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• 201.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine L8:04, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine L8:04, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, Grenoble, France. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. School of Molecular Bioscience, The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine L8:04, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Protein Science Facility, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Structure of a TRIM21 - UBE2El complex reveals the specificity of E2 and ubiquitin recognition by TRIM E3 RINGsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)

TRIM21, a RlNG-containing E3 ubiquitin-ligase of the TRIM  $\tiny(\underline{tri}partite \ \underline{m}otif)$ protein family, is a major autoantigen in SLE and Sjögren's syndrome as well as a modifier of interferon regulatory factors, thereby regulating innate immune signalling. We herein report the 2.86 Å crystal structure ofhuman TRIM211-91 comprising the RING domain (residues 16-55), in complex with the human E2 conjugating UBE2El enzyme (also denoted UbcH6). The crystal structure, joint with analysis by NMR and SAXS as well as structure-directed mutations and functional assays provides a detailed view of the specificity-determining contacts that support specific E2 recognition in the TRIM family. A detailed comparison of our structure with known E2 bound ubiquitin complexes, supported by biochemical analyses, reveals the molecular basis for TRIM21 interactions with donor ubiquitin that activates catalytic ubiquitin transfer. Finally, our structure convincingly demonstrates the placement of the Ub-targeted Lys61 of the adjacent TRIM21$\small^,$1- 91 close to the catalytically active UBE2El cysteine, and how the Lys61 amide is activated fora nucleophilic attack by hydrogen-bondeffected deshielding by conserved acidic residues at the E2 active site. In all, our structural findings provide molecular details ofthe selectivity involved in TRIM21 interactions with its cognate UBE2E1 enzyme and how TRIM21 positions ubiquitin in a catalytic conformation for ubiquitin transfer, and presents a snapshot of the Ub ligation step on a specific target residue of TRIM211-91 as an auto-ubiquitinated pseudo-substrate at high concentration. Increased structural and functional understanding of the TRIM mediated ubiquitination will aid development ofnovel therapeutic approaches in the entire TRIM family ofproteins.

• 202.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Bioinformatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Sydney, Australia. Karolinska Institute, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Bioinformatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Mutation-Induced Population Shift in the MexR Conformational Ensemble Disengages DNA Binding: A Novel Mechanism for MarR Family Derepression2016In: Structure, ISSN 0969-2126, E-ISSN 1878-4186, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 1311-1321Article in journal (Refereed)

MexR is a repressor of the MexAB-OprM multidrug efflux pump operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, where DNA-binding impairing mutations lead to multidrug resistance (MDR). Surprisingly, the crystal structure of an MDR-conferring MexR mutant R21W (2.19 angstrom) presented here is closely similar to wildtype MexR. However, our extended analysis, by molecular dynamics and small-angle X-ray scattering, reveals that the mutation stabilizes a ground state that is deficient of DNA binding and is shared by both mutant and wild-type MexR, whereas the DNA-binding state is only transiently reached by the more flexible wild-type MexR. This population shift in the conformational ensemble is effected by mutation-induced allosteric coupling of contact networks that are independent in the wild-type protein. We propose that the MexR-R21W mutant mimics derepression by small-molecule binding to MarR proteins, and that the described allosteric model based on population shifts may also apply to other MarR family members.

• 203.
Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
Experimental and theoretical characterization of ordered MAX phases Mo2TiAlC2 and Mo2Ti2AlC32015In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 118, no 9, p. 094304-Article in journal (Refereed)

Herein, we report on the phase stabilities and crystal structures of two newly discovered ordered, quaternary MAX phases-Mo2TiAlC2 and Mo2Ti2AlC3-synthesized by mixing and heating different elemental powder mixtures of mMo:(3-m) Ti:1.1Al:2C with 1.5 less than= m less than= 2.2 and 2Mo: 2Ti:1.1Al:2.7C to 1600 degrees C for 4 h under Ar flow. In general, for m greater than= 2 an ordered 312 phase, (Mo2Ti) AlC2, was the majority phase; for mless than 2, an ordered 413 phase (Mo2Ti2)AlC3, was the major product. The actual chemistries determined from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are Mo2TiAlC1.7 and Mo2Ti1.9Al0.9C2.5, respectively. High resolution scanning transmission microscopy, XPS and Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray diffraction confirmed the general ordered stacking sequence to be Mo-Ti-Mo-Al-Mo-Ti-Mo for Mo2TiAlC2 and Mo-Ti-Ti-Mo-Al-Mo-Ti-Ti-Mo for Mo2Ti2AlC3, with the carbon atoms occupying the octahedral sites between the transition metal layers. Consistent with the experimental results, the theoretical calculations clearly show that M layer ordering is mostly driven by the high penalty paid in energy by having the Mo atoms surrounded by C in a face-centered configuration, i.e., in the center of the Mn+1Xn blocks. At 331 GPa and 367 GPa, respectively, the Youngs moduli of the ordered Mo2TiAlC2 and Mo2Ti2AlC3 are predicted to be higher than those calculated for their ternary end members. Like most other MAX phases, because of the high density of states at the Fermi level, the resistivity measurement over 300 to 10K for both phases showed metallic behavior. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

