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  • 301.
    Boström, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Maximizing the Area under the ROC Curve with Decision Lists and Rule Sets2007Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2007 SIAM International Conference on Data Mining, 2007, 27-34 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 302.
    Boström, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Method for efficiently checking coverage of rules derived from a logical theory2008Patent (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 303.
    Boström, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Pruning and Exclusion Criteria for Unordered Incremental Reduced Error Pruning2004Ingår i: Proceedings of the Workshop on Advances in Rule Learning at 15th European Conference on Machine Learning, 2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 304.
    Boström, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Dalianis, Hercules
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    De-identifying health records by means of active learning2012Ingår i:  , 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment on classifying words in Swedish health records as belonging to one of eight protected health information (PHI) classes, or to the non-PHI class, by means of active learning has been conducted, in which three selection strategies were evaluated in conjunction with random forests; the commonly employed approach of choosing the most uncertain examples, choosing randomly, and choosing the most certain examples. Surprisingly, random selection outperformed choosing the most uncertain examples with respect to ten considered performance metrics. Moreover, choosing the most certain examples outperformed random selection with respect to nine out of ten metrics.

  • 305.
    Boström, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Johansson, R.
    Karlsson, A.
    On Evidential Combination Rules for Ensemble Classifiers2008Ingår i: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion, 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 306.
    Boström, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Knobbe, ArnoSoares, CarlosPapapetrou, PanagiotisStockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis XV: 15th International Symposium, IDA 2016, Stockholm, Sweden, October 13-15, 2016, Proceedings2016Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This book constitutes the refereed conference proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Intelligent Data Analysis, which was held in October 2016 in Stockholm, Sweden. The 36 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 75 submissions. The traditional focus of the IDA symposium series is on end-to-end intelligent support for data analysis. The symposium aims to provide a forum for inspiring research contributions that might be considered preliminary in other leading conferences and journals, but that have a potentially dramatic impact.

  • 307.
    Boström, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Linusson, Henrik
    Lofstrom, Tuve
    Johansson, Ulf
    Accelerating difficulty estimation for conformal regression forests2017Ingår i: Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 1012-2443, E-ISSN 1573-7470, Vol. 81, nr 1-2, 125-144 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The conformal prediction framework allows for specifying the probability of making incorrect predictions by a user-provided confidence level. In addition to a learning algorithm, the framework requires a real-valued function, called nonconformity measure, to be specified. The nonconformity measure does not affect the error rate, but the resulting efficiency, i.e., the size of output prediction regions, may vary substantially. A recent large-scale empirical evaluation of conformal regression approaches showed that using random forests as the learning algorithm together with a nonconformity measure based on out-of-bag errors normalized using a nearest-neighbor-based difficulty estimate, resulted in state-of-the-art performance with respect to efficiency. However, the nearest-neighbor procedure incurs a significant computational cost. In this study, a more straightforward nonconformity measure is investigated, where the difficulty estimate employed for normalization is based on the variance of the predictions made by the trees in a forest. A large-scale empirical evaluation is presented, showing that both the nearest-neighbor-based and the variance-based measures significantly outperform a standard (non-normalized) nonconformity measure, while no significant difference in efficiency between the two normalized approaches is observed. The evaluation moreover shows that the computational cost of the variance-based measure is several orders of magnitude lower than when employing the nearest-neighbor-based nonconformity measure. The use of out-of-bag instances for calibration does, however, result in nonconformity scores that are distributed differently from those obtained from test instances, questioning the validity of the approach. An adjustment of the variance-based measure is presented, which is shown to be valid and also to have a significant positive effect on the efficiency. For conformal regression forests, the variance-based nonconformity measure is hence a computationally efficient and theoretically well-founded alternative to the nearest-neighbor procedure.

