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  • 1.
    Ahlford, Katrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of ketones: Catalyst development and mechanistic investigation2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of ligands derived from natural amino acids for asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (ATH) of prochiral ketones is described herein. In the first part, reductions performed in alcoholic media are examined, where it is found that amino acid-derived hydroxamic acids and thioamides, respectively, are simple and versatile ligands that in combination with [RhCp*Cl2]2 efficiently catalyze this particular transformation. Selectivities up to 97% ee of the corresponding secondary alcohols are obtained, and it is furthermore observed that the two different ligand classes, albeit based on the same amino acid scaffold, give rise to products of opposite configuration.

    The highly interesting enantioswitchable nature of the two abovementioned catalysts is studied in detail by mechanistic investigations. A structure/activity correlation analysis is performed, which reveals that the diverse behavior of the catalysts arise from different interactions between the ligands and the metal. Kinetic studies furthermore stress the catalyst divergence, since a difference in the rate determining step is established from initial rate measurements. In addition, rate constants are determined for each step of the overall reduction process.

    In the last part, catalyst development for ATH executed in water is discussed. The applicability of hydroxamic acid ligands is further extended, and catalysts based on these compounds are found to be efficient and compatible with aqueous conditions. The structurally even simpler amino acid amide is also evaluated as a ligand, and selectivities up to 90% ee are obtained in the reduction of a number of aryl alkyl ketones. The very challenging reduction of dialkyl ketones is moreover examined in the Rh-catalyzed aqueous ATH, where a modified surfactant-resembling sulfonylated diamine is used as ligand, and the reaction is carried out in the presence of SDS-micelles. A positive effect is to some extent found on the catalyst performance upon addition of phase-transfer components, especially regarding the catalytic activity in the reduction of more hydrophobic substrates.

  • 2.
    Bacsik, Zoltan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Ahlsten, Nanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ziadi, Asraa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Zhao, Guoying
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso E.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Martin-Matute, Belen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Hedin, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Mechanisms and Kinetics for Sorption of CO(2) on Bicontinuous Mesoporous Silica Modified with n-Propylamine2011In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 27, no 17, p. 11118-11128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied equilibrium adsorption and uptake kinetics and identified molecular species that formed during sorption of carbon dioxide on amine-modified silica. Bicontinuous silicas (AMS-6 and MCM-48) were postsynthetically modified with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane or (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane, and amine-modified AMS-6 adsorbed more CO(2) than did amine-modified MCM-48. By in situ FTIR spectroscopy, we showed that the amine groups reacted with CO(2) and formed ammonium carbamate ion pairs as well as carbamic acids under both dry and moist conditions. The carbamic acid was stabilized by hydrogen bonds, and ammonium carbamate ion pairs formed preferably on sorbents with high densities of amine groups. Under dry conditions, silylpropylcarbamate formed, slowly, by condensing carbamic acid and silanol groups. The ratio of ammonium carbamate ion pairs to silylpropylcarbamate was higher for samples with high amine contents than samples with low amine contents. Bicarbonates or carbonates did not form under dry or moist conditions. The uptake of CO(2) was enhanced in the presence of water, which was rationalized by the observed release of additional amine groups under these conditions and related formation of ammonium carbamate ion pairs. Distinct evidence for a fourth and irreversibly formed moiety was observed under sorption of CO(2) under dry conditions. Significant amounts of physisorbed, linear CO(2) were detected at relatively high partial pressures of CO(2), such that they could adsorb only after the reactive amine groups were consumed.

  • 3.
    Bielawski, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Diaryliodonium Salts: Development of Synthetic Methodologies and α-Arylation of Enolates2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes novel reaction protocols for the synthesis of diaryliodonium salts and also provides an insight to the mechanism of α-arylation of carbonyl compounds with diaryliodonium salts.

     The first chapter gives a general introduction to the field of hypervalent iodine chemistry, mainly focusing on recent developments and applications of diaryliodonium salts.

    Chapter two describes the synthesis of electron-rich to electron-poor diaryliodonium triflates, in moderate to excellent yields from a range of arenes and iodoarenes.

