can thus serve as tools to analyse the role of defined carbohydrate structures in different biological processes.

  • 21.
    Malmgren, Joel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Santoro, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Jalalian, Nazli
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Himo, Fahmi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Arylation with Unsymmetrical Diaryliodonium Salts: A Chemoselectivity Study2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, no 31, p. 10334-10342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phenols, anilines, and malonates have been arylated under metal-free conditions with twelve aryl(phenyl)iodonium salts in a systematic chemoselectivity study. A new “anti-ortho effect” has been identified in the arylation of malonates. Several “dummy groups” have been found that give complete chemoselectivity in the transfer of the phenyl moiety, irrespective of the nucleophile. An aryl exchange in the diaryliodonium salts has been observed under certain arylation conditions. DFT calculations have been performed to investigate the reaction mechanism and to elucidate the origins of the observed selectivities. These results are expected to facilitate the design of chiral diaryliodonium salts and the development of catalytic arylation reactions that are based on these sustainable and metal-free reagents.

  • 22.
    Pascanu, Vlad
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Yao, Qingxia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bermejo Gomez, Antonio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Mikaela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Yun, Yifeng
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Wan, Wei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Samain, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Martin-Matute, Belen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Sustainable Catalysis: Rational Pd Loading on MIL-101Cr-NH2 for More Efficient and Recyclable Suzuki-Miyaura Reactions2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, no 51, p. 17483-17493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Palladium nanoparticles have been immobilized into an amino-functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF), MIL-101Cr-NH2, to form Pd@MIL-101Cr-NH2. Four materials with different loadings of palladium have been prepared (denoted as 4-, 8-, 12-, and 16wt%Pd@MIL-101Cr-NH2). The effects of catalyst loading and the size and distribution of the Pd nanoparticles on the catalytic performance have been studied. The catalysts were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), N-2-sorption isotherms, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). To better characterize the palladium nanoparticles and their distribution in MIL-101Cr-NH2, electron tomography was employed to reconstruct the 3D volume of 8wt%Pd@MIL-101Cr-NH2 particles. The pair distribution functions (PDFs) of the samples were extracted from total scattering experiments using high-energy X-rays (60keV). The catalytic activity of the four MOF materials with different loadings of palladium nanoparticles was studied in the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. The best catalytic performance was obtained with the MOF that contained 8wt% palladium nanoparticles. The metallic palladium nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed, with an average size of 2.6nm. Excellent yields were obtained for a wide scope of substrates under remarkably mild conditions (water, aerobic conditions, room temperature, catalyst loading as low as 0.15mol%). The material can be recycled at least 10times without alteration of its catalytic properties.

  • 23.
    Pendrill, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Conformations of Flexible Oligosaccharides: Molecular Simulations and NMR spectroscopy2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The conformational preferences of several oligosaccharides are investigated herein using a combination of NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, focusing on the torsion angles associated with the glycosidic linkages.

    Strategies for obtaining usable J-HMBC spectra for carbons with an adjacent 13C label are described. By employing a selective pulse or a constant time modification, spectra free from interferences are obtained for site-specifically 13C labeled oligosaccharides.

    Intermolecular hydrogen bonding in sucrose is investigated using MD simulations performed at different concentrations. One of the most frequent intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the simulations, O3f∙∙∙HO3g, was detected using the HSQC-TOCSY NMR experiment.

    Based on MD simulations and NMR spectroscopy, the conformational ensemble for a trisaccharide segment of the LeaLex hexasaccharide is proposed to feature conformational exchange between conformations with positive and negative values for the ψ3 torsion angle in the β-D-GlcpNAc-(1→3)-β-D-Galp linkage.

    Using MD simulations, the conformation of the N-acetyl group is shown to influence the glycosidic conformation at a nearby linkage in two oligosaccharides.

    Short (1→6)-linked oligosaccharides are shown to exhibit conformational exchange at the ω and ψ torsion angles. Notably, the former torsion angle populates states with ψ ≈ ±90°. Conformationally sensitive homo- and heteronuclear coupling constants are determined using various NMR experiments. The experimental data, including effective distances from NOESY obtained for two of the compounds, is used to improve the representation of the ω torsion angle in the CHARMM36 force field.