  • 308.
    Boström, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Linusson, Henrik
    Löfström, Tuve
    Johansson, Ulf
    Evaluation of a Variance-Based Nonconformity Measure for Regression Forests2016Ingår i: Conformal and Probabilistic Prediction with Applications: 5th International Symposium, COPA 2016, Madrid, Spain, April 20-22, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Alexander Gammerman, Zhiyuan Luo, Jesús Vega, Vladimir Vovk, Springer, 2016, 75-89 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous large-scale empirical evaluation of conformal regression approaches, random forests using out-of-bag instances for calibration together with a k-nearest neighbor-based nonconformity measure, was shown to obtain state-of-the-art performance with respect to efficiency, i.e., average size of prediction regions. However, the use of the nearest-neighbor procedure not only requires that all training data have to be retained in conjunction with the underlying model, but also that a significant computational overhead is incurred, during both training and testing. In this study, a more straightforward nonconformity measure is investigated, where the difficulty estimate employed for normalization is based on the variance of the predictions made by the trees in a forest. A large-scale empirical evaluation is presented, showing that both the nearest-neighbor-based and the variance-based measures significantly outperform a standard (non-normalized) nonconformity measure, while no significant difference in efficiency between the two normalized approaches is observed. Moreover, the evaluation shows that state-of-the-art performance is achieved by the variance-based measure at a computational cost that is several orders of magnitude lower than when employing the nearest-neighbor-based nonconformity measure.

  • 309. Botezatu, Mihaela
    et al.
    Hult, Håkan
    Kassaye Tessma, Mesfin
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Virtual patient simulation for learning and assessment: superior results in comparison with regular course exams2010Ingår i: Medical Teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, Vol. 32, nr 10, 845-850 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    

    Background: Our study aimed to observe the differences in assessment results between virtual patient simulation (VPS) and regular course exams in an Internal Medicine course for undergraduate medical students.

    Methods: Four cohorts of students (n = 216) used: a VPS or lectures for learning (terms 1 and 2); VPS and lectures or only lectures (term 3); and a paired set-up with both VPS and lectures (term 4). The assessment results, measured with both a VPS-based exam and a paper-based exam, were compared. A scoring rubric (0–6), developed and validated for the purpose of the trial, was applied to both types of assessment. Mean score differences of the results were compared for the four cohorts.

    Results: Both VPS and regular examination results were significantly higher in the VPS group compared to regular exam group (p < 0.001) in terms 1, 2 and 3. The paired mean difference in term 4 was 0.66 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50, 0.83; p < 0.001) for haematology and 0.57 (95% CI 0.45, 0.69; p < 0.001) for cardiology.

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that using VPS both for learning and for assessment supports learning. VPS are better than traditional assessment methods when the virtual application is used for both learning and evaluation.

  • 310. Botezatu, Mihaela
    et al.
    Hult, Håkan
    Kassaye Tessma, Mesfin
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Virtual patient simulation: knowledge gain or knowledge loss?2010Ingår i: Medical Teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, Vol. 32, nr 7, 562-568 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Virtual patients (VPs), high-fidelity simulators and standardized patients are powerful educational interventions leading to effective learning and supporting knowledge retention.

    Aim: This study explored the variations in retention with VP versus regular learning activities.

    Method: We conducted a randomized controlled study on early and delayed assessment results of 49 students using VP for learning and examination of haematology and cardiology topics in an Internal Medicine course, by means of a 0–10 scoring rubric.

    Results: The mean difference for early assessment with VP (study – control mean score) was 1.43 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96, 1.91; p < 0.001) for haematology and 1.34 (95% CI 0.93, 1.76; p < 0.001) for cardiology. In regular exams, the mean score difference was 2.21 (95% CI 1.3, 3.1; p < 0.001) and 1.52 (95% CI 0.76, 2.28; p < 0.001), respectively. With delayed assessments, the difference in mean score for Web-SP was 1.48 (95% CI 1.09, 1.86; p < 0.001), haematology and 1.16 (95% CI 0.74, 1.58; p < 0.001), cardiology; for regular exams the figures were 1.96 (95% CI 0.93, 2.98; p < 0.001) and 1.74 (95% CI 0.89, 2.58; p < 0.001). The effect size ranged from 0.5 to 0.8.

    Conclusion: Our results indicate better retention with VP than with traditional learning methods.

  • 311. Botezatu, Mihaela
    et al.
    Hult, Håkan
    Tessma, Mesfin
    Dahlgren, Lars Owe
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Virtual Patient Simulation: what do students make of it?: A focus group study2010Ingår i: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 10, nr 91Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The learners' perspectives on Virtual Patient Simulation systems (VPS) are quintessential to their successful development and implementation. Focus group interviews were conducted in order to explore the opinions of medical students on the educational use of a VPS, the Web-based Simulation of Patients application (Web-SP).

