Change search
Refine search result
159160161162 8051 - 8095 of 8095
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the 'Create feeds' function.
  • 8051.
    Åkerström, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The role of social networks as an explanatory factor regarding regional differences in sickness absence, physical and mental health and bodily pain in Sweden2005Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 8052.
    Åkesson, Per
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Att vara eller inte vara fysiskt aktiv bland medelålders män: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Iakttagelser har dock visat en minskad grad av fysisk aktivitet hos befolkningen. Könsskillnader har visats vara en faktor, män och kvinnor har ibland olika motivationskällor till fysisk aktivitet. Syfte : Syftet med den här studien var att beskriva vad som motiverar medelålders män till fysisk aktivitet. Metod : Genom att ha en litteraturstudie som metod var målet att få en fördjupning av det nuvarande kunskapsområdet som berör syftet. Studien har inkluderat 15 stycken artiklar från databaserna: Cinahl, Pubmed, Sciverse och Academic search elite. Artiklarna lästes och genomgick en temaanalys. Resultat : Resultatet delades in i fem teman. Socioekonomi och psykosociala faktorer menar att socioekonomisk tillhörighet och till exempel socialt stöd är betydande faktorer. Närmiljön och dess tillgångar är styrande med tillgängliga parker, cykelbanor etcetera som visats stimulera mäns motionsvanor. Förhållandet till det manliga idealet menar bland annat att det finns förutfattade meningar om hur män ska bete sig och hur detta påverkar deras motivation till fysisk aktivitet. Möjligheter till fysisk aktivitet på arbetet och fritiden visade att ett tungt jobb minskar chansen till motion på fritiden. Vardagsmotion eller bekvämlighet är till stor del styrande av ekonomiska resurser samt om utvecklade cykel och promenadvägar som finns tillgängligt. Implikation: För att främja fysisk aktivitet hos medelålders män bör både yttre och inre faktorer tillgodoses. Mer företag bör överväga att införa hälsovård. Kanske viktigast att ge arbetare i låga socioekonomiska grupper exempelvis förmånliga priser på gymkort. Det rekommenderas upprätthållande av platser såsom cykelbanor och motionsspår, där fysisk aktivitet kan utövas. Åtgärder som riktar sig till att stärka mäns självförtroende och andra inre egenskaper som är viktiga för att främja motivation till fysisk aktivitet hos medelålders män.

  • 8053.
    Ålander, Ture
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Heimer, Gun
    Uppsala University, National Centre for Knowledge on Men.
    Svärdsudd, Kurt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Agréus, Lars
    Abuse in Women and Men with and without Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders2008In: Digestive Diseases and Sciences, ISSN 0163-2116, E-ISSN 1573-2568, Vol. 53, no 7, 1856-1864 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to investigate the history of abuse in childhood and adulthood and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in women and men with FGID in the general adult population. A cross-sectional study in a random population sample (n = 1,537, 20-87 years) living in Osthammar municipality, Sweden, in 1995 was performed. Persons with FGID (n = 141) and a group of abdominal symptom-free controls (SSF, n = 97) were selected by means of a validated questionnaire assessing gastrointestinal symptoms (the ASQ). Abuse, anxiety and depression (the HADS) and HRQL (the PGWB) were measured. Women with FGID had a higher risk of having a history of some kind of abuse, as compared with the SSF controls (45% vs.16%, OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.01-3.9; SSF = 1), in contrast to men (29% vs. 24% n.s.). Women with a history of abuse and FGID had reduced HRQL 91 (95% CI 85-97) as compared with women without abuse history 100 (95% CI 96-104, P = 0.01, "healthy" = 102-105 on PGWB). Childhood emotional abuse was a predictor for consulting with OR = 4.20 (95% CI: 1.12-15.7.7). Thus, previous abuse is common in women with FGID and must be considered by the physician for diagnosis and treatment of the disorder.

  • 8054.
    Ålander, Ture
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Svärdsudd, Kurt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Johansson, Sven-Erik
    Agréus, Lars
    Psychological illness is commonly associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders and is important to consider during patient consultation: a population-based study2005In: BMC Medicine, ISSN 1741-7015, Vol. 3, no 1, 8- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Some individuals with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) suffer long-lasting symptoms without ever consulting their doctors. Our aim was to study co-morbidity and lifestyle differences among consulters and non-consulters with persistent FGID and controls in a defined adult population. METHODS: A random sample of the general adult Swedish population was obtained by a postal questionnaire. The Abdominal Symptom Questionnaire (ASQ) was used to measure GI symptomatology and grade of GI symptom severity and the Complaint Score Questionnaire (CSQ) was used to measure general symptoms. Subjects were then grouped for study by their symptomatic profiles. Subjects with long-standing FGID (n = 141) and subjects strictly free from gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (n = 97) were invited to attend their local health centers for further assessment. RESULTS: Subjects with FGID have a higher risk of psychological illness [OR 8.4, CI95(4.0-17.5)] than somatic illness [OR 2.8, CI95(1.3-5.7)] or ache and fatigue symptoms [OR 4.3, CI95(2.1-8.7)]. Subjects with psychological illness have a higher risk of severe GI symptoms than controls; moreover they have a greater chance of being consulters. Patients with FGID have more severe GI symptoms than non-patients. CONCLUSION: There is a strong relation between extra-intestinal, mental and somatic complaints and FGID in both patients and non-patients. Psychological illness increases the chance of concomitantly having more severe GI symptoms, which also enhance consultation behaviour.