• 204.
Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
Oak Ridge National Lab, TN 37831 USA. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Oak Ridge National Lab, TN 37831 USA; Oak Ridge National Lab, TN 37831 USA. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
Two-Dimensional, Ordered, Double Transition Metals Carbides (MXenes)2015In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 9, no 10, p. 9507-9516Article in journal (Refereed)

The higher the chemical diversity and structural complexity of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the higher the likelihood they possess unique and useful properties. Herein, density functional theory (DFT) is used to predict the existence of two new families of 2D ordered, carbides (MXenes), MM-2 C-2 and MM-2 C-2(3), where M and M are two different early transition metals. In these solids, M layers sandwich M" carbide layers. By synthesizing Mo2TiC2Tx, Mo2Ti2C3Tx, and Cr2TiC2Tx (where T is a surface termination), we validated the DFT predictions. Since the Mo and Cr atoms are on the outside, they control the 2D flakes chemical and electrochemical properties. The latter was proven by showing quite different electrochemical behavior of Mo2TiC2Tx and Ti3C2Tx. This work further expands the family of 2D materials, offering additional choices of structures, chemistries, and ultimately useful properties.

• 205.
European Spallat Source, Sweden.
European Spallat Source, Sweden. Spallat Neutron Source, TN 37831 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. European Spallat Source, Sweden. Institute Laue Langevin, France. Institute Laue Langevin, France. European Spallat Source, Sweden. Spallat Neutron Source, TN 37831 USA. Institute Laue Langevin, France. Spallat Neutron Source, TN 37831 USA. Institute Laue Langevin, France. European Spallat Source, Sweden; Mid Sweden University, Sweden. Spallat Neutron Source, TN 37831 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. European Spallat Source, Sweden. European Spallat Source, Sweden. European Spallat Source, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. European Spallat Source, Sweden. European Spallat Source, Sweden; University of Newcastle, Australia. European Spallat Source, Sweden. European Spallat Source, Sweden. European Spallat Source, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. European Spallat Source, Sweden. European Spallat Source, Sweden.
Multi-Grid detector for neutron spectroscopy: results obtained on time-of-flight spectrometer CNCS2017In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 12, article id P04030Article in journal (Refereed)

The Multi-Grid detector technology has evolved from the proof-of-principle and characterisation stages. Here we report on the performance of the Multi-Grid detector, the MG. CNCS prototype, which has been installed and tested at the Cold Neutron Chopper Spectrometer, CNCS at SNS. This has allowed a side-by-side comparison to the performance of He-3 detectors on an operational instrument. The demonstrator has an active area of 0.2m(2). It is specifically tailored to the specifications of CNCS. The detector was installed in June 2016 and has operated since then, collecting neutron scattering data in parallel to the He-3 detectors of CNCS. In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of this data, in particular on instrument energy resolution, rate capability, background and relative efficiency. Stability, gamma-ray and fast neutron sensitivity have also been investigated. The effect of scattering in the detector components has been measured and provides input to comparison for Monte Carlo simulations. All data is presented in comparison to that measured by the He-3 detectors simultaneously, showing that all features recorded by one detector are also recorded by the other. The energy resolution matches closely. We find that the Multi-Grid is able to match the data collected by He-3, and see an indication of a considerable advantage in the count rate capability. Based on these results, we are confident that the Multi-Grid detector will be capable of producing high quality scientific data on chopper spectrometers utilising the unprecedented neutron flux of the ESS.

• 206.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Assessing the Contribution of Organic Agriculture: PovertyReduction and Employment Creation in Selected Value Chains2016In: Vulnerability of Agricultural Production Networks and Global Food Value Chainsdue to Natural Disasters: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Meinhard Breiling, Anbumozhi Venkatachalam, Vienna: TU Wien , 2016, p. 23-24Conference paper (Refereed)

Organic agriculture (OA) is increasingly viewed as an economic opportunity for farmers allover the world. This paper addresses the effects of OA in terms of income, vulnerability andpoverty alleviation in rural areas in developing countries. It is based on a literature reviewwith emphasis on two value chains: cotton and coffee, which both involve smallholders indeveloping regions, and growing organic markets, but differ in terms of value chain structuresand geographical patterns.

