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  • 1.
    Johansson, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes: Applications in Artificial Photosynthesis2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular mimics of PS II, which consist of a photosensitizer linked to electron acceptors/donors, are attractive candidates for the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. Several different classes of sensitizers have been studied and among these, ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes continue to attract major attention.

    The first part of this thesis presents the photophysical properties, stereochemistry, and general synthesis of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes based on 2,2´-bipyridyl and 2,2´:6´,2´´-terpyridyl ligands. The second part deals with ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes linked to electron acceptors (benzoquinone, naphthalene diimide) and electron donors (phenothiazine, tyrosine, manganese complexes). Functionalized 2,2´-bipyridines and 2,2´:6´,2´´-terpyridines were synthesized and used in the stepwise assembly of the chromophore-quencher complexes. These were fully characterized and the redox properties were studied by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. The intramolecular charge-separated states formed after light excitation of the ruthenium(II) unit were observed by time-resolved absorption and EPR spectroscopy.

    In the third part of this thesis, the synthesis and photophysical properties of a novel class of bistridentate ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes based on bipyridyl-pyridyl methane ligamds are discussed. The solution structures of the homoleptic and heteroleptic complexes were studied by 2D NMR techniques. The X-ray structure of one of the homoleptic complexes has been solved. The effect on the excited state lifetime for these ruthenium(II) complexes compared to the parent [Ru(tpy)2]2+ is discussed. Finally, in one of the heteroleptic complexes an interesting reversible linkage iomerization was observed that could be induced either electrochemically or chemically.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Studies on Transformations of H-Phosphonates into DNA Analogues Containing P-S or P-C Bonds2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, mechanistic and synthetic studies on transformations of H-phosphonates into DNA analogues containing P-S or P-C bonds are described.

    Configurational stability of dinucleoside H-phosphonates and the stereochemical course of their sulfurisation in the presence of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) were investigated. In light of these studies, the reported stereoselective sulfurisation of dinucleoside H-phosphonates and benzoylphosphonates in the presence of DBU was proved to be incorrect.

    Efficient protocols for the synthesis of new nucleotide analogues with non-ionic C-phosphonate internucleotide linkages were developed. The synthesis of dinucleoside 2-pyridylphosphonates was successfully performed by a DBU-promoted reaction of H-phosphonate diesters with N-methoxypyridinium salts. The thio analogues, 2-pyridyl- and 4-pyridyl phosphonothioate diesters, could be obtained by modifying the reactions developed for their oxo counterparts. Dinucleoside 3-pyridylphosphonates were prepared via a palladium(0)-catalysed cross coupling strategy that could be extended also to the synthesis of nucleotide analogues with metal-complexing properties, i.e. terpyridyl- and bipyridylphosphonate derivatives.

    Oligonucleotides modified with pyridylphosphonate internucleotide linkages have been prepared and preliminary studies on their hybridisation properties and resistance towards enzymatic degradation were performed.

    Finally, nucleotidic units for the incorporation of pyridylphosphonate groups at the 5’-terminus of oligonucleotides were designed. Condensations of such units with a suitably protected nucleoside afforded after oxidation the expected dinucleoside (3’-5’)-phosphates with pyridylphosphonate monoester functions at the 5’-ends.

  • 3.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Synthesis, structure and conformation of oligo- and polysaccharides2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbohydrates are a complex group of biomolecules with a high structural diversity. Their almost omnipresent occurrence has generated a broad field of research in both biology and chemistry. This thesis focuses on three different aspects of carbohydrate chemistry, synthesis, structure elucidation and the conformational analysis of carbohydrates.

    The first paper describes the synthesis of a penta- and a tetrasaccharide related to the highly branched capsular polysaccharide from Streptococcus pneumoniae type 37. In the second paper, the structure of the O-antigenic repeating unit from the lipopolysaccharide of E. coli 396/C1 was determined along with indications of the structure of the biological repeating unit. In addition, its structural and immunological relationship with E. coli O126 is discussed. In the third paper, partially protected galactopyranosides were examined to clarify the origin of an intriguing 4JHO,H coupling, where a W-mediated coupling pathway was found to operate. In the fourth paper, the conformation of methyl a-cellobioside is studied with a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and NMR spectroscopy. In addition to the expected syn-conformation, detection and quantification of anti-ø and anti-ψ conformers was also possible.

  • 4.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Studies on Oxidative Couplings in H-Phosphonate Chemistry2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis oxidative coupling of H-phosphonate and H phosphonothioate diesters with different alcohols and amines are presented. Since the reactions with alcohols previously have been particularly unfavourable due to competing side reactions, a modified protocol leading to high coupling yields of structurally diverse hydroxylic components was developed. The phosphorylation reaction was studied using 31P NMR spectroscopy and for the first time the previously only postulated reactive intermediate involved in these reactions was observed.

    The use of iodine in combination with a bulky chlorosilane in pyridine was found to have a profound effect on both the suppression of side reactions and the rate of the oxidative couplings, and led to a clean formation of phosphorylated products in high yields. This synthetic protocol was then extended to include coupling reactions with bis-functional reagents containing hexamethylene linkers to provide handles for derivatisations of oligonucleotides.

    A synthetic protocol consisting of the stereospecific oxidative coupling of amines with H-phosphonate diesters to produce phosphoroamidates was designed in such a way that it permitted control of the stereochemical outcome of the reactions.

    Based on a silylation-mediated reaction utilising phenyl H phosphonothioate monoester as a thiophosphonyl transferring agent, a method was developed and used for the preparation of H-phosphonothioate building blocks for the synthesis of DNA analogues.

  • 5.
    Nordmark, Eva-Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Structural and Interaction Studies of Bacterial Polysaccharides by NMR Spectroscopy2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An introduction to bacterial polysaccharides and the methods for structural determination are described in the first two parts of the thesis.

    In a structural elucidation of bacterial polysaccharides NMR experiments are important as is component analysis. A short description of immunochemical methods such as enzyme immunoassays is included. Two NMR techniques used for interaction studies, trNOE and STD NMR, are also discussed.

    The third part of the thesis discusses and summarizes the results from the included papers. The structures of the exopolysaccharides produced by two lactic acid bacteria are determined by one- and two dimensional NMR experiments. One is a heteropolysaccharide produced by Streptococcus thermophilus and the other a homopolysaccharide produced by Propionibacterium freudenreichii. The structure of an acidic polysaccharide from a marine bacterium with two serine residues in the repeating unit is also investigated. The structural and immunological relationship between two O-antigenic polysaccharides from Escherichia coli strain 180/C3 and O5 is discussed and investigated. Finally, interaction studies of an octasaccharide derived from the Salmonella enteritidis O-antigen and a bacteriophage are described which were performed with NMR experiments.

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