  • 8055.
    Årdal, Christine
    et al.
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, N-0403 Oslo, Norway..
    Outterson, Kevin
    Boston Univ, Sch Law, Boston, MA 02215 USA.;Chatham House Ctr Global Hlth Secur, London, England..
    Hoffman, Steven J.
    Univ Ottawa, Global Strategy Lab, Fac Law, Ottawa, ON, Canada.;Harvard Univ, TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Ghafur, Abdul
    Apollo Hosp, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Sharland, Mike
    St Georges Univ, Pediat Infect Dis Res Grp, London, England..
    Ranganathan, Nisha
    Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network, Oxford, England..
    Smith, Richard
    Fac Publ Hlth & Policy, London, England..
    Zorzet, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. ReAct Act Antibiot Resistance, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Cohn, Jennifer
    Access Campaign, Med Sans Frontieres, Geneva, Switzerland.;Univ Penn, Div Infect Dis, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Pittet, Didier
    Univ Hosp Geneva, Fac Med, Geneva, Switzerland.;WHO Collaborating Ctr Patient Safety, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Daulaire, Nils
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, N-0403 Oslo, Norway..
    Morel, Chantal
    Univ Hosp Geneva, Fac Med, Geneva, Switzerland.;Univ London London Sch Econ & Polit Sci, LSE Hlth, London WC2A 2AE, England..
    Rizvi, Zain
    Yale Univ, Sch Law, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Balasegaram, Manica
    Access Campaign, Med Sans Frontieres, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Dar, Osman A.
    Chatham House Ctr Global Hlth Secur, London, England.;Publ Hlth England, London, England..
    Heymann, David L.
    Chatham House Ctr Global Hlth Secur, London, England.;Univ London London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London WC1E 7HT, England.;Publ Hlth England, London, England..
    Holmes, Alison H.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Natl Inst Hlth, Res Unit Healthcare Associated Infect, Res Hlth Protect, London, England.;Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Infect Dis, London, England..
    Moore, Luke S. P.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Natl Inst Hlth, Res Unit Healthcare Associated Infect, Res Hlth Protect, London, England.;Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Infect Dis, London, England..
    Laxminarayan, Ramanan
    Ctr Dis Dynam Econ & Policy, Washington, DC USA.;Princeton Environm Inst, Princeton, NJ USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Mendelson, Marc
    Univ Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hosp, Dept Med, Div Infect Dis & HIV Med, ZA-7925 Cape Town, South Africa..
    Rottingen, John-Arne
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, N-0403 Oslo, Norway.;Harvard Univ, TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Univ Oslo, Fac Med, Inst Hlth & Soc, Oslo, Norway..
    International cooperation to improve access to and sustain effectiveness of antimicrobials2016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 387, no 10015, 296-307 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Securing access to effective antimicrobials is one of the greatest challenges today. Until now, efforts to address this issue have been isolated and uncoordinated, with little focus on sustainable and international solutions. Global collective action is necessary to improve access to life-saving antimicrobials, conserving them, and ensuring continued innovation. Access, conservation, and innovation are beneficial when achieved independently, but much more effective and sustainable if implemented in concert within and across countries. WHO alone will not be able to drive these actions. It will require a multisector response (including the health, agriculture, and veterinary sectors), global coordination, and financing mechanisms with sufficient mandates, authority, resources, and power. Fortunately, securing access to effective antimicrobials has finally gained a place on the global political agenda, and we call on policy makers to develop, endorse, and finance new global institutional arrangements that can ensure robust implementation and bold collective action.

  • 8056.
    Åsberg, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Enhetschefens upplevelse av hälsofrämjande ledarskap - En kvalitativ studie inom primärvården/Landstinget i Mellansverige.2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 8057.
    Åsberg, Signild
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Statin therapy and the risk of intracerebral haemorrhage: a nationwide observational study2015In: International Journal of Stroke, ISSN 1747-4930, E-ISSN 1747-4949, Vol. 10, no Suppl. A100, 46-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The association between statin therapy and intracerebral haemorrhage is still unclear. The aim was to investigate whether prior use of statin was associated with risk of intracerebral haemorrhage.

    METHODS: Between 2006 and 2009, we identified 7696 cases of intracerebral haemorrhage that were first-ever strokes in the Swedish Stroke Register and 14 670 stroke-free controls that were matched on age and gender in the Population Register. Drug therapy at the time of intracerebral haemorrhage was extracted from the Drug Prescription Register. The risk of intracerebral haemorrhage with statins was estimated by conditional logistic regression.

    RESULTS: In cases and controls, the median age was 73 years and 53% were men. Intracerebral haemorrhage cases had higher prevalence of antithrombotic therapy, hypertension, and diabetes than controls. Statins were used by 1276 (16·6%) of the intracerebral haemorrhage cases and by 2552 (17·4%) of the controls. The crude odds ratios of intracerebral haemorrhage did not differ significantly between patients with and without statins, but after adjustment for antithrombotic therapy, hypertension, and diabetes, patients with statins had a decreased risk of intracerebral haemorrhage (odds ratio = 0·68, 95% confidence interval, 0·63-0·74). The highest proportion (>20%) of antecedent statins was seen in the 70-84 age group, for both cases and controls.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this matched case-controlled study, statin therapy was associated with a decreased risk of incident intracerebral haemorrhage. Future studies on risk of stroke with statin therapy after intracerebral haemorrhage are needed.

  • 8058.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Vastmanland Cty Hosp Vasteras, Ctr Clin Res Vasteras, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Larm, Peter
    Uppsala Univ, Vastmanland Cty Hosp Vasteras, Ctr Clin Res Vasteras, Vasteras, Sweden.;Malardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala Univ, Vastmanland Cty Hosp Vasteras, Ctr Clin Res Vasteras, Vasteras, Sweden..
    The buffering effect of tangible social support on financial stress: Influence on psychological well-being and psychosomatic symptoms in a large sample of the adult general population2014In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 13, 85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Financial stress is an important source of distress and is related to poor mental and physical health outcomes. The present study investigated whether tangible social support could buffer the effect of financial stress on psychological and psychosomatic health. Methods: Two separate postal surveys were sent to random samples in five counties in Sweden in 2004 and 2008, with a total of 84 263 respondents. The questionnaires included questions about financial stress, tangible social support, psychosomatic symptoms, and psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12). Results: Individuals with high financial stress and low tangible social support had six to seven times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and many psychosomatic symptoms. By contrast, individuals with high financial stress and high tangible social support had only two to three times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and three to four times increased odds ratios for many psychosomatic symptoms, suggesting a buffering effect of tangible social support. Consistent with the buffering hypothesis, there were significant interactions between financial stress and social support, particularly in relation to low psychological well-being. Conclusions: Social support had its strongest effect at high levels of financial stress. The question whether the altering of our social networks may improve physical health is important for the prevention of ill health in people experiencing financial stress. Strengthening social networks may have the potential to influence health-care costs and improve quality of life.