    In chapter three, it is described that molecular iodine can be used together with arenes in a direct one-pot, three-step synthesis of symmetric diaryliodonium triflates. A large scale synthesis of bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)iodonium triflate is also described, controlled and verified by an external research group, further demonstrating the reliability of this methodology.

    The fourth chapter describes the development of a sequential one-pot synthesis of diaryliodonium salts from aryl iodides and boronic acids, furnishing symmetric and unsymmetric, electron-rich to electron-poor diaryliodonium tetrafluoroborates in moderate to excellent yields. This method was developed to overcome the regiochemical limitations imposed by the reaction mechanism in the protocols described in the preceding chapters.

    Chapter five describes a one-pot synthesis of heteroaromatic iodonium salts under similar conditions described in chapter two.

    The final chapter describes the reaction of enolates with chiral diaryliodonium salts or together with a phase transfer catalyst yielding racemic products. DFT calculations were performed, which revealed a low lying energy transition state (TS) between intermediates, which is believed to be responsible for the lack of selectivity observed in the experimental work. It is also proposed that a [2,3] rearrangement is preferred over a [1,2] rearrangement in the α-arylation of carbonyl compounds.

    The synthetic methodology described in this thesis is the most generally applicable, efficient and high-yielding to date for the synthesis of diaryliodonium salts, making these reagents readily available for various applications in synthesis.

  • 4.
    Jalalian, Nazli
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ishikawa, Eloisa E.
    Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Quimica.
    Silva Jr., Luiz F.
    Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Quimica.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Room temperature, metal-free synthesis of diaryl ethers with use of diaryliodonium salts2011In: Abstracts of Papers, 242nd ACS National Meeting & Exposition, Denver, CO, United States, August 28-September 1, 2011, American Chemical Society , 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Diaryl ethers are common structural features in numerous natural products and biol. active compds.  Despite more than a century of immense focus on finding efficient synthetic routes to this compd. class, diaryl ethers remain difficult to obtain.  Routes that are catalytic in copper have been developed, but high catalyst loadings, excess reagents, elevated temps. and long reaction times are still needed.  Pd-catalyzed cross-couplings of phenols and aryl halides at temps. up to 100 °C have recently been reported to give high yields of diaryl ethers.  Diaryliodonium salts are non-toxic alternatives to transition metals in the synthesis of diaryl ethers and we have recently developed effective synthetic routes to these salts.  Herein we report a fast, high-yielding synthesis of diaryl ethers.  The reaction conditions are mild, metal-free, and avoid the use of halogenated solvents, additives, or excess reagents.  Precautions to avoid air or moisture are not needed.  The scope includes ortho- and halo-substituted diaryl ethers, which are difficult to obtain by metal-catalyzed protocols .

  • 5.
    Johnston, Eric
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    New Tools for Green Catalysis: Studies on a Biomimetic Hybrid Catalyst and a Novel Nanopalladium Catalyst2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first part of this thesis describes an improved synthetic route to hybrid (hydroquinone-Schiff base)cobalt catalysts. Preparation of the 5-(2,5-hydroxyphenyl)salicylaldehyde building block was improved by altering the protective groups of the hydroquinone (HQ) starting material. Both protection and deprotection could be carried out under mild conditions, resulting in high yields. By optimizing the reaction conditions of the Suzuki cross-coupling, an efficient and inexpensive synthetic route with a good overall yield was developed.

    The second part describes the use of the hybrid catalyst as an electron transfer mediator (ETM) in the palladium-catalyzed aerobic carbocyclization of enallenes. By covalently linking the HQ to the cobalt Schiff-base complex the reaction proceeded at lower temperatures with a five-fold increase of the reaction rate compared to the previously reported system.

    The third part describes the application of the hybrid catalyst in the biomimetic aerobic oxidation of secondary alcohols. Due to the effi­ciency of the intramolecular electron transfer, the hybrid catalyst allowed for a lower catalytic loading and milder reaction conditions compared to the previous separate-component system. Benzylic alcohols as well as aliphatic alcohols were oxidized to the corresponding ketones in excellent yield and selectivity using this methodology.

