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  • 1.
    Alfredsson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi.
    Synthesis and Characterization of Acrylfentanyl Metabolites2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Acrylfentanyl is a synthetic opioid that has been widely used in the last year. To help in the fight against synthetic drugs two potential metabolites of acrylfentanyl, one monohydroxy and one dihydroxy were synthesized. These metabolites will hopefully later be implemented in the analytical methods for metabolites of acrylfentanyl in urine by the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine.

    To have metabolites for analysis are very important as they are the main target in drug testing.

    The method used to synthesize the metabolites is a five-step synthesis with an additional 6th step for the dihydroxy metabolite. The methods used in the synthesis includes protection of amine with tert-butyloxycarbonyl, reductive amination with sodium triaceto boronhydride, alkylation and demethylation with boron tribromide. The methods used produced good results with high yields in nearly all steps.

  • 2.
    Goy, Michel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Jakobsson, Catharina
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Kartläggning av allergiframkallande hårfärgningsämnen i toningar i Stockholm2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    En vanlig källa till kontakallergiskt eksem är sensibiliserande (allergiframkallande) kemikalier som finns i hårfärger. Permanenta hårfärger innehåller kraftiga allergener, men det saknas kartläggande forskning på toningar. För att ta reda på vilka allergener som ingår i toningar behöver dagens utbud kartläggas. Detta projekt har skett i Stockholm och innehållet i sex olika märken har kartlagts. Toningar och permanenta hårfärger skiljer sig åt genom att permanenta hårfärger polymeriseras i håret genom oxidation med väteperoxid. Toningar innehåller kromofora ämnen som fäster i håret, antingen genom diffusion eller adsorption. Totalt kunde tio kromofora ämnen med kända sensibiliserande egenskaper hittas i toningarna varav en möjlig cancerogen. I varje produkt fanns i snitt 0,4–2,4, och som mest tre, kända sensibiliserande kromofora ämnen. Hårfärger utan sensibiliserande färgämnen kunde hittas i alla kulörer utom svart och brun. Även sensibiliserande parfymämnen och konserveringsmedel kunde påvisas. Eftersom det finns hårfärger i de flesta kulörer utan sensibiliserande färgämnen bör dessa ämnen fasas ut.

  • 3.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Impact of increased production on TOC to the Waste Water Treatment Plant: Piteå 7502017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today there are strict demands regarding emissions to water and air from the Swedish industries. This degree project, conducted at Smurfit Kappa Piteå, will focus on the emissions of organic material in waste water from the paper mill. The overall goal was through dynamic simulations predict the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) emissions from the paper mill at the time a foreseen increase of production is implemented. The recovery boiler is currently a bottleneck in the process and the production of sulphate pulp has today its maximum capacity. This means that production growth will occur exclusively by increasing the intake of recycled fiber. The work started with a comprehensive mapping of TOC, in which ingoing pulps in pulp towers, head boxes and effluent flows were mapped. This was done over a period of two weeks and thus covered a whole production cycle. A TOC method evaluation was conducted where the most suitable analysis method was determined.

    Mapped data were thereupon evaluated and significant variables were identified. It was determined that use of recycled fiber was the single most important variable to TOC load from paper machine 1 (PM1), but also starch addition to paper machine 2 (PM2) was found to be significant.

    The work then continued with the simulation phase, consisting of two main parts. The first part consisted of preparatory work where the model was developed to be able to accurately measure TOC load to the waste water treatment plant. This part also included work to identify necessary process changes as a result of an increased production. The second part consisted of the simulation. Three different scenarios were simulated for each paper machine plus two scenarios for the recycled fiber plant. The dynamic simulation model was successively calibrated with respect to TOC concentration and trends followed the ones expected by experience. In the production increase scenario simulated, TOC load distribution between PM1, PM2 and recycled fiber plant will more evenly distributed compared to current production. The largest increase of TOC load will come from the recycled fiber plant, which according to the simulation will increase with about 30 %.

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