  • 8059.
    Åström, Christofer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Åström, Daniel Oudin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Andersson, Camilla
    Ebi, Kristie L
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Vulnerability Reduction Needed to Maintain Current Burdens of Heat-Related Mortality in a Changing Climate-Magnitude and Determinants2017In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 7, 741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The health burden from heatwaves is expected to increase with rising global mean temperatures and more extreme heat events over the coming decades. Health-related effects from extreme heat are more common in elderly populations. The population of Europe is rapidly aging, which will increase the health effects of future temperatures. In this study, we estimate the magnitude of adaptation needed to lower vulnerability to heat in order to prevent an increase in heat-related deaths in the 2050s; this is the Adaptive Risk Reduction (ARR) needed. Temperature projections under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 from 18 climate models were coupled with gridded population data and exposure-response relationships from a European multi-city study on heat-related mortality. In the 2050s, the ARR for the general population is 53.5%, based on temperature projections under RCP 4.5. For the population above 65 years in Southern Europe, the ARR is projected to be 45.9% in a future with an unchanged climate and 74.7% with climate change under RCP 4.5. The ARRs were higher under RCP 8.5. Whichever emission scenario is followed or population projection assumed, Europe will need to adapt to a great degree to maintain heat-related mortality at present levels, which are themselves unacceptably high, posing an even greater challenge.

  • 8060.
    Åström, Daniel Oudin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Centre for Primary Health Care Research, Department of Clinical Science, Malmö, Lund University, Lund.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Hondula, Daniel
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    On the association between weather variability and total and cause-specific mortality before and during industrialization in Sweden2016In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 35, 991-1009 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: While there is ample evidence for health risks associated with heat and other extreme weather events today, little is known about the impact of weather patterns on population health in preindustrial societies.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of weather patterns on population health in Sweden before and during industrialization.

    METHODS: We obtained records of monthly mortality and of monthly mean temperatures and precipitation for Skelleftea parish, northern Sweden, for the period 1800-1950. The associations between monthly total mortality, as well as monthly mortality due to infectious and cardiovascular diseases, and monthly mean temperature and cumulative precipitation were modelled using a time series approach for three separate periods, 1800-1859, 1860-1909, and 1910-1950.

    RESULTS: We found higher temperatures and higher amounts of precipitation to be associated with lower mortality both in the medium term (same month and two-months lag) and in the long run (lag of six months up to a year). Similar patterns were found for mortality due to infectious and cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, the effect of temperature and precipitation decreased over time.

    CONCLUSIONS: Higher temperature and precipitation amounts were associated with reduced death counts with a lag of up to 12 months. The decreased effect over time may be due to improvements in nutritional status, decreased infant deaths, and other changes in society that occurred in the course of the demographic and epidemiological transition.

    CONTRIBUTION: The study contributes to a better understanding of the complex relationship between weather and mortality and, in particular, historical weather-related mortality.

  • 8061.
    Åström, Mimmi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    A passport to healthcare?: A client perspective on the national health insurance scheme in Ghana2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 8062.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Pedestrian and traffic safety in winter2002In: Winter Cities 2002 Aomori: proceedings of Winter Cities Forum, Aomori: Winter Cities 2002 Aomori Executive Committee , 2002, 315-320 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8063. Ödesjö, H.
    et al.
    Anell, A.
    Boman, A.
    Fastbom, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Franzén, S.
    Thorn, J.
    Björck, S.
    Pay for performance associated with increased volume of medication reviews but not with less inappropriate use of medications among the elderly - an observational study2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 35, no 3, 271-278 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: A pay for performance programme was introduced in 2009 by a Swedish county with 1.6 million inhabitants. A process measure with payment linked to coding for medication reviews among the elderly was adopted. We assessed the association with inappropriate medication for five years after baseline.

    Design and setting: Observational study that compared medication for elderly patients enrolled at primary care units that coded for a high or low volume of medication reviews.

    Patients: 144,222 individuals at 196 primary care centres, age 75 or older.

    Main outcome measures: Percentage of patients receiving inappropriate drugs or polypharmacy during five years at primary care units with various levels of reported medication reviews.

    Results: The proportion of patients with a registered medication review had increased from 3.2% to 44.1% after five years. The high-coding units performed better for most indicators but had already done so at baseline. Primary care units with the lowest payment for coding for medication reviews improved just as well in terms of inappropriate drugs as units with the highest payment - from 13.0 to 8.5%, compared to 11.6 to 7.4% and from 13.6 to 7.2% vs 11.8 to 6.5% for polypharmacy.

    Conclusions: Payment linked to coding for medication reviews was associated with an increase in the percentage of patients for whom a medication review had been registered. However, the impact of payment on quality improvement is uncertain, given that units with the lowest payment for medication reviews improved equally well as units with the highest payment.

  • 8064.
    Öhlund, Lennart S
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Grönbladh, Leif
    Uppsala universitet.
    Patterns of deviance career in the history of female methadone clients: an exploratory study2009In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 18, no 1, 95-101 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to describe the drug career of 71 severely opioid-dependent women who had a history of selling sex and were enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, from medical records and reports from social agencies and correctional institutions. The sequential pattern could be described in the following order: initiation of the first drug of abuse, opioid onset, initiation of selling sex, first non-methadone treatment episode, first sentence and, finally, methadone maintenance treatment. There were significant age differences and correlations between most of the events. The main correlation (r = 0.70) was the one between debut of opioid use and selling sex, which was confirmed in a stepwise multiple regression analysis. In addition, a history of running away from home advanced the age at which the women started selling sex for those with an onset of opioid use at an older age than the mean of 18.4 years.