• 207.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Hamnarna rustas för fartygens avloppsvatten2014In: Sjöfarten kring Sverige och dess påverkan på havsmiljön / [ed] Tina Johansen Lilja och Eva-Lotta Sundblad, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2014, no 4, p. 10-11Chapter in book (Other academic)

När avloppsvatten från sjöfarten släpps ut i havet påverkar det miljön negativt genom att bakterier sprids och näringsämnen kommer ut i havet. Utsläppen är koncentrerade till farleder och hamnar och där kan effekterna vara tydliga, även om utsläppen är små i förhållande till de totala utsläppen till havet.

• 208.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Urban green growth-myth or reality?2015In: URBACT II New Urban Economies : How can cities foster economic development and develop ‘new urban economies’ / [ed] Willem van Winden, Luis Carvalho, Saint-Denis, France: URBACT II Programme , 2015, p. 35-38Chapter in book (Other academic)

‘To create the most resource-efficient region in the world’. This is the vision of Tekniska verken, the municipalityowned infrastructural company in Linköping, Sweden. It reflects the city’ s long-standing ambitions to be a ‘forerunner in climate and environmental initiatives’ and to support ‘business-driven’ environmental development, actively stimulating the development of a green economic sector. Linköping and the surrounding county of Östergötland are here used for discussing the development of the green economy in cities and regions.

• 209.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Western harbor in Malmö2015In: Review 11. Re-inventing planning: examples from the Profession, Rotterdam, Nederländerna: International Society of City and Regional Planners , 2015, Vol. 11, p. 210-227Conference paper (Other academic)

For the last 15 years Västra hamnen (Western Harbor) in Malmö, and Hammarby Sjöstad in Stockholm have been the major flagships of Swedish international eco-city ambitions. These city development projects are presented both as leading examples of the conversion of former industrial harbor areas and of environmental adaptation of densely built urban environments. Western Harbor is a centrally located former shipyard area which, since the end of the 1990s, has developed into a mixed city area for housing, schools, offices, shops and other workplaces as well as for recreational areas with beaches, parks and yacht harbors. Since its first phase, part of a housing expo in 2001, it has attracted international interest for its dense architecture, bold energy goals based on varied local renewable energy production, household waste systems, green and blue structures, and dialogue processes. By 2031, when the area is completed, it is expected to be the home for 25,000 people and 25,000 workplaces. In 2014, there were 7,300 inhabitants and more than 12,000 work places in Western Harbor, already twice of the work force of the former shipyard at its height.

• 210.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet. Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
Utsläppshandel kan vara en lönsam vägtill lägre utsläpp från sjöfarten2017In: Åtgärder för att minska sjöfartens påverkan på havsmiljön / [ed] Tina Johansen Lilja, Frida Lundberg och Eva-Lotta Sundblad., Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, p. 14-16Chapter in book (Other academic)

Handel med utsläppsrätter under ett fastställt ”tak” av totalautsläpp som efterhand sänks, har i en del regioner i världenvisat sig vara en både kostnadseffektiv och framgångsrikstrategi för att minska luftföroreningarna. Frågan är om utsläppshandelskulle kunna vara ett effektivt sätt för att minskasjöfartens utsläpp i Europa eller Östersjöregionen?

• 211.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Sjöfart och marin teknik/maritim miljö och energisystem, Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
Billigare avfallshantering i hamnarna har inte gett förväntad effekt2017In: Åtgärder för att minska sjöfartens påverkan på havsmiljön / [ed] Tina Johansen Lilja, Frida Lundberg och Eva-Lotta Sundblad, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, p. 26-27Chapter in book (Other academic)

Hamnarna kan spela en viktig roll för att minska sjöfartensutsläpp i havet. Reglerna för fartygens avfallsdumpning harskärpts och i Östersjöområdet har det länge funnits en överenskommelseom att fartygen ska kunna lämna sitt avfall ihamn utan extra avgift. I praktiken låter dock de stora förbättringarnavänta på sig.