    The fourth part describes the synthesis and characterization of highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles supported on aminopropyl-modified siliceous mesocellular foam. The Pd nanocatalyst showed excellent activity for the aerobic oxidation of a wide variety of alcohols under air atmosphere. Moreover, the catalyst can be recycled several times without any decrease in activity or leaching of the metal into solution.

    Finally, the fifth part describes the application of the Pd nanocatalyst in transfer hydrogenations and Suzuki coupling reactions. The catalyst was found to be highly efficient for both transformations, resulting in chemoselective reduction of various alkenes as well as coupling of a variety of aryl halides with various boronic acids in excellent yields. Performing the latter reaction under microwave irradiation significantly increased the reaction rate, compared to conventional heating. However, no significant increase in reaction rate was observed for the transfer hydrogenations, under microwave heating.

  • 6.
    Kalek, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Synthesis of C(sp2)-P bonds by palladium-catalyzed reactions: Mechanistic investigations and synthetic studies2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on synthetic and mechanistic aspects of palladium-catalyzed C(sp2)-P bond-forming reactions, with the aim to develop mild and efficient methods for the synthesis of biologically active phosphorus compounds, e.g. DNA analogs.

    The first part of the thesis is devoted to detailed mechanistic investigations of the palladium-catalyzed C-P cross-coupling reaction, in order to fully understand the underlying chemistry and by rational design of the reaction conditions, improve the overall efficiency of the process and broaden its applicability. In particular influence of palladium coordination by different anions on the rate of ligand substitution and reductive elimination steps of the reaction was studied. It was found that coordination of acetate ion results in unprecedented acceleration of both of the mechanistic steps, what leads to remarkable shortening of the overall reaction times. In-depth kinetic investigations enabled to ascribe the observed effects to ability of the acetate ion to act as a bidentate ligand for palladium. This causes considerable alternation of the reaction mechanism, comparing to the reaction involving halide-containing complexes, and results in significant rate increase.

    Based on the above mechanistic studies an efficient method for the synthesis of arylphosphonates, using substoichiometric amounts of inorganic acetate additive and reduced amount of catalyst, was developed.

    In the next part of the thesis, efforts to further enhance the palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling efficiency by using a microwave-assisted synthesis are described. These explorations resulted in a successful development of two protocols, one for a cross-coupling of H-phosphonates and the other for H,H-phosphinates, under the microwave heating conditions. Application of this energy source resulted in extremely short reaction times, measured in minutes.

    The final chapter of this thesis deals with studies on palladium-catalyzed SN2’ propargylic substitution reaction with phosphorus nucleophiles, which leads to allene products. Efficient procedure for the synthesis of allenylphosphonates and related compounds was developed. The method enables full control of stereochemistry in the allene moiety and at the asymmetric phosphorus center. Some conclusions on the mechanism of the reaction were also drawn.

  • 7.
    Karlsson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Catalysts for Oxygen Production and Utilization: Closing the Oxygen Cycle: From Biomimetic Oxidation to Artificial Photosynthesis2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the development and study of catalysts for redox reactions, which either utilize oxygen or hydrogen peroxide for the purpose of selectively oxidizing organic substrates, or produce oxygen as the necessary byproduct in the production of hydrogen by artificial photosynthesis.

    The first chapter gives a general introduction about the use of environmentally friendly oxidants in the field of organic synthesis, and about the field of artificial photosynthesis. The second chapter describes a computational study of the mechanism of palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbohydroxylation of allene-substituted conjugated dienes. The proposed mechanism, which was supported by DFT calculations, involves an unusual water attack on a (π-allyl)palladium complex. The third chapter describes a computational study of the oxidation of unfunctionalized hydrocarbons, ethers and alcohols with hydrogen peroxide, catalyzed by methyltrioxorhenium (MTO). The mechanism was found to proceed via rate-limiting hydride abstraction followed by hydroxide transfer in a single concerted, but highly asynchronous, step as shown by intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) scans. The fourth chapter describes the use of a new hybrid (hydroquinone-Schiff base)cobalt catalyst as electron transfer mediator (ETM) in the palladium-catalyzed aerobic carbocyclization of enallenes. Covalently linking the two ETMs gave a fivefold rate increase compared to the use of separate components. The fifth chapter describes an improved synthetic route to the (hydroquinone-Schiff base)cobalt catalysts. Preparation of the key intermediate 5-(2,5-hydroxyphenyl)salicylaldehyde was improved by optimization of the key Suzuki coupling and change of protecting groups from methyl ethers to easily cleaved THP groups. The catalysts could thus be prepared in good overall yield from inexpensive starting materials.