  • 8065.
    Öhlund, Veronica
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Wiklund, Erika
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Möjligheter och hinder vid implementering av StegVis 1: En enkätundersökning riktad till StegVis-utbildade pedagoger i förskolan/skolan i norra Örebro län2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The research of implementation processes in the public health area is still relatively limited. Implementation concerns the procedure of putting into action a new method or program into an organization’s internal, everyday operation. Implementation encompasses the realization of, and the carrying through of, for example a program, but an important aspect is also that the implementation has the desired effect. To make sure that the result of a method in practice will be positive, it is of greatest importance that the implementation works. It does not matter how well the method works, if it does not have the support of the organization.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine possibilities and obstacles of implementation of a program in social and emotional learning, Second Step, among 4-6 year olds in preschool/school. Method: On assignment from the public health team in the counties in northern Örebro, an evaluation of the implementation of the program in the four municipalities Lindesberg, Nora, Hällefors and Ljusnarsberg was performed. The sample consisted of all educationalists that had completed the Second Step 1 training, a total of 182 individuals. A quantitative approach was chosen, as the idea was to reach a greater number of educationalists. Data was collected through a questionnaire and analyzed with the help of SPSS and a simple kind of content analysis.

    Result: The reply frequency was 37%, which is too low for a generalization of the result. 72% of the respondents worked at a preschool/school that at the time used Second Step 1 in the organization. All in all, about 90% of the respondents had worked at a preschool/school that had used Second Step 1 in the organization at some point. Most of the respondents were pleased with Second Step as a program. The majority of the respondents stated that the practical introduction of Second Step had functioned well and the fidelity was relatively high with a few exceptions. Factors that have made the implementation of Second Step possible is need for social and emotional learning, positive attitudes, leader support, visible effects of the program, access to premises, flexibility and settled times. Factors that have proven to be obstacles for the implementation of Second Step are problems with the group composition, lack of support from colleagues,lack of access to premises and lack of time to plan and perform.

    Discussion/conclusions: Theresult has been put in relation to earlier research and the discovered tendencies correspond well with earlier theories and models. Second Step indicates to be relevant as a program, though the need of social and emotional learning in preschool/school seems to exist, which at an early stage makes the implementation possible. Other facilitating implementation factors tend to vary in importance depending on where in the process the program is. Overall, the fidelity is satisfactory, but it would probably have been more beneficial with clearer goals and guidelines for the program in the organizations. An evaluating exchange meeting could have been valuable to facilitate the program skill development among the educationalists.

    Future research: One example for future studies can be to put more focus on those who stop using the program and reasons for this. This study may also be a basis for, and facilitate, future studies, especially considering the method and discussion of the method which can contribute to improve control over the survey in similar studies.

  • 8066.
    Öhman, A
    et al.
    Uppsala University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Uppsala University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Unconscious anxiety: Phobic responses to masked stimuli1994In: Journal of Abnormal Psychology, ISSN 0021-843X, E-ISSN 1939-1846, Vol. 103, no 2, 231-240 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested the hypothesis that an unconscious preattentive perceptual analysis of phobic stimuli is sufficient to elicit human fear responses. Selected snake- and spider-fearful Ss, as well as normal controls, were exposed to pictures of snakes, spiders, flowers, and mushrooms. A separate forced-choice recognition experiment established backward masking conditions that effectively precluded recognition of experimental stimuli both for fearful and nonfearful Ss. In the main experiment, these conditions were used to compare skin conductance responses (SCRs) to masked and nonmasked phobic and control pictures among fearful and nonfearful Ss. In support of the hypotheses, snake- and spider-fearful Ss showed elevated SCRs to snake and spider pictures as compared with neutral pictures and with responses of the nonfearful Ss under both masking conditions. Ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance indicated that the fearful Ss felt more negative, more aroused, and less dominant in relation to both masked and nonmasked phobic stimuli.

  • 8067.
    Öhman, Ann
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Emmelin, Maria
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Social Medicine and Global Health, Lund University, Sweden.
    Development policies, intimate partner violence, Swedish gender equality and global health2014In: Women's Studies: International Forum, ISSN 0277-5395, E-ISSN 1879-243X, Vol. 46, 115-122 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses current Swedish international development policies on gender and violence. It deals with the relationship between development policies, global health, promotion of gender equality, and violence against women in a global perspective. The focus is on intimate partner violence and the highly promoted gender mainstreaming policy. Theoretically, our point of departure lies within a feminist notion of gender relations, power structures, and male hierarchies that constrain and subordinate women and girls and which expose them to gendered violence. We claim that stronger links need to be created between local activist groups in low and middle income countries and the international development agencies. It is important to initiate and formalize a North South dialogue between such groups, as well as enhancing South South dialogue and cooperation.

  • 8068.
    Öhman, Ann
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Gender and health: aspects of importance for understanding health and illness in the world2015In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 8, 26908Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8069.
    Öhman, Arne
    et al.
    Uppsala University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Esteves, F
    Uppsala University/Portugal.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Uppsala University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Preparedness and preattentive associative learning: electrodermal conditioning to masked stimuli1995In: Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0269-8803, E-ISSN 2151-2124, Vol. 9, 99-108 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8070.
    Öhman, Arne
    et al.
    Uppsala University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Uppsala University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Emotional conditioning to masked stimuli: Unconsciously originated expectancies for aversive outcomes following nonrecognized fear-relevant stimuli1998In: Journal of experimental psychology. General, ISSN 0096-3445, E-ISSN 1939-2222, Vol. 127, no 1, 69-82 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of conscious awareness in human Pavlovian conditioning was examined in 2 experiments using masked fear-relevant (snakes and spiders; Experiments 1 and 2) and fear-irrelevant (flowers and mushrooms; Experiment 1) pictures as conditioned stimuli, a mild electric shock as the unconditioned stimulus, and skin conductance responses as the primary dependent variable. The conditioned stimuli were presented briefly (30 ms) and were effectively masked by an immediately following masking stimulus. Experiment 1 demonstrated nonconscious conditioning to fear-relevant but not to fear-irrelevant stimuli. Even though the participants could not recognize the stimuli in Experiment 2, they differentiated between masked stimuli predicting and not predicting shocks in expectancy ratings. However, expectancy ratings were not related to the conditioned autonomic response.