• 212.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Sjöfart och marin teknik/maritim miljö och energisystem, Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
Expanderande kryssningsbransch ställer krav på Östersjöns hamnar2017In: Åtgärder för att minska sjöfartens påverkan på havsmiljön / [ed] Tina Johansen Lilja, Frida Lundberg och Eva-Lotta Sundblad, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2017, p. 24-25Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))

Kryssningssjöfarten ger växande inkomster för kuststäderna,men innebär också ökad påverkan på miljön i Östersjön och dess hamnar. Trots att branschen åtagit sig att sluta släppa utavloppsvatten till sjöss lämnar bara var tredje kryssningsfartygsitt avfallsvatten vid hamnbesök. Dessutom är delar av fartygsflottani stort behov av förbättrad miljöprestanda.

• 213.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
Extensions for Distributed Moving Base Driving Simulators2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Modern vehicles are complex systems. Different design stages for such a complex system include evaluation using models and submodels, hardware-in-the-loop systems and complete vehicles. Once a vehicle is delivered to the market evaluation continues by the public. One kind of tool that can be used during many stages of a vehicle lifecycle is driving simulators.

The use of driving simulators with a human driver is commonly focused on driver behavior. In a high fidelity moving base driving simulator it is possible to provide realistic and repetitive driving situations using distinctive features such as: physical modelling of driven vehicle, a moving base, a physical cabin interface and an audio and visual representation of the driving environment. A desired but difficult goal to achieve using a moving base driving simulator is to have behavioral validity. In other words, \A driver in a moving base driving simulator should have the same driving behavior as he or she would have during the same driving task in a real vehicle.".

In this thesis the focus is on high fidelity moving base driving simulators. The main target is to improve the behavior validity or to maintain behavior validity while adding complexity to the simulator. One main assumption in this thesis is that systems closer to the final product provide better accuracy and are perceived better if properly integrated. Thus, the approach in this thesis is to try to ease incorporation of such systems using combinations of the methods hardware-in-the-loop and distributed simulation. Hardware-in-the-loop is a method where hardware is interfaced into a software controlled environment/simulation. Distributed simulation is a method where parts of a simulation at physically different locations are connected together. For some simulator laboratories distributed simulation is the only feasible option since some hardware cannot be moved in an easy way.

Results presented in this thesis show that a complete vehicle or hardware-in-the-loop test laboratory can successfully be connected to a moving base driving simulator. Further, it is demonstrated that using a framework for distributed simulation eases communication and integration due to standardized interfaces. One identified potential problem is complexity in interface wrappers when integrating hardware-in-the-loop in a distributed simulation framework. From this aspect, it is important to consider the model design and the intersections between software and hardware models. Another important issue discussed is the increased delay in overhead time when using a framework for distributed simulation.

• 214.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transportation Research Institute.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup2013In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages and Tools; April 19, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK / [ed] Henrik Nilsson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, Vol. 84, p. 131-139Conference paper (Refereed)

A car model in Modelica has been developed to be used in a new setup for distributed real-time simulation where a moving base car simulator is connected with a real car in a chassis dynamometer via a 500m fiber optic communication link. The new co-simulator set-up can be used in a number of configurations where hardware in the loop can be interchanged with software in the loop. The models presented in this paper are the basic blocks chosen for modeling the system in the context of a distributed real-time simulation; estimating parameters for the powertrain model; the choice of numeric solver; and the interaction with the solver for real-time properties.

• 215. Andersson, Carina
Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Att uppleva räta linjer och grafer – erfarenheter från ett forskningsprojekt2015In: Nämnaren 2014:4, no 1, p. 21-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
• 216.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Design of the Modelica Library VehProLib with Non-ideal Gas Models in Engines2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

This thesis covers the reconstruction and the redesign of the modeling library VehProLib,which is constructed in the modeling language Modelica with help of the modeling toolWolfram SystemModeler. The design choices are discussed and implemented. This thesisalso includes the implementation of a turbocharger package and an initial study of the justificationof the ideal gas law in vehicle modeling. The study is made with help of Van derWaals equation of states as a reference of non-ideal gas model. It will be shown that for themean-value-engine-model, the usage of ideal gas law is justified.