    Methods

    Two focus group interviews-each with 8 undergraduate students who had used Web-SP cases for learning and/or assessment as part of their Internal Medicine curriculum in 2007-were performed at the Faculty of Medicine of Universidad el Bosque (Bogota), in January 2008. The interviews were conducted in Spanish, transcribed by the main researcher and translated into English. The resulting transcripts were independently coded by two authors, who also performed the content analysis. Each coder analyzed the data separately, arriving to categories and themes, whose final form was reached after a consensus discussion.

    Results

    Eighteen categories were identified and clustered into five main themes: learning, teaching, assessment, authenticity and implementation. In agreement with the literature, clinical reasoning development is envisaged by students to be the main scope of VPS use; transferable skills, retention enhancement and the importance of making mistakes are other categories circumscribed to this theme. VPS should enjoy a broad use across clinical specialties and support learning of topics not seen during clinical rotations; they are thought to have a regulatory effect at individual level, helping the students to plan their learning. The participants believe that assessment with VPS should be relevant for their future clinical practice; it is deemed to be qualitatively different from regular exams and to increase student motivation. The VPS design and content, the localization of the socio-cultural context, the realism of the cases, as well as the presence and quality of feedback are intrinsic features contributing to VPS authenticity.

    Conclusions

    Five main themes were found to be associated with successful VPS use in medical curriculum: Learning, Teaching, Assessment, Authenticity and Implementation. Medical students perceive Virtual Patients as important learning and assessment tools, fostering clinical reasoning, in preparation for the future clinical practice as young doctors. However, a number of issues regarding VPS design, authenticity and implementation need to be fulfilled, in order to reach the potential educational goals of such applications.

  • 312. Botezatu, Mihaela
    et al.
    Hult, Håkan
    Tessma, Mesfin
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    As time goes by: stakeholder opinions on the implementation and use of a virtual patient simulation system2010Ingår i: Medical Teacher, ISSN 0142-159X (print), 1466-187X (electronic), Vol. 32, nr 11, e509-516 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Stakeholder opinions on the implementation of a particular virtual patient application might prove important for decision-making and implementation efforts in general. This study aimed to capitalize on experiences originated from two postimplementation settings of Web-based Simulation of Patients (Web-SP). Method: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of stakeholder opinions (39 students, teachers, course directors, and university leaders) on the implementation and use of Web-SP in Colombia and Sweden, using a mixed method approach. Results: The respondents did not show equal preference in rating the ranking of the order of importance included in the variables (Friedman’s Chi square: 26.5 to 115.1, df=6, p <0.001, Kendall’s coefficient of concordance ranging from 0.11 to 0.50). The answers provided as free comments supported the statistical findings on the importance of end-user customization, need for authenticity in software design, and use of virtual patient simulations in a curricular context, for clinical reasoning development. Conclusions: Virtual Patient design should allow extensive editing, support case authenticity and enhance clinical reasoning abilities, in an effort for ensuring accountability and sustainable development of the field.

  • 313. Bravos, George
    et al.
    Gonzalez Cardona, Tania
    Czubayko, Ulrich
    Donath, Janet
    España, Sergio
    Universitat Politècnica de València, , Centro de Investigación PROS.
    Grabis, Janis
    Riga Technical University, , .
    Henkel, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Jokste, Lauma
    Riga Technical University, , .
    Kampars, Janis
    Riga Technical University, , .
    Kuhr, Jan-Christian
    Loucopoulos, Pericles
    Juanes Pascual, Raul
    Everis, , .
    Stirna, Janis
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Valverde, Francisco
    Universitat Politècnica de València, , .
    Zdravkovic, Jelena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Deliverable 1.2: Initial version of requirements specification for CDD: CaaS - Capability as a Service in digital enterprises, Collaborative Project Number 6113512013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The CaaS project will elaborate the Capability Driven Development (CDD) approach that will allow digital enterprises to exploit the notion of 'capability' as a means of both designing for services and with services. This deliverable defines an initial set of requirements for CDD. These requirements are provided by the industrial partners through exploration of their use cases. The goal of this deliverable is to identify potential benefits that the CaaS approach could bring to the use cases as well the features to be included the CDD methodology. The requirements are elicited from the use case partners during semi-structured interviews. They are documented in a form of goal models, actor models and concept models for each partner separately. Information documented in these models is used to define envisioned capabilities to be design and delivered during the project as well as to establish the scope of each use case. The use case scope definition focuses on use case goals, causes of capability delivery variability, capability delivery context, functions to be provided in the use case as well as potential capability delivery adjustments. The use case specific models are combined together to obtain a preliminary set of general requirements for CDD. These requirements show CDD goals, types of stakeholders, types of context and types of adjustments. The deliverable ends with concluding remarks about the partners’ expectations for CDD. The requirements for the use cases described in this deliverable will be further elaborated in the final requirements document deliverable D1.4 and will be iteratively refined during the use case elaboration performed in work packages WP2, WP3 and WP4.