  • 8071.
    Öhman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Myocardial Infarction, Antidepressants and MortalityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8072. Öhrvik, Veronica
    et al.
    Warensjö, Eva
    Science DepartmentNational Food AgencyUppsalaSweden.
    Nälsén, Cecilia
    Becker, Wulf
    Ridefelt, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    Dietary intake and biomarker status of folate in Swedish adults2016In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: National data on folate status are missing in Sweden, and regional data indicate folate insufficiency in up to more than 25% of the study populations. The objectives were to determine folate intake and status in the adult Swedish population as well as identifying dietary patterns associated with beneficial folate status.

    METHODS: Folate intake was estimated using a web-based 4-d food record in adults aged 18-80 years (n = 1797). Folate status was measured as erythrocyte (n = 282) and plasma folate concentrations (n = 294). Factor analysis was used to derive a dietary pattern associated with a higher folate status.

    RESULTS: Median folate intake was 246 µg/day (Q 1 = 196, Q 3 = 304, n = 1797) and for women of reproductive age 227 µg/day (Q 1 = 181, Q 3 = 282, n = 450). As dietary folate equivalents (DFE), median intake was 257 µg/day (Q 1 = 201, Q 3 = 323) and for women of reproductive age 239 µg/day (Q 1 = 185, Q 3 = 300). Low blood folate concentrations were found in 2% (erythrocyte concentrations <317 nmol/L) and 4% (plasma concentrations <6.8 nmol/L) of the participants, respectively. None of the women of reproductive age had erythrocyte folate concentrations associated with the lowest risk of neural tube defects. Dietary patterns associated with higher folate status were rich in vegetables, pulses and roots as well as cheese and alcoholic beverages, and low in meat.

    CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of low erythrocyte folate concentrations was low in this population, and estimated dietary intakes are well above average requirement. However, to obtain a folate status optimal for prevention of neural tube defects major dietary changes are required and folic acid supplements recommended prior to conception.

  • 8073.
    Örtendahl, Monica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Safety Research (closed 20110301).
    Coping Mechanisms Actually and Hypothetically Used by Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in Quitting Smoking2008In: Journal of Addictive Diseases, ISSN 1055-0887, Vol. 27, no 4, 61-68 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article was to investigate how pregnant and non-pregnant women use various coping techniques when attempting to refrain from smoking. Eighty women with subgroups formed by the variables of pregnant/not pregnant and quitting/not quitting smoking were studied over a 2-week period. The general strategy was to follow smokers who had stated an intention to quit smoking. Smokers, pregnant and non-pregnant, who did not intend to quit were also followed with respect to the coping techniques they would hypothetically be using if they were trying to quit. Pregnant women used coping strategies more often than non-pregnant women. Differences found between pregnant and non-pregnant women were evenly distributed for behavioral and cognitive methods. The goal of becoming a non-smoker, especially during pregnancy, needs to be addressed to include psychological and physical factors. In these efforts, the framework introduced by the study involving a time-related approach could be useful.

  • 8074.
    Örtendahl, Monica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Safety Research (closed 20110301).
    Models based on value and probability in health improve shared decision making2008In: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, ISSN 1356-1294, E-ISSN 1365-2753, Vol. 14, no 5, 714-717 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale, aims and objectives Diagnostic reasoning and treatment decisions are a key competence of doctors. A model based on values and probability provides a conceptual framework for clinical judgments and decisions, and also facilitates the integration of clinical and biomedical knowledge into a diagnostic decision. Method Both value and probability are usually estimated values in clinical decision making. Therefore, model assumptions and parameter estimates should be continually assessed against data, and models should be revised accordingly. Introducing parameter estimates for both value and probability, which usually pertain in clinical work, gives the model labelled subjective expected utility. Estimated values and probabilities are involved sequentially for every step in the decision-making process. Results Introducing decision-analytic modelling gives a more complete picture of variables that influence the decisions carried out by the doctor and the patient. Conclusion A model revised for perceived values and probabilities by both the doctor and the patient could be used as a tool for engaging in a mutual and shared decision-making process in clinical work.

  • 8075.
    Östberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Låftman Brolin, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Inequalities in subjective health complaints in Swedish adolescents: An intersectional approach2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8076.
    Östberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Låftman Brolin, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Exposure to School Bullying and Psychological Health in Young Adulthood: A Prospective 10-Year Follow-Up Study2017In: Journal of School Violence, ISSN 1538-8220, E-ISSN 1538-8239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being bullied at school is strongly related to psychological health complaints at the same time point. Studies have also found long-term associations, but few have combined a prospective design with children’s own reports on bullying, and conducted gender-specific analyses. The present study assesses health consequences in young adulthood of self-reported victimization in adolescence using data from Child-LNU in 2000 and the follow-up in 2010 (including 63% of the original sample, n = 813). At ages 10–18 a clear cross-sectional association was found for both girls and boys. Among girls, exposure to bullying also predicted psychological complaints 10 years later, at ages 20–28 (OR = 2.86). This association was not explained by socioeconomic circumstances, neither in adolescence nor in young adulthood. Instead, it can partly be understood as victimization, among adolescent girls, being associated with negative self-image and psychological health as well as with deficits in social resources more generally.