• 217.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
A study of the comparability of energy audit program evaluations2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, p. 2133-2139Article in journal (Refereed)

There is a large untapped potential for improved energy efficiency in various sectors of the economy. Governmental industrial energy audit programs subsidizing the companies to conduct an energy audit are the most common policy in trying to overcome the energy efficiency gap. Evaluation studies have been carried out to gain knowledge about the success of a completed energy audit policy program. The evaluations were made in different ways and in addition focused on different performance indicators and used different ways of categorizing data. In this article, a literature review has been made of five evaluation studies from different energy audit programs, where the problems of the present incomparability between programs due to differences are discussed. The policy implication of this paper is that new energy audit policy programs must distinguish a harmonized way of categorizing data, both regarding energy efficiency measures and energy end-use. Further, a proposition for a standard for how to evaluate energy audit policy programs is suggested. Conclusions from this study are that important elements, such as the free-rider effect and harmonized energy end-use data, should be defined and included in evaluation studies. A harmonized standard for evaluating audit programs is not least needed within the EU, where member states are obliged to launch audit programs for large enterprises, and preferably also for small and medium-sized enterprises. This paper serves as an important contribution for the development of such a standard in further research. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The full text will be freely available from 2018-11-12 17:53
• 218.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Benchmarking energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises using an energy efficiency index: Results based on an energy audit policy program2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, p. 883-895Article in journal (Refereed)

Improved energy efficiency among industrial companies is recognized as a key effort to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. In this context, benchmarking industrial energy efficiency plays an important part in increasing industrial companies awareness of their energy efficiency potential. A method for calculating an energy efficiency index is proposed in this paper. The energy efficiency index is used to benchmark the energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized companies support and production processes. This enables the possibility to compare the energy performance of single energy end-use processes. This papers proposed energy efficiency index is applied to energy data from 11 sawmills that participated in the Swedish national energy audit program. The index values were compared with each sawmills energy saving potential, as stated in the energy audits. One conclusion is that the energy efficiency index is suitable as an energy strategy tool in industrial energy management and could be used both by industrial SMEs and by governmental agencies with an auditing role. However, it does require a harmonized categorization of energy end-use processes as well as quality assured energy data. Given this, a national energy end-use database could be created to facilitate the calculation of an energy efficiency index. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The full text will be freely available from 2020-02-10 14:54
• 219.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Modelling of Cranking Behaviour in Heavy Duty Truck Engines2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

In modern heavy duty trucks the battery is a central component. Its traditional role as an energy source for engine cranking has been extended to include powering a number of elec- trical components on the truck, both during driving and during standstill. As a consequence of this it is important to know how much a battery in use has aged and lost in terms of ca- pacity and power output. The difficulty in measuring these factors on a battery in use causes problem, since heavy duty truck batteries are often replaced too early or too late, leading to unnecessary high replacement costs or truck standstill respectively.

The overall goal of the effort, of which this thesis is a part, is to use a model of the cranking behaviour of a heavy duty truck engine, which depends on the battery condition, to estimate the ageing and wear of a heavy duty truck battery. This thesis proposes a modelling approach to model the components involved in engine cranking.

In the thesis work, system identification is made of the systems forming part of the cranking of a heavy duty truck engine. These components are the starter battery, the starter motor and its electrical circuit and the internal combustion engine. Measurement data has been provided by Scania AB for the evaluation of the models. The data has been collected from crankings of a heavy duty diesel engine at different temperatures and battery charge levels. For every cranking lapse the battery voltage and current have been measured as well as the engine rotational speed.

A starter battery model is developed and evaluated. The resulting battery model is then incorporated into two different engine cranking models, Model 1 and Model 2, including a starter motor model and an internal combustion engine model apart form the battery model. The two cranking models differ in several aspects and their differences and resulting evalu- ations are discussed.

The battery model is concluded to be sufficiently accurate during model verification, however the two cranking models are not. Model 2 is verified as more correct in in its output than Model 1, but neither is sufficiently accurate for their purpose. The conclusion is drawn that the modelling approach is sound but development of Model 2 is needed before the model can be used in model-based condition estimation.

• 220.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Storing and structuring big data with businessintelligence in mind2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Sectra has a customer database with approximately 1600 customers across the world. In this system there exists not only medical information but alsoinformation about the environment which the system runs in, usage  pattern and much more.

This report is about storing data received from log les into a suitable database. Sectra wants to be able to analyze this information so that they can make strategic decisions and get a better understanding of their customers' needs. The tested databases are MongoDB, Cassandra, and MySQL. The results shows that MySQL  is not suitable for storing large amount of data with the current conguration. On the other hand, both MongoDB and Cassandra performed well with the growing amount of data.

• 221.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Configuration and Planning of the Remote TowerModules in a Remote Tower Center2016Conference paper (Refereed)

Today, many small aerodromes struggle withfinancial difficulties, and a large cost is air traffic control.Remote tower centers, which remotely provide air traffic servicesto aerodromes, can help reduce this cost. Each center maycontain a number of remote tower modules, where each moduleis manned by a controller that can handle one or moreaerodromes. In this