    Finally, the sixth chapter describes the preparation and study of two catalysts for water oxidation, both based on ligands containing imidazole groups, analogous to the histidine residues present in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) and in many other metalloenzymes. The first, ruthenium-based, catalyst was found to catalyze highly efficient water oxidation induced by visible light. The second catalyst is, to the best of our knowledge, the first homogeneous manganese complex to catalyze light-driven water oxidation.

  • 8.
    Lundborg, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Computer-Assisted Carbohydrate Structural Studies and Drug Discovery2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbohydrates are abundant in nature and have functions ranging from energy storage to acting as structural components. Analysis of carbohydrate structures is important and can be used for, for instance, clinical diagnosis of diseases as well as in bacterial studies. The complexity of glycans makes it difficult to determine their structures. NMR spectroscopy is an advanced method that can be used to examine carbohydrates at the atomic level, but full assignments of the signals require much work. Reliable automation of this process would be of great help. Herein studies of Escherichia coli O-antigen polysaccharides are presented, both a structure determination by NMR and also research on glycosyltransferases which assemble the polysaccharides. The computer program CASPER has been improved to assist in carbohydrate studies and in the long run make it possible to automatically determine structures based only on NMR data.

    Detailed computer studies of glycans can shed light on their interactions with proteins and help find inhibitors to prevent unwanted binding. The WaaG glycosyltransferase is important for the formation of E. coli lipopolysaccharides. Molecular docking analyses of structures confirmed to bind this enzyme have provided information on how inhibitors could be composed. Noroviruses cause gastroenteritis, such as the winter vomiting disease, after binding human histo-blood group antigens. In one of the projects, fragment-based docking, followed by molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy calculations, was used to find competitive binders to the P domain of the capsid of the norovirus VA387. These novel structures have high affinity and are a very good starting point for developing drugs against noroviruses. The protein targets in these two projects are carbohydrate binding, but the techniques are general and can be applied to other research projects.

  • 9.
    Merritt, Eleanor A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    α-Functionalization of carbonyl compounds using hypervalent iodine reagents2011In: Synthesis (Stuttgart), ISSN 0039-7881, E-ISSN 1437-210X, no 4, p. 517-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    α-Functionalized carbonyl compounds are versatile intermediates in organic synthesis. A broad range of both carbon and heteroatom substituents can be introduced into the α-position of carbonyl compounds using hypervalent iodine reagents. Herein we summarize the use of these environmentally benign reagents with particular emphasis on catalytic and asymmetric methodology developed over the past decade.

  • 10. Silva, Luiz F., Jr.
    et al.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of natural products2011In: Natural product reports (Print), ISSN 0265-0568, E-ISSN 1460-4752, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1722-1754Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the recent applications of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of natural products. The large diversity of high-yielding and chemoselective reactions that can be achieved, even for highly functionalized molecules, is summarized, demonstrating that hypervalent iodine reagents have become an essential tool in synthetic organic chemistry.

  • 11. Siqueira, Fernanda A.
    et al.
    Ishikawa, Eloisa E.
    Fogaça, André
    Faccio, Andréa T.
    Carneiro, Vânia M. T.
    Soares, Rafael R. S.
    Utaka, Aline
    Tébéka, Iris R. M.
    Bielawski, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Olofsson, Berit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Silva Jr., Luiz F.
    Metal-Free Synthesis of Indanes by Iodine(III)-Mediated Ring Contraction of 1,2-Dihydronaphthalenes2011In: Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, ISSN 0103-5053, E-ISSN 1678-4790, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1795-1807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A metal-free protocol was developed to synthesize indanes by ring contraction of 1,2-dihydronaphthalenes promoted by PhI(OH)OTs (HTIB or Koser’s reagent). This oxidative rearrangement can be performed in several solvents (MeOH, CH3CN, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE), 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), and a 1:4 mixture of TFE:CH2Cl2) under mild conditions. The ring contraction diastereoselectively gives functionalized trans-1,3-disubstituted indanes, which are difficult to obtain in synthetic organic chemistry.