  • 8077.
    Öster, Annette
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Integration på arbetsmarknaden: Ett sysselsättningsprojekt om arbetsmarknadsproblematik för invandrare2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Integration of the labor is becoming increasingly topical, with increasing immigration. Labour market integration has been proved to be problematic, partly due to linguistic and cultural differences between the migrant's home country and Sweden. Difficulties with labour market integration have resulted in high numbers of unemployment and dependence on social welfare. Projects VIAM is an employment project conducted by Folkhälsobyrån AB in Västerås, aimed at finding jobs for welfare dependency immigrants. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the informants on Folkhälsobyrån and administrators on the Social service in Västerås has experienced the work of the project VIAM, development issues and the informant´s and administrator´s perception of factors that are influencing immigrant´s employment situation in Västerås. The study was conducted by interviewing four informants and two administrators. The results showed that the respondents had positive experiences of the project. The relationship with the clients was generally good, and was affected both by the client's background and motivation, and of the informant's own experiences. The administrators on the Social service were affected by the project mainly through the workload and contact with Folkhälsobyrån. Respondents put forward various proposals for development, and identified issues that affect immigrants' work situation.

  • 8078.
    Östergren, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Growing gaps: the importance of income and family for educational inequalities in mortality among Swedish men and women 1990–20092015In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, no 6, 563-570 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Although absolute levels of mortality have decreased among Swedish men and women in recent decades, educational inequalities in mortality have increased, especially among women. The aim of this study is to disentangle the role of income and family type in educational inequalities in mortality in Sweden during 1990-2009, focusing on gender differences. Methods: Data on individuals born in Sweden between the ages of 30 and 74 years were collected from total population registries, covering a total of 529,275 deaths and 729 million person-months. Temporary life expectancies (age 30-74 years) by education were calculated using life tables, and rate ratios were estimated with Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Results: Temporary life expectancy improved among all groups except low educated women. Relative educational inequalities in mortality (RRs) increased from 1.79 to 1.98 among men and from 1.78 to 2.10 among women. Variation in family type explained some of the inequalities among men, but not among women, and did not contribute to the trend. Variation in income explained a larger part of the educational inequalities among men compared to women and also explained the increase in educational inequalities in mortality among men and women. Conclusions: Increasing educational inequalities in mortality in Sweden may be attributed to the increase in income inequalities in mortality.

  • 8079.
    Östergren, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Lundberg, Olle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Artnik, Barbara
    Bopp, Matthias
    Borrell, Carme
    Kalediende, Ramune
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Regidor, Enrique
    Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica
    de Gleder, Rianne
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    Educational expansion and inequalities in mortality — A fixed-effects analysis using longitudinal data from 18 European populations2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 8, e0182526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The aim of this paper is to empirically evaluate whether widening educational inequalities in mortality are related to the substantive shifts that have occurred in the educational distribution.

    Materials and methods

    Data on education and mortality from 18 European populations across several decades were collected and harmonized as part of the Demetriq project. Using a fixed-effects approach to account for time trends and national variation in mortality, we formally test whether the magnitude of relative inequalities in mortality by education is associated with the gender and age-group specific proportion of high and low educated respectively.

    Results

    The results suggest that in populations with larger proportions of high educated and smaller proportions of low educated, the excess mortality among intermediate and low educated is larger, all other things being equal.

    Conclusion

    We conclude that the widening educational inequalities in mortality being observed in recent decades may in part be attributed to educational expansion.

  • 8080.
    Östergren, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lundberg, Olle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    The contribution of alcohol consumption and smoking to educational inequalities in life expectancy among Swedish men and women during 1991–20082017In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    To assess the level and changes in contribution of smoking and alcohol-related mortality to educational differences in life expectancy in Sweden.

    Methods

    We used register data on the Swedish population at ages 30–74 during 1991–2008. Cause of death was used to identify alcohol-related deaths, while smoking-related mortality was estimated using lung cancer mortality to indirectly assess the impact of smoking on all-cause mortality.

    Results

    Alcohol consumption and smoking contributed to educational differences in life expectancy. Alcohol-related mortality was higher among men and contributed substantially to inequalities among men and made a small (but increasing) contribution to inequalities among women. Smoking-related mortality decreased among men but increased among women, primarily among the low educated. At the end of the follow-up, smoking-related mortality were at similar levels among men and women. The widening gap in life expectancy among women could largely be attributed to smoking.

    Conclusions

    Smoking and alcohol consumption contribute to educational differences in life expectancy among men and women. The majority of the widening in the educational gap in mortality among women can be attributed to alcohol and smoking-related mortality.

  • 8081.
    Östergren, Olof
    et al.
    Centre for Health Equity Studies, Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Inserm CESP Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Villejuif, France.
    Lundberg, Olle
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Adjustment method to ensure comparability between populations reporting mortality data in different formats in the EURO-GBD-SE project: Working document2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In some of the longitudinal data sets within the EURO-GBD-SE project, information on age isonly available at baseline, all person years and deaths are attributed to the baseline age; thismeans that information about age at death is unavailable. This will cause a bias whencomparing mortality between data sets in which age at death is reported and data sets in whichage at baseline is reported. Mortality estimates in populations that have age at baseline will behigher than the estimations obtained where age at death is known; since people are notallowed to move into the next age category as they grow older, the population will, in reality,be older in the former case. The data sets that are formatted with age at baseline only areBrussels, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland.To make results comparable, we developed an adjustment procedure that corrects for this bias.This procedure should be applied to the datasets formatted with the age at baseline and is represented in this document.