  • 24.
    Pendrill, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Jonsson, K. Hanna M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Glycan synthesis, structure, and dynamics: A selection2013In: Pure and Applied Chemistry, ISSN 0033-4545, E-ISSN 1365-3075, Vol. 85, no 9, p. 1759-1770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glycan structural information is a prerequisite for elucidation of carbohydrate function in biological systems. To this end we employ a tripod approach for investigation of carbo hydrate 3D structure and dynamics based on organic synthesis; different experimental spectroscopy techniques, NMR being of prime importance; and molecular simulations using, in particular, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The synthesis of oligosaccharides in the form of glucosyl fluorides is described, and their use as substrates for the Lam16A E115S glucosyl synthase is exemplified as well as a conformational analysis of a cyclic beta-(1 -> 3)-heptaglucan based on molecular simulations. The flexibility of the N-acetyl group of aminosugars is by MD simulations indicated to function as a gatekeeper for transitions of glycosidic torsion angles to other regions of conformational space. A novel approach to visualize glycoprotein (GP) structures is presented in which the protein is shown by, for example, ribbons, but instead of stick or space-filling models for the carbohydrate portion it is visualized by the colored geometrical figures known as CFG representation in a 3D way, which we denote 3D-CFG, thereby effectively highlighting the sugar residues of the glycan part of the GP and the position(s) on the protein.

  • 25.
    Pendrill, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Säwén, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Conformation and Dynamics at a Flexible Glycosidic Linkage Revealed by NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulations: Analysis of β-ʟ-Fucp-(1→6)-α-ᴅ-Glcp-OMe in Water Solution2013In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 117, no 47, p. 14709-14722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intrinsic flexibility of carbohydrates facilitates different 3D structures in response to altered environments. At glycosidic (1 -> 46)-linkages, three torsion angles are variable, and herein the conformation and dynamics of beta-1.-Fucp-(1 -> 6)-alpha-D-Glcp-OMe are investigated using a combination of NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The disaccharide shows evidence of conformational averaging for the psi and co torsion angles, best explained by a four-state conformational distribution. Notably, there is a significant population of conformations having psi = 85 degrees (clinal) in addition to those having psi = 180 degrees (anfiperiplanar). Moderate differences in C-13 R-1 relaxation rates are found to be best explained by axially symmetric tumbling in combination with minor differences in librational motion for the two residues, whereas the isomerization motions are occurring too slowly to significantly to the observed relaxation rates. The MD simulation was found to give a reasonably good agreement with experiment, especially with respect to diffusive properties, among which the rotational anisotropy, D parallel to/D parallel to, is found to be 2.35. The force field employed showed too narrow omega torsion angles in the gauche trans and gauche gauche states as well as overestimating the population of the gauche trans conformer. This information can subsequently be used in directing parameter developments and emphasizes the need for refinement of force fields for (1 -> 6)-linked carbohydrates.

  • 26.
    Rönnols, Jerk
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Structure, dynamics and reactivity of carbohydrates: NMR spectroscopic studies2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of this thesis is on the ring conformations of carbohydrate molecules; how the conformational equilibria and the rates of the associated interconversions are affected by the molecular constitution and their surroundings.

    The conformational equilibria of a group of amine linked pseudodisaccharides, designed as potential glycosidase inhibitors, comprising α-D-altrosides are described in Chapter 3. The OS2 conformation was largely populated, and the ring conformation was found to depend on the charge of the amine functionality.

    The conformations of β-D-xylopyranoside derivatives with naphthyl-based aglycones, which are potential anti-cancer agents, are described in chapter 4. Solvent dependent flexibility was observed. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds were concluded to be involved in the stabilization of 1C4 conformers in non-hydrogen bonding solvents of low polarity.

    Chapter 5 describes the first measurements of the conformational exchange rates of mannuronic acid ester derivatives between the 4C1 and 1C4 conformations, through DNMR measurements. The relative reactivity of glycosyl triflates as electrophiles in glycosylation reactions were investigated with NMR-based competition experiments.

    In Chapter 6, investigations of ruthenium-catalyzed epimerizations of the allylic alcohols of glycal derivatives, and stereoselective synthesis of esters through a DYKAT protocol, are described. The kinetics of the epimerizations were elaborated through different NMR-spectroscopic methods.

    Chapter 7 describes additions of NMR chemical shift data of mono- and oligosaccharides to database of the computer program CASPER, and applications thereof.