  • 12.
    Säwén, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    NMR spectroscopy and MD simulations of carbohydrates2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the structure, conformation and dynamics of carbohydrates is important in our understanding of the way carbohydrates function in biological systems, for example in intermolecular signaling and recognition. This thesis is a summary of five papers studying these properties in carbohydrate-containing molecules with NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations.

    In paper I, the ring-conformations of the six-membered rings of two carbaiduronic analogs were investigated. These carbasugars could potentially be used as hydrolytically stable mimics of iduronic acid in drugs. The study showed that the equilibrium is entirely shifted towards the 4C1 conformation.

    Paper II is an investigation of the conformational flexibility and dynamics of two (1→6)-linked disaccharides related to an oligosaccharide epitope expressed on malignant tumor cells.

    In paper III, the conformational space of the glycosidic linkage of an alfa-(1→2) linked mannose disaccharide present in N- and O-linked glycoproteins, was studied. A maximum entropy analysis using different priors as background information was used and four new Karplus equations for 3JC,C and 3JC,H coupling constants, related to the glycosidic linkage, were presented.

    Paper IV describes a structural elucidation of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Streptococcus thermophilus ST1, a major dairy starter used in yoghurt and cheese production. The EPS contains a hexasaccharide repeating unit of d-galactose and d-glucose residues, which is a new EPS structure of the S. thermophilus species.

    In paper V, the dynamics of three generations of glycodendrimers were investigated by NMR diffusion and 13C NMR relaxation studies. Three different correlations times were identified, one global correlation time describing the rotation of the dendrimer as a whole, one local correlation time describing the reorientation of the C-H vectors, and one correlation time describing the pulsation of a dendrimer branch.

  • 13.
    Träff, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Asymmetric transformation of ß- and γ-functionalized alcohols: Study of combined ruthenium-catalyzed racemization and enzymatic resolution2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The major part of this thesis describes the asymmetric synthesis of β- and γ-amino alcohols through the combination of ruthenium catalyzed racemization and enzymatic kinetic resolution.

    The dynamic kinetic resolution, DKR, protocol for chlorohydrins was improved by employing Bäckvall’s catalyst, which is a base activated racemization catalyst, in combination with Burkholderia cepacia lipase. These optimized conditions broadened the substrate scope and improved the yields and ee’s of the obtained chlorohydrin acetates. The utility of the method was demonstrated in the synthesis of (S)-salbutamol.

    In the second part of the thesis, DKR was utilized in the enantio-determining step of the total synthesis of (R)-duloxetine. Optimized DKR conditions, combining Bäckvall’s catalyst together with Candida antarctica lipase B, afforded a β-cyano acetate in high yield and ee. (R)-Duloxetine was accessible through synthetic alterations of the enantioenriched β-cyano acetate in high overall yield.

    A dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation, DYKAT, protocol to obtain enantio- and diastereomerically pure γ-amino alcohols was developed. In a first step N-Boc-aminoketones were obtained in high enantiomeric purity through a proline-catalyzed Mannich reaction. Subsequent in situ reduction coupled with a highly efficient DYKAT yielded γ-amino acetates in high dr and ee. The γ-amino alcohols were available through simple hydrolysis/deprotection with retained stereochemistry.

    In the final part of the thesis a heterogeneous bifunctional catalytic system is reported, which combines the catalytic properties of transition metal-catalyzed racemization with enzymatic acylation. A novel ruthenium-phosphonate complex was synthesized and then covalently anchored to the active site of solid supported Candida antarctica lipase B. The partially inhibited beads proved to be catalytically active both in racemization as well as enzymatic acylation.

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