  • 314. Bravos, George
    et al.
    Grabis, Janis
    Henkel, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Jokste, Lauma
    Kampars, Janis
    Supporting Evolving Organizations: IS Development Methodology Goals2014Ingår i: Perspectives in Business Informatics Research: 13th International Conference, BIR 2014, Lund, Sweden, September 22-24, 2014. Proceedings / [ed] Björn Johansson, Bo Andersson, Nicklas Holmberg., Heidelberg: Springer , 2014, 158-171 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations operate in increasingly dynamic and diverse environments. This leads to high variability within the organization, and the necessity to create context-aware information systems. As a part of these systems, context and business process metrics need to be monitored and acted upon. Capability Driven Development (CDD) addresses these challenges and integrates organizational development with IS (Information System) development. This paper integrates results from an industry survey and three industrial cases to define the key methodology goals for CDD.

  • 315. Brodin, Ulf
    et al.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Bolander Laksov, Klara
    The application of Item Response Theory on a teaching strategy profile questionnaire2010Ingår i: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 10, nr 14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In medical education research, various questionnaires are often used to study possible relationships between strategies and approaches to teaching and learning and the outcome of these. However, judging the applicability of such questionnaires or the interpretation of the results is not trivial.

    Methods

    As a way to develop teacher thinking, teaching strategy profiles were calculated for teachers in a research intensive department at Karolinska Institutet. This study compares the sum score, that was inherent in the questionnaire used, with an Item Response Theory (IRT) approach. Three teaching dimensions were investigated and the intended sum scores were investigated by IRT analysis.

    Results

    Agreements as well as important differences were found. The use of the sum score seemed to agree reasonably with an IRT approach for two of the dimensions, while the third dimension could not be identified neither by a the sum score, nor by an IRT approach, as the items included showed conflicting messages.

    Conclusions

    This study emphasizes the possibilities to gain better insight and more relevant interpretation of a questionnaire by use of IRT. A sum score approach should not be taken for granted. Its use has to be thoroughly evaluated.

  • 316. Bronäs, Agneta
    et al.
    Selander, StaffanStockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Verklighet, verklighet: teori och praktik i lärarutbildningen2015Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 317.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Belastning på samhället vid ett utbrott av den nya pandmiska influensan A(H1N1) - preliminära resultat2009Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 318.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Fördelning av pandemivaccin mellan Sveriges landsting - simuleringsresultat2009Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 319.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    MicroPox: A Large-Scale and Spatially Explicit Microsimulation Model for Smallpox Planning2005Ingår i: The Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Health Sciences Simulation / [ed] V. Ingalls, San Diego, Calif., 2005, 70-76 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 320.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    MicroPox: a Large-scale and Spatially Explicit Microsimulation Model for Smallpox Transmission2005Ingår i: in Proceedings of the 2005 Western Simulation Multiconference, International Conference of Health Sciences Simulation, 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 321.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Microsimulation Models for Disaster Policy Making2005Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Two executable simulation models for answering policy questions were designed and implemented. The first for a flood management case, and the second for a disease transmission case that is currently underway. The flood simulation model differs from earlier natural disaster simulation models in several respects. It represents explicitly the geographical location and the economic strength of each household. It is also equipped with a graphical user interface, making it possible to design policies interactively, and to test their outcomes. If policy options are compared, the simulation results can automatically be transformed into decision trees. The flood simulation model shows that a micro-level representation makes it possible to investigate the distributional effects of policy changes. Novel features of the disease transmission model include the use of (anonymized) data representing nine million individuals, the inclusion of important parts of the contact patterns, and the explicit representation of places. The disease transmission model shows that the incorporation of social structure allows for a more realistic representation of disease spread than do models that assume homogenous mixing. Using this model, it is possible to conduct experiments of significant policy relevance, such as investigating the initial growth of an epidemic on a real-world network. Together, the two cases demonstrate the usefulness of a spatially explicit micro-level representation for policy simulation models in the area of disaster management.