  • 8082.
    Östergren, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Hinder och förutsättningar för nyanlända; ett perspektiv från människor som arbetar med nyanländas mottagande: En intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 8083.
    Österholm, Johannes H
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Assessment meetings between care managers and persons living with dementia: Citizenship as practice2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with encounters between persons living with dementia and care managers. Dementia often results in progressive care needs that must be met by different social care services. The person’s care needs are assessed in an assessment meeting where the person and their relatives meet with a care manager to negotiate needs and social care services. The assessment is conducted through one or several conversations where the person with dementia meets the care manager; relatives are often present in the meetings. Dementia is a syndrome that involves a cognitive decline and a decreased ability to communicate and interact with others. It may therefore be difficult for a person with dementia to take part in discussions about their care needs and social care services. 15 audio recorded meetings have been studied to explore and understand how persons with dementia use their remaining communicative, cognitive and linguistic resources to invoke, negotiate, and use their rights as citizens in the institutional context where their care needs are assessed. The analysis concerns the organization of talk as a joint activity; the production of social actors in talk-in-interaction; the relation to institutional features of discourse. This dissertation concludes that the practice of citizenship is situation based and varies depending on the participants present. Care managers can facilitate for persons with dementia to overcome communication problems by using different discursive strategies and to make it possible for them to participate or at least be included in the negotiation. Persons with dementia are positioned as less competent than other persons participating in the assessment meeting. This might have an impact on the participation of people with dementia in negotiations regarding their future care. Furthermore, stories told in assessment meetings often position the person as dependent on others, which could undermine the identity and sense of self of the person with dementia.

  • 8084.
    Östling, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Samverkan inom vård och omsorg för de mest sjuka äldreFöutsättningar för samverkan mellan landsting och kommun i Västmanland2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 8085.
    Östlund, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Primary care nurses' performance in motivational interviewing: a quantitative descriptive study2015In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 16, 89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Motivational interviewing is a collaborative conversational style intended to strengthen motivation to change. It has been shown to be effective in addressing many different lifestyle problems as well as in chronic disease management, and many disease prevention guidelines promote use of motivational interviewing. The aim of the present study was twofold: to assess to what extent the primary care nurses in the study perform motivational interviewing according to the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Code and to investigate how the participating primary care nurses rated their own performance in motivational interviewing. Method: The study was based on twelve primary care nurses' audio-recorded motivational interviewing sessions with patients (total 32 sessions). After each session, the nurses completed a questionnaire regarding their experience of their own performance in motivational interviewing. The audio-recorded sessions were analyzed using Motivational Interviewing Integrity Code 3.1.1. Results: None of the nurses achieved beginning proficiency in all parts of any motivational interviewing sessions and two nurses did not achieve beginning proficiency in any parts or sessions. Making more complex than simple reflections was the specific verbal behavior/summary score that most nurses achieved. Beginning proficiency/competency in "percent open questions" was the summary score that fewest achieved. Conclusion: Primary care nurses did not achieve beginning proficiency/competency in all aspects of motivational interviewing in their recorded sessions with patients, where lifestyle change was discussed. This indicates a need for improvement and thus additional training, feedback and supervision in clinical practice with motivational interviewing.

  • 8086.
    Östlund, Kajsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    En kvalitativ studie om upplevda möjligheter och begränsningar med hälsofrämjande öppen förskola: Ett uppdrag från Salutsatsningen i Västerbottens Läns Landsting2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine how open pre-school as an arena for health promotion worked. The focus was on the employees’ experiences of the opportunities and limits in their work. The study was a comission from Salutsatsningen in Västerbotten County Council in Sweden. The method was a qualitative approach and five interviews were conducted with employees in open pre-schools in Västerbotten. The interviews were based on the criteria that served as guidelines in the employees’ work. The three main elements (criteria) were psychosocial health, diet and physical activity. The results showed that the employees had adequate procedures for their health promotion work. They experienced opportunities to support parents in their parenting and to promote healthy messages to the visitors in open pre- school. The limits they experienced were primarily in the form of cooking facilities and physical activities. Collaboration with other actors as Child health center, Maternity Care, Social Services and Dental health was also crucial to health promotion work. The conclusion was that the health promotion work in Västerbotten has a solid foundation to strengthen and support children and parents and also to promote healthy messages. But there are some deficiencies in the area of knowledge among staff and lack of clarity from Salut regarding certain criteria.

  • 8087.
    Östlund-Lagerström, Lina
    et al.
    Nutrition and Physical Activity Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Nutrition Gut Brain Interactions Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kihlgren, Annica
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Repsilber, Dirk
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Nutrition and Physical Activity Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Nutrition Gut Brain Interactions Research Centre, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brummer, Robert Jan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Schoultz, Ida
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Probiotic administration among free-living older adults: a double blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial2016In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 15, 80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diseases of the digestive system have been found to contribute to a higher symptom burden in older adults. Thus, therapeutic strategies able to treat gastrointestinal discomfort might impact the overall health status and help older adults to increase their overall health status and optimal functionality.

    Objective: The aim of this double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus reuteri on digestive health and wellbeing in older adults.

    Methods: The study enrolled general older adults (>65 years). After eligibility screening qualified subjects (n = 290) participated in a 2-arm study design, with each arm consisting of 12 weeks of intervention of either active or placebo product. Primary outcome measure was set to changes in gastrointestinal symptoms and secondary outcome measures were changes in level of wellbeing, anxiety and stress. Follow up was performed at 8 and 12 weeks.

    Results: No persistent significant effects were observed on the primary or secondary outcome parameters of the study. A modest effect was observed in the probiotic arm, were levels of stress decreased at week 8 and 12. Similarly, we found that subjects suffering from indigestion and abdominal pain, respectively, showed a significant decrease of anxiety at week 8 after probiotic treatment, but not at week 12.

    Conclusion: The RCT failed to show any improvement in digestive health after daily intake of a probiotic supplement containing L. reuteri. Neither was any significant improvement in wellbeing, stress or anxiety observed. Even though the RCT had a negative outcome, the study highlights issues important to take into consideration when designing trials among older adults.