  • 27.
    Rönnols, Jerk
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Pendrill, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Fontana, Carolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Hamark, Christoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Angles d'Ortoli, Thibault
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Engström, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ståhle, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Zaccheus, Mona V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Säwén, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Hahn, Liljan E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Iqbal, Shahzad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Complete H-1 and C-13 NMR chemical shift assignments of mono- to tetrasaccharides as basis for NMR chemical shift predictions of oligosaccharides using the computer program CASPER2013In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 380, p. 156-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    H-1 and C-13 NMR chemical shift data are used by the computer program CASPER to predict chemical shifts of oligo- and polysaccharides. Three types of data are used, namely, those from monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides. To improve the accuracy of these predictions we have assigned the H-1 and C-13 NMR chemical shifts of eleven monosaccharides, eleven disaccharides, twenty trisaccharides, and one tetrasaccharide; in total 43 compounds. Five of the oligosaccharides gave two distinct sets of NMR resonances due to the alpha- and beta-anomeric forms resulting in 48 H-1 and C-13 NMR chemical shift data sets. In addition, the pyranose ring forms of Neu5Ac were assigned at two temperatures, due to chemical shift displacements as a function of temperature. The H-1 NMR chemical shifts were refined using total line-shape analysis with the PERCH NMR software. H-1 and C-13 NMR chemical shift predictions were subsequently carried out by the CASPER program (http://www.casper.organ.su.se/casper/) for three branched oligosaccharides having different functional groups at their reducing ends, namely, a mannose-containing pentasaccharide, and two fucose-containing heptasaccharides having N-acetyllactosamine residues in the backbone of their structures. Good to excellent agreement was observed between predicted and experimental H-1 and C-13 NMR chemical shifts showing the utility of the method for structural determination or confirmation of synthesized oligosaccharides.

  • 28.
    Stewart, Beverly
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Nyhlén, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Martin-Matute, Belén
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Privalov, Timofei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    A computational study of the CO dissociation in cyclopentadienyl ruthenium complexes relevant to the racemization of alcohols2013In: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 927-934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of an active 16-electron ruthenium sec-alkoxide complex via loss of the CO ligand is an important step in the mechanism of the racemization of sec-alcohols by (eta(5)-Ph5C5) Ru(CO)(2)X ruthenium complexes with X = Cl and OtBu. Here we show with accurate DFT calculations the potential energy profile of the CO dissociation pathway for a series of relevant (eta(5)-Ph5C5) Ru(CO) 2X complexes, where X = Cl, OtBu, H and (COOBu)-Bu-t. We have found that the CO dissociation energy increases in the following order: OtBu (lowest), Cl, COOtBu and H (highest). Using the distance between ruthenium and C-CO, r = Ru-C-CO, as a constraint, and by optimizing all other degrees of freedom for a range of Ru-CO distances, we obtained relative energies, Delta E(r) and geometries of a sufficient number of transient structures with the elongated Ru-CO bond up to r = 3.4 angstrom. Our calculations provide a quantitative understanding of the CO ligand dissociation in (eta(5)-Ph5C5) Ru(CO)(2)Cl and (eta(5)-Ph5C5) Ru(CO) 2(OtBu) complexes, which is relevant to the mechanism of their catalytic activity in the racemization of alcohols. We recently reported that exchange of the CO ligand by isotopically labeled (CO)-C-13 in the Ru-(OBu)-Bu-t complex occurs twenty times faster than that in the Ru-Cl complex. This corresponds to a difference of 1.8 kcal mol(-1) in the CO dissociation energy (at room temperature). This is in very good agreement with the calculated difference between the two potential energy curves for Ru-OtBu and Ru-Cl complexes, which is about 1.8-2 kcal mol(-1) around the corresponding transition states of the CO dissociation. The calculated difference in the total energy for CO dissociation in (eta(5)-Ph5C5) Ru(CO)(2)X complexes is related to the stabilization provided by the X group in the final 16-electron complexes, which are formed via product-like transition states. In addition to the calculated transition states of CO dissociation in Ru-OtBu and Ru-Cl complexes, the calculated transient structures with the elongated Ru-CO bond provide insight into how the geometry of the ruthenium complex with a potent heteroatom donor group (X) gradually changes when one of the COs is dissociating.