  • 322.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Microsimulation of Pandemic Influenza in Sweden2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 323.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Spatial and Dynamic Modelling of Flood Management Policies in the Upper Tisza2003Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Flood management policy has been the subject of an international joint research

    project with the Upper Tisza in Hungary as its pilot study area. Design specications

    for a geographically explicit simulation model are presented. Potential flood

    management policies, based on surveys and interviews with stakeholders, are presented.

    Some experiments on an executable prototype of the simulation model are

    also reported on, where the consequences of flood management policies are investigated.

    Focus has been on nancial policy measures, mainly insurance. Besides

    more traditional evaluation of policy scenarios, the model incorporates adaptive

    optimisation functionality. The report incorporates three contributions:

    1. the insurance policy issue in Hungary is framed in the broader context of flood

    management

    2. the structuring of a flood risk policy model, capable of simulating flood failures

    and estimating the economic consequences

    3. reports from policy experiments performed on the implemented prototype

    flood risk policy model

  • 324.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Boman, Magnus
    Camitz, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Mäkilä, Kalle
    Tegnell, Anders
    Micro-simulation of a smallpox outbreak using official register data2010Ingår i: Euro surveillance, ISSN 1025-496X, Vol. 15, nr 35, 17-24 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore the efficacy of four vaccine-based policy strategies (ring vaccination, targeted vaccination, mass vaccination, and pre-vaccination of healthcare personnel combined with ring vaccination) for controlling smallpox outbreaks in Sweden, disease transmission on a spatially explicit social network was simulated. The mixing network was formed from high-coverage official register data of the entire Swedish population, building on the Swedish Total Population Register, the Swedish Employment Register, and the Geographic Database of Sweden. The largest reduction measured in the number of infections was achieved when combining ring vaccination with a pre-vaccination of healthcare personnel. In terms of per dose effectiveness, ring vaccination was by far the most effective strategy. The results can to some extent be adapted to other diseases and environments, including other countries, and the methods used can be analysed in their own right.

  • 325.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Danielson, Mats
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Multi-criteria decision-making of policy strategies with public-private re-insurance systems.2004Ingår i: Risk, Decision, and Policy, ISSN 1357-5309, E-ISSN 1466-4534, Vol. 9, nr 1, 23-45 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes an integrated flood catastrophe model as well as some results of a case study made in the Upper Tisza region in north-eastern Hungary: the Palad-Csecsei basin. The background data was provided through the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and complemented by interviews with different stakeholders in the region. Based on these data, for which a large degree of uncertainty is prevailing, we demonstrate how an implementation of a simulation and decision analytical model can provide insights into the effects of imposing different policy options for a flood risk management program in the region. We focus herein primarily on general options for designing a public-private insurance and reinsurance system for Hungary. Obviously, this is a multi-criteria and multi-stakeholder problem and cannot be solved using standard approaches. It should, however, be emphasised that the main purpose of this article is not to provide any definite recommendations, but rather to explore a set of policy packages that could gain a consensus among the stakeholders.

  • 326.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Hansson, Karin
    Danielson, Mats
    Multi-Criteria Decision-Making of Policy Strategies with Public-Private Re-Insurance Systems2004Ingår i: Risk Decision and Policy, Vol. 9, nr 1, 23-45 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 327.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekholm, Anders
    Janlöv, Nils
    Lindblom, Josepha
    Mossler, Karin
    Den ljusnande framtid är vård: delresultat från LEV-projektet2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2050 väntas andelen äldre i befolkningen öka från dagens 17 procent till 25 procent. Befolkningen åldras, hälsan förbättras och livslängden ökar. Det är en positiv utveckling som samhället måste anpassas till.