  • 8088.
    Ýr Gudnadóttir, Arna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research. Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Olafsdottir, Inga Sif
    Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland.;Landspitali Univ Hosp, Dept Resp Med & Sleep, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Middelveld, Roelinde
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Allergy Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ekerljung, Linda
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Internal Med & Clin Nutr, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Occupat & Environm Med, Umea, Sweden..
    Franklin, Karl
    Umea Univ, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci, Umea, Sweden..
    Lindberg, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    An investigation on the use of snus and its association with respiratory and sleep-related symptoms: a cross-sectional population study2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 5, e015486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Studies of the health effects of moist oral tobacco, snus, have produced inconsistent results. The main objective of this study is to examine the health effects of snus use on asthma, respiratory symptoms and sleep-related problems, a field that has not been investigated before. Methods and material This cross-sectional study was based on a postal questionnaire completed by 26 697 (59.3%) participants aged 16 to 75 years and living in Sweden. The questionnaire included questions on tobacco use, asthma, respiratory symptoms and sleeping problems. The association of snus use with asthma, respiratory symptoms and sleep-related symptoms was mainly tested in never-smokers (n=16 082). Results The current use of snus in never-smokers was associated with an increased risk of asthma (OR 1.51 (95% CI 1.28 to 1.77)), asthmatic symptoms, chronic bronchitis and chronic rhinosinusitis. This association was not present among ex-snus users. Snoring was independently related to both the former and current use of snus ((OR 1.37 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.68)) and (OR 1.59 (95% CI 1.34 to 1.89), respectively)). A higher risk of difficulty inducing sleep was seen among snus users. Conclusion Snus use was associated with a higher prevalence of asthma, respiratory symptoms and snoring. Healthcare professionals should be aware of these possible adverse effects of snus use.

  • 8089.
    Adding value to Nordic research cooperation: Recommendations for a new initiative on distribution of health2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Distribution of health is one of the challenges facing the Nordic countries and Europe. Although health and life expectancy have improved in the Nordic countries, inequalities in the distribution of health persist. The difference in mortality rates among different socio-economic groups, for instance, has grown greater. Although inequalities in the distribution of health may be viewed as a health-economic problem, this is above all an egalitarian issue related to the future development of the welfare state.

    The report gives an overview of research activities, funding and funding systems of relevance to research on health and welfare-related issues in the Nordic countries 2005-2010. Based on these findings, the report also provides policy recommendations to Nordic political circles, research funding agencies and NordForsk.

  • 8090.
    Det framtida nordiska hälsosamarbetet2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Bo Könberg har skrivit en oberoende rapport – Det framtida nordiska hälsosamarbetet. Rapporten innehåller konkreta förslag på hur det nordiska samarbetet kan utvecklas och stärkas under de närmaste fem till tio åren. Rapporten presenterades för första gången i samband med de nordiska social- och hälsoministrarnas möte på Island den 11 juni 2014.Bo Könberg är en svensk, liberal politiker och var sjukvårds- och social-försäkringsminister 1991–1994. Han ledde då arbetet med den svenska pensionsreformen. Han har deltagit i ett flertal svenska utredningar inom välfärdsområdet, bland annat ÄDEL-reformen och Vårdavgiftsutredningen.Rapporten ingår i Nordiska ministerrådets program Hållbar nordisk väl-färd, en av ministerrådets största satsningar under perioden 2013–2015. www.norden.org/valfard

  • 8091.
    Framtíðarsamstarf norðurlanda í heilbrigðismálum2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [is]

    Bo Könberg hefur skrifað óháða skýrslu um norrænt samstarf í heilbrigðismálum. Í skýrslunni eru skýrar tillögur um hvernig hægt sé að þróa og efla norrænt samstarf á næstu fimm til tíu árum.

  • 8092.
    Sustainable Nordic Welfare: - a programme for new welfare solutions for people in the Nordic region2014Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sustainable Nordic Welfare programme implements the Nordic prime ministers’ request to the Nordic ministers for health and social affairs to prepare tangible proposals for further development of the Nordic co-operation on health. At the Nordic prime ministers meeting on 10 June 2012, the prime ministers asked the health ministers to review, in particular, the Nordic co-operation on testing of new drugs and treatments, co-operation on highly-specialised functions, and research on health and welfare.The Sustainable Nordic Welfare programme applies for the period 2013–2015. In addition to developing and giving a tangible form to the Nordic health co-operation, the programme also involves tangible initiatives in the health and labour market areas. The two councils of ministers with main responsibility are the Council of Ministers for Education and Research (MR-U) and the Council of Ministers for Health and Social Affairs (MR-S).

  • 8093.
    Terveysalan pohjoismainen yhteistyö tulevaisuudessa2014Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [fi]

    Bo Könberg on laatinut riippumattoman raportin terveysalan pohjoismaisesta yhteistyöstä. Raportti sisältää konkreettisia ehdotuksia pohjoismaisen yhteistyön kehittämiseksi ja vahvistamiseksi seuraavien 5–10 vuoden aikana.

  • 8094.
    The Future Nordic Co-operation on Health2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Bo Könberg has written an independent report – The Future Nordic Co-operation on Health. The report, which contains tangible proposals for how the Nordic co-operation can be developed and strengthened in the next five to ten years.

  • 8095.
    Vändpunkt - Förslag om kultur och hälsa: Rapport till Nordiska ministerrådet från Region Skåne2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Nordisk ministerråd/kulturministrene besluttet i april 2013 å iverksette en kartlegging av kultur- og helseområdet i Norden. Region Skåne ble tildelt prosjektoppdraget, som er gjennomfört i perioden 1. februar – 10. oktober 2014. Prosjektet er samfinansiert av Nordisk ministerråd og Region Skåne. Kartleggingens formål var å øke kunnskapen om kultur- og helseområdet som en betydningsfull faktor i en holdbar nordisk velferd, og skulle omfatte praksis i alle nordiske land og Færøyene, Grønland og Åland. Oppdraget omfattet også en kartlegging av forskning i de fem nordiske landene. Det ble tidlig i arbeidet klart at kartleggingen dessuten måtte omfatte utdanning.

    Rapporten presenterer en statusbeskrivelse av kultur- og helseområdet, en analyse av behov innen området, konklusjoner samt forslag til mulige felles nordiske innsatser på området.

159160161162 8051 - 8095 of 8095
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf