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  • 1.
    Grandin, Anna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Synthetic Routes towards 2-thia-7,8-diaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthrene and 1-thia-7,8-diaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthrene for Molecular Electronics Applications2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Electric current is known to flow through the π-bonds in oligothiophenes. In order to use them as molecular wires it is important to use a technique where the potential gradients can be generated and maintained in supramolecular networks. A solution to this problem can be the use of metal complexes as junction points within such a network.

     In this project pathways to synthesize 2-thia-7,8-diaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthrene (1) and 1-thia-7,8-diaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthrene (2) for use in molecular electronic devices have been investigated. 4-(5-Bromo-thiophen-2-yl)2,2’-bipyridine (3) was prepared via Kröhnke reaction from 3-(5-bromothiophene-2-yl)acrolein and 1-(2-Oxo-2-pyridine-2-yl-ethyl)-pyridinium iodide in an overall yield of 14 %.  

     Several routes towards 2-thia-7,8-diaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthrene (1) and 1-thia-7,8-diaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthrene (2) were tested. Since the original planned pathway did not work, lack of time made it impossible to complete the series of experiments that were needed. The synthesis of 2-thia-7,8-diaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthrene (1) is almost finished. Due to the solvation problems, after the decarboxylation step, the product could not be analyzed by 1H-NMR in a satisfactory manner. The product was sent for analysis.

     A number of experiments towards 1-thia-7,8-diaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthrene (2) were tested but few of them worked as planned. There is a lot of work left to be done in the synthesis of this compound but the lack of time made it impossible.

     The chemistry that has been achieved is the synthesis of 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione in the synthesis of 2-thia-7,8-diaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthrene (1). The following Hinsberg thiophene synthesis probably worked but due to solvation problems the product could not be isolated. The final product after hydrolysis and decarboxylation of the remaining ester groups after the Hinsberg thiophene synthesis was tested but the results were difficult to confirm.

     In the synthesis of 1-thia-7,8-diaza-cyclopenta[l]phenanthrene (2) several attempts to make 3,4-diamino-N,N-diethyl-benzamide were made. The attack from the primary amines on the carbonyl carbon made it necessary to protect them. The attempt to synthesize 3,4-bis-acetylamino-N,N-diethyl-benzamide also failed, both the attempt directly from the carboxylic acid and through the acylchloride, even though the amines were protected.  

  • 2.
    Okabayashi, Yohei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Synthesis of azide- and alkyne-terminated alkane thiols and evaluation of their application in Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition ("click") reactions on gold surfaces2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Immobilization of different bio- and organic molecules on solid supports is fundamental within many areas of science. Sometimes, it is desirable to obtain a directed orientation of the molecule in the immobilized state. In this thesis, the copper (I) catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, referred to as a “click chemistry” reaction, was explored as a means to perform directed immobilization of small molecule ligands on gold surfaces. The aim was to synthesize alkyne- and azide-terminated alkanethiols that would form well-organized self assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold from the commercially available substances orthoethylene glycol and bromo alkanoic acid. N-(23-azido-3,6,9,12,15,18,21-heptaoxatricosyl)-n-mercaptododekanamide/hexadecaneamide (n = 12, 16) were successfully synthesized and allowed to form SAMs of different compositions to study how the differences in density of the functional groups on the surface would influence the structure of the monolayer and the click chemistry reaction. The surfaces were characterized by different optical methods: ellipsometry, contact angle goniometry and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). The click reaction was found to proceed at very high yields on all investigated surfaces. Finally, the biomolecular interaction between a ligand immobilized by click chemistry on the gold surfaces and a model protein (bovine carbonic anhydrase) was demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance using a Biacore system.

  • 3.
    Saarinen, Gabrielle
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Development of Synthetic Routes for Preparation of 2,6-Disubstituted Spiro[3.3]heptanes.2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    2,6-Disubstituted spiro[3.3]heptanes were synthesized to investigate and develop synthetic methods for preparation of these compounds. Possibilities for introducing different functionalities like nitriles and sulfonamides were also investigated.

     

    Synthetic routes presented describe successive [2+2] cycloadditions between dichloroketene and olefins to give the sought after spiro compounds with low to moderate yields throughout the multi-step synthesis. [2+2] Cycloadditions offered low turnovers and chromatography was required for purification.

     

    A synthetic route with cyclisations through double substitution reactions between di-electrophiles and di-nucleophiles resulting in a 2,6-disubstituted spiro[3.3]heptane is also described. This multi-step synthesis offered higher turnover and yields and often there was no need for purification through chromatography.

  • 4.
    Waltersson, Johanna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling. Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för biologi och kemiteknik.
    The metal binding properties of kraft lignin2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong driving force to increase the competitiveness of the pulping industry by finding new business opportunities. In this context full utilisation of the wood raw material used in conventional pulping mills is of vital importance. One focus area is to increase the utilisation areas of lignin. LignoBoost is a new method to obtain kraft lignin of high purity.

    The aim of the project was to investigate and increase the ability of LignoBoost kraft lignins to bind metals in aqueous solutions.

    The metal binding property of kraft lignins was evaluated using copper (II) ions. The metal binding capacities were 1.76 mg Cu2+/g LignoBoost softwood kraft lignin, 0.96 mg Cu2+/g LignoBoost hardwood kraft lignin and 1.12 mg Cu2+/g condensed softwood kraft lignin. The metal binding capacities of the softwood and hardwood kraft lignins from LignoBoost were lower than expected, when compared to the metal binding capacities of other lignins found in literature. The highest copper binding capacity of a kraft lignin found in literature was almost 50 times greater than that of the LignoBoost softwood kraft lignin.

     

    The Mannich reaction was used to increase the nitrogen content in softwood lignin, and thereby increase its electron-donating capacity. An increase in electron-donating capacity should promote its metal binding capacity.

     

    The Mannich reaction occurs in the vacant ortho position of the phenolic groups of lignin, introducing an aminomethyl group at that position. The only vacant ortho position in the phenol unit for reaction is in the guaicyl unit. Softwood lignin underwent a Mannich reaction, since softwood contains a greater number of guaiacyl units than hardwoods.

     

    A screening of the products from this Mannich reaction on LignoBoost softwood kraft lignin was performed to optimise the reaction conditions. The reaction time, temperature, amount of formaldehyde and dimethylamine were varied. The Mannich products were evaluated by elemental analysis. The conditions giving the highest nitrogen content in the product were used further in a Mannich reaction of condensed softwood kraft lignin. The condensed softwood kraft lignin (7 g) was treated with dimethylamine (0.35 mol) and formaldehyde (0.35 mol) at 80°C for 24 hours.

     

    The metal binding experiment could not be carried out with Mannich-modified condensed softwood kraft lignin since the lignin dissolved in the copper solution.

     

    When introducing nitrogen functionalities into lignin the electron-donating capacity should increase. An increase in donor groups should promote the metal binding capacity of the lignin. A problem that occurred when introducing aminomethyl groups was an increase in solubility of the lignin. Water solubility of the lignin derivative is undesirable in the envisaged utilization area, metal binding in, for example mine deposits, from where contaminated water may be a concentrated source of heavy metals.

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