    Därför har en arbetsgrupp inom Socialdepartementet med en unik modell simulerat hur 300 000 individer åldras fram till 2050 och hur det väntas påverka hälsa, sjuklighet och dödlighet samt det framtida behovet av vård och omsorg. Simuleringarna visar att det är möjligt att kombinera åtgärder för att möta den åldrande befolkningens ökande behov av vård och omsorg om 10-15 år. Men det krävs ett målmedvetet arbete med att

    • förbättra hälsa och funktionsförmåga,
    • öka tillgängligheten,
    • få en effektiv vård och omsorg som tillämpar dagens kunskap och tänker nytt
    • forska och utveckla.
  • 328.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    MicroWorlds as a Tool for Policy Making2001Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hungarian government is experiencing escalating costs for ood mitigation

    measures and for economical compensation to victims. In a joint

    research project between the International Institute of Applied System Analysis

    (IIASA) in Austria, Computer and System Science Department (DSV)

    in Sweden, and the Hungarian Academy of Science, the ooding problem of

    Upper Tisza in Hungary is investigated. A catastrophe simulation model has

    been implemented, where dierent policy options are tested and evaluated.

    We investigate how the willingness to buy insurance aects the results on

    the macro-level and on the micro-level.

  • 329.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Simulation of Three Competing Flood Management Strategies: A Case Study2002Ingår i: Applied Simulation and Modelling: Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference / [ed] L. Ubertini, Anaheim: Acta Press , 2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We argue that integrated catastrophe models are useful for policy decisions, for which a large degree of uncertainty is a natural ingredient. Recently, much attention has been given to the financial management of natural disasters. This article describes the results of a case study performed in northeastern Hungary where different flood management strategies have been explored and compared using an integrated catastrophe model. The area used for the pilot study is the Palad-Csecsei basin (the Pilot basin) where 4 621 persons live. The Pilot basin is located in the Upper Tisza region. An executable and geographically explicit model has been developed, linking hydrological, geographical, financial, and social data. The outcomes of the policy simulations are represented at different granularity-levels; the individual, the aggregated (entire basin), and the governmental.

  • 330.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hulth, Anette
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Nationell influensasammankomst 1-2 november 2007 - Sammanfattningar2007Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 331.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Liljeros, Fredrik
    The Functional Form of an Epidemic in a Real-World Contact NetworkManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 332.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Mäkilä, Kalle
    Camitz, Martin
    Spridning av smittkoppor - simuleringsexperiment2006Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 333.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Påhlman, Mona
    Consensus by Simulation: A Flood Model for Participatory Policy MakingManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 334.
    Brouwers, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Verhagen, Harko
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Applying the Consumat Model to Flood Management Policies2003Ingår i: Agent-based simulation, 2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The number and severity of weather related catastrophes is

    increasing. Economic losses from these catastrophes are

    escalating, mainly as a result of concentration of assets and

    population in high-risk areas. How to deal with these

    economic liabilities in a fair way at the level of the individual

    property owners is the focus of our research.

    As a case study we choose the Tisza, a river in Hungary that

    flows through one of the poorest agricultural regions of

    Europe that frequently floods. The use of a simulation model

    for evaluating alternative flood management policies is a

    natural choice, since it is impossible to predict the time,

    location and magnitude of a flood; historical data is of limited

    use when looking at the outcome of future policies. The

    behaviour of the river and the financial consequences are

    simulated on a year-by-year basis.

    Here we have extended the simulation model by using the

    Consumat approach to model the individual property owners.

    We compare the results with respect to wealth distribution in

    the case of Consumat agents and simple (non-Consumat)

    agents. In the Consumat case, the results show that system is

    more dynamic and more realistic.

  • 335. Brown, B.
    et al.
    Laurier, E.
    Lorimer, H.
    Jones, O.
    Juhlin, O.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Driving and passengering: notes on the natural organization of ordinary car travel.2007Ingår i: MobilitiesArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 336.
    Brown, Barry
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Beyond recommendations: Local review websites and their impact2012Ingår i: ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, ISSN 1073-0516, Vol. 19, nr 4, 27- s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Online review Web sites have enabled new interactions between companies and their customers. In this articlewe draw on interviews with users, reviewers, and establishments to explore how local review Web sitescan change interactions around local places. ReviewWeb sites such as Yelp and Tripadvisor allow customersto “previsit” establishments and areas of a city before an actual visit. The collection of a large numbers ofuser-generated reviews has also created a new genre of writing, with reviewers gaining considerable pleasurefrom passing on word of mouth and influencing others’ choices. Reviews also offer a new channel ofcommunication between establishments, customers, and competitors. We discuss how review Web sites canbe designed to cater for a broader range of interactions around reviews beyond a focus on recommendations