  • 29.
    Verho, Oscar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Transition Metal-Catalyzed Redox Reactions: A Journey from Homogeneous Ruthenium to Heterogeneous Palladium Catalysis2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first part of the thesis covers the development and utilization of electronically modified (pentaarylcyclopentadienyl)Ru-complexes in the racemization of secondary alcohols. This study revealed that the electronic properties of the substrate were the main factors dictating whether β-hydride elimination or hydride re-addition becomes the rate-determining step of the racemization process. With this knowledge in hand, it proved to be possible to design more efficient racemization protocols by matching the electronic properties of catalyst and substrate.

    The second part describes mechanistic work that aimed at elucidating the role of CO dissociation in the mechanism of secondary alcohol racemization catalyzed by a (pentaarylcyclopentadienyl)Ru-complex. From CO exchange studies, we demonstrated that CO dissociation occurred in the catalytically active tert-BuO-species as well as in the chloride precatalyst. Furthermore, an inhibition study showed that an increase of the partial pressure of CO had a negative influence on the racemization rate. Together, these two observations provide strong support for CO dissociation as a key step in the racemization of secondary alcohols.

    The third part concerns the improved synthesis and characterization of a heterogeneous catalyst consisting of Pd nanoparticles immobilized on aminopropyl-functionalized siliceous mesocellular foam. The developed Pd nanocatalyst was found to be a highly efficient and recyclable catalyst for the aerobic oxidation of a wide range of primary and secondary alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones.

    The fourth part deals with the successful application of the Pd nanocatalyst in chemically-induced H2O oxidation, when using either ceric ammonium nitrate or [Ru(bpy)3]3+ as the terminal oxidant. Remarkably, the Pd nanocatalyst proved to catalyze this reaction with high efficiency and the measured TOF was found to greatly exceed those of current state-of-the-art metal oxide catalysts.

    The fifth and final part describes the co-immobilization of Pd nanoparticles and the enzyme Candida Antarctica Lipase B into the same cavities of mesocellular foam, to generate a “metalloenzyme-like” hybrid catalyst for the dynamic kinetic resolution of a primary amine. The close proximity of the two catalytic species led to an enhanced cooperativity between them and resulted in an overall more efficient tandem process. 

  • 30.
    Warner, Madeleine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ruthenium-Catalyzed Hydrogen Transfer Reactions: Mechanistic Studies and Chemoenzymatic Dynamic Kinetic Resolutions2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of this thesis lies on transition metal-catalyzed hydrogen transfer reactions. In the first part of the thesis, the mechanism for racemization of sec-alcohols with a ruthenium complex, Ru(CO)2Cl(η5-C5Ph5) was studied.

    The reaction between 5-hexen-2-ol and Ru(CO)2(Ot-Bu)(η5-C5Ph5) was studied with the aim to elucidate the origin of the slow racemization observed for this sec-alcohol. Two diastereomers of an alkoxycarbonyl complex, which has the double bond coordinated to ruthenium, were characterized by NMR and in situ FT-IR spectroscopy. The observed inhibition of the rate of racemization for substrates with double bonds provided further confirmation of the importance of a free coordination site on ruthenium for β-hydride elimination. Furthermore, we observed that CO exchange, monitored by 13C NMR using 13CO, occurs with both the precatalyst, Ru(CO)2Cl(η5-C5Ph5), and the active catalytic intermediate, Ru(CO)2(Ot-Bu)(η5-C5Ph5). It was also found that added CO has an inhibitory effect on the rate of racemization of (S)-1-phenylethanol. Both these observations provide strong support for reversible CO dissociation as a key step in the racemization mechanism.

    In the second part of this thesis, Ru(CO)2Cl(η5-C5Ph5) was combined with an enzymatic resolution catalyzed by a lipase, leading to several efficient dynamic kinetic resolutions (DKR). DKR of exocyclic allylic alcohols afforded the corresponding acetates in high yields and with excellent enantiomeric excess (ee). The products were utilized as synthetic precursors for α-substituted ketones and lactones. DKR of a wide range of homoallylic alcohols afforded the products in good to high yields and with high ee. The homoallylic acetates were transformed into 5,6-dihydropyran-2-ones in a short reaction sequence. Furthermore, DKR of a wide range of aromatic β-chloroalcohols afforded the products in high yields and with excellent ee. The β-chloro acetates were further transformed into chiral epoxides.