  • 337.
    Brown, Barry
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ethnographic approaches to digital research2013Ingår i: The Sage handbook of digital technology research / [ed] Sara Price, Carey Jewitt, Barry Brown., London: Sage Publications, 2013, nr 1, 189-202 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 338.
    Brown, Barry
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    The Social Life of Autonomous Cars2017Ingår i: Computer, ISSN 0018-9162, E-ISSN 1558-0814, Vol. 50, nr 2, 92-96 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 339.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Barkhuus, Louise
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Changing practices of family television watching2012Ingår i: The Connected Home: The Future of Domestic Life / [ed] Richard Harper, London: Springer , 2012, nr 1, 93-110 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 340.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Bentley, Frank
    Bakhshi, Saeideh
    Shamma, David A.
    Ephemeral Photowork: Understanding the Mobile Social Photography Ecosystem2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the Tenth International AAAI Conference onWeb and Social Media (ICWSM 2016), AAAI Press, 2016, 551-554 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, researchers have explored digital support for photographs and various methods of interaction around those photos. Services like Instagram, Facebook, and Flickr have demonstrated the value of online photographs in social media. Yet we know relatively little about these new practices of mobile social photography and in-situ sharing. Drawing on screen and audio recordings of mobile photo app use, this paper documents the ephemeral practices of social photography with mobile devices. We uncover how photo use on mobile devices is centered around social interactions both through online services, but also face-to-face around the devices themselves. We argue for a new role for the mobile photograph, supporting networks of communication through instantaneous interactions, complemented with rich, in person discussions of captured images with family and friends; photography not for careful selection and archive, but as quick social play and talk. The paper concludes by discussing the design possibilities of ephemeral communication.

  • 341.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Juhlin, Oskar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Enjoying Machines2015Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The dominant feature of modern technology is not how productive it makes us, or how it has revolutionized the workplace, but how enjoyable it is. We take pleasure in our devices, from smartphones to personal computers to televisions. Whole classes of leisure activities rely on technology. How has technology become such an integral part of enjoyment? In this book, Barry Brown and Oskar Juhlin examine the relationship between pleasure and technology, investigating what pleasure and leisure are, how they have come to depend on the many forms of technology, and how we might design technology to support enjoyment. They do this by studying the experience of enjoyment, documenting such activities as computer gameplay, deer hunting, tourism, and television watching. They describe technologies that support these activities, including prototype systems that they themselves developed.

    Brown and Juhlin argue that pleasure is fundamentally social in nature. We learn how to enjoy ourselves from others, mastering it as a set of skills. Drawing on their own ethnographic studies and on research from economics, psychology, and philosophy, Brown and Juhlin argue that enjoyment is a key concept in understanding the social world. They propose a framework for the study of enjoyment: the empirical program of enjoyment.

  • 342.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Lampinen, Airi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Acknowledge Crowdworkers in Crowdwork Research2016Ingår i: Communications of the ACM, ISSN 0001-0782, E-ISSN 1557-7317, Vol. 59, nr 11, 8-9 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 343.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Lampinen, Airi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    McMillan, Donald
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rostami, Asreen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Wang, Jinyi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    The IKEA Catalogue: Design fiction in academic and industrial collaborations2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Supporting Group Work, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, 335-344 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an introduction to the “Future IKEA Catalogue”, enclosed here as an example of a design fiction produced from a long standing industrial-academic collaboration. We introduce the catalogue here by discussing some of our experiences using design fictionwith companies and public sector bodies, giving some background to the catalogue and the collaboration which produced it.

  • 344.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Laurier, Eric
    The Normal, Natural Troubles of Driving with GPS2012Ingår i: CHI '12 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012, 1621-1630 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In-car GPS based satellite navigation systems are now a common part of driving, providing turn-by-turn navigation instructions on smartphones, portable units or in-car dash- board navigation systems. This paper uses interactional analysis of video data from fifteen naturalistically recorded journeys with GPS to understand the navigational practices deployed by drivers and passengers. The paper documents five types of ‘trouble’ where GPS systems cause issues and confusion for drivers around: destinations, routes, maps & sensors, timing and relevance and legality. The paper argues that to design GPS systems better we need to move beyond the notion of a docile driver who follows GPS command blindly, to a better understanding of how drivers, passengers and GPS systems work together. We develop this in discuss- ing how technology might better support ‘instructed action’.