  • 31.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    A perspective on the primary and three-dimensional structures of carbohydrates2013In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 378, p. 123-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbohydrates, in more biologically oriented areas referred to as glycans, constitute one of the four groups of biomolecules. The glycans, often present as glycoproteins or glycolipids, form highly complex structures. In mammals ten monosaccharides are utilized in building glycoconjugates in the form of oligo-(up to about a dozen monomers) and polysaccharides. Subsequent modifications and additions create a large number of different compounds. In bacteria, more than a hundred monosaccharides have been reported to be constituents of lipopolysaccharides, capsular polysaccharides, and exopolysaccharides. Thus, the number of polysaccharide structures possible to create is huge. NMR spectroscopy plays an essential part in elucidating the primary structure, that is, monosaccharide identity and ring size, anomeric configuration, linkage position, and sequence, of the sugar residues. The structural studies may also employ computational approaches for NMR chemical shift predictions (CASPER program). Once the components and sequence of sugar residues have been unraveled, the three-dimensional arrangement of the sugar residues relative to each other (conformation), their flexibility (transitions between and populations of conformational states), together with the dynamics (timescales) should be addressed. To shed light on these aspects we have utilized a combination of experimental liquid state NMR techniques together with molecular dynamics simulations. For the latter a molecular mechanics force field such as our CHARMM-based PARM22/SU01 has been used. The experimental NMR parameters acquired are typically H-1, H-1 cross-relaxation rates (related to NOEs), (3)JCH and (3)JCC trans-glycosidic coupling constants and H-1, C-13-and H-1, H-1-residual dipolar couplings. At a glycosidic linkage two torsion angles phi and psi are defined and for 6-substituted residues also the omega torsion angle is required. Major conformers can be identified for which highly populated states are present. Thus, in many cases a well-defined albeit not rigid structure can be identified. However, on longer timescales, oligosaccharides must be considered as highly flexible molecules since also anti-conformations have been shown to exist with H-C-O-C torsion angles of similar to 180 degrees, compared to syn-conformations in which the protons at the carbon atoms forming the glycosidic linkage are in close proximity. The accessible conformational space governs possible interactions with proteins and both minor changes and significant alterations occur for the oligosaccharides in these interaction processes. Transferred NOE NMR experiments give information on the conformation of the glycan ligand when bound to the proteins whereas saturation transfer difference NMR experiments report on the carbohydrate part in contact with the protein. It is anticipated that the subtle differences in conformational preferences for glycan structures facilitate a means to regulate biochemical processes in different environments. Further developments in the analysis of glycan structure and in particular its role in interactions with other molecules, will lead to clarifications of the importance of structure in biochemical regulation processes essential to health and disease.

  • 32. Yotapan, Nattawut
    et al.
    Paptchikhine, Alexander
    Bera, Milan
    Avula, Satya Kumar
    Vilaivan, Tirayut
    Andersson, Pher G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. University of Kwazulu Natal, South Africa.
    Simple Proline-Derived Phosphine-Thiazole Iridium Complexes for Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Trisubstituted Olefins2013In: Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 2193-5807, Vol. 2, no 8, p. 674-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proline-based phosphine-thiazole/imidazole ligands have been synthesized and successfully applied in the homogeneous, iridium-catalyzed, asymmetric hydrogenation of trisubstituted functionalized and unfunctionalized olefins. Five different sets of ligands were prepared then evaluated for their catalytic activity and enantioselectivity in asymmetric hydrogenation.

  • 33.
    Šoltésová, Mária
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Charles University in Prague.
    Kowalewski, Jozef
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Dynamics of exocyclic groups in the Escherichia coli O91 O-antigen polysaccharide in solution studied by carbon-13 NMR relaxation2013In: Journal of Biomolecular NMR, ISSN 0925-2738, E-ISSN 1573-5001, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 37-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon-13 relaxation data are reported for exocyclic groups of hexopyranosyl sugar residues in the repeating unit within the Escherichia coli O91 O-antigen polysaccharide in a dilute D2O solution. The measurements of T 1, T 2 and heteronuclear nuclear Overhauser enhancements were carried out at 310 K at two magnetic fields (16.4 T, 21.1 T). The data were analyzed using the standard and extended Lipari–Szabo models, as well as a conformational jump model. The extended version of the Lipari–Szabo and the two-site jump models were most successful for the hydroxymethyl groups of Gal and GlcNAc sugar residues. Different dynamics was found for the hydroxymethyl groups associated with different configurations (d-gluco, d-galacto) of the sugar residues, the latter being faster than the former.

1 - 33 of 33
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