  • 345.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Laurier, Eric
    University of Edinburgh.
    What it means to change lanes: actions, emotions and wayfinding in the family car2012Ingår i: Semiotica, ISSN 0037-1998, ISSN 1613-3692, Vol. 191, 117-135 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate how the sequential organization and settlement of disagreements comes to shape, and be shaped by, navigation. Using extracts of in-car interaction, we examine the gestalt of projectable aspects of road travel, car movements, and driver-navigator talk. Navigation when accomplished without maps relies on making sense of streets, landmarks, and signs, activities that are displayed through passengers and drivers giving directions to each other, alongside embodied references to passing roadside features and the movement of the vehicle. More broadly, “finding the way” is bound up with the social relationships between passengers — in particular families caring for one another and showing their epistemic and emotional stance on particular matters. To examine this we draw on existing conversation analytic work on epistemics, stance, and emotion to explore the potentially argumentative character of direction-giving and direction-receiving and how this comes to be combined with the task at hand.

  • 346.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Laurier, Eric
    Word of mouth: products, conversations and consumption2014Ingår i: Consumption, markets & culture, ISSN 1025-3866, E-ISSN 1477-223X, Vol. 17, nr 1, 29-49 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is a rich collection of studies of consumption and identity, the role of buying practices in ordinary conversations has been largely neglected. Minor items and major purchases regularly play a key role in furnishing our talk with topics, news, jokes and formulations of what kind of people we are. This paper unpacks the idea of post-purchase conversations contained within the common phrase “word of mouth.” What happens when products are examined in ordinary talk is pursued through the close analysis of a series of conversations around a significant purchase (a mountain bike). Drawing on the work of Harvey Sacks, and conversation analysis more broadly, this paper documents how products as a topic provide not only resources for small talk, but also an opportunity to consider our identity and its transformation. In conclusion, this paper argues that the knowledge and experience that circulate outside of the actual marketplace or point of purchase are part of a domain of economics as ordinary practice.

  • 347. Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Lundin, Johan
    Rost, Mattias
    Lymer, Gustav
    Holmquist, Lars Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Mobile Life.
    Seeing ethnographically: Teaching ethnography as part of CSCW2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 348.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    McGregor, Moira
    Laurier, Eric
    iPhone in vivo: video analysis of mobile device use2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, New York: ACM Press, 2013, 1031-1040 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the widespread use of mobile devices, details of mobile technology use 'in the wild' have proven difficult to collect. This paper uses video data to gain new insight into the use of mobile computing devices. Our new method combines screen-capture of iPhone use with video recordings from wearable cameras. We use this data to analyse how mobile device use is threaded into other co-present activities, focusing on the use of maps and internet searches. Close analysis reveals novel aspects of gestures on touch screens, how they serve 'double duty' - both as interface gestures but as as resources for ongoing joint action. We go on to describe how users 'walk the blue dot' to orientate themselves, and how searches are occasioned by the local environment. In conclusion, we argue that mobile devices - rather than pushing us away from the world around us - are instead just another thread in the complex tapestry of everyday interaction.

  • 349.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    McGregor, Moira
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    McMillan, Donny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    100 days of iPhone use: understanding the details of mobile device use2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the 16th international conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices & services, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, 223-232 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet connected mobile devices are an increasingly ubiquitous part of our everyday lives and we present here the results from unobtrusive audio-video recordings of iPhone use -- over 100 days of device use collected from 15 users. The data reveals for analysis the everyday, moment-by-moment use of contemporary mobile phones. Through video analysis of usage we observed how messages, social media and internet use are integrated and threaded into daily life, interaction with others, and everyday events such as transport, delays, establishment choice and entertainment. We document various aspects of end-user mobile device usage, starting with understanding how it is occasioned by context. We then characterise the temporal and sequential nature of use. Lastly, we discuss the social nature of mobile phone usage. Beyond this analysis, we reflect on how to draw these points into ideas for design.

  • 350.
    Brown, Barry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    McMillan, Donny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Mcgregor, Moira
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Searchable Objects: Search in Everyday Conversation2015Ingår i: CSCW, ACM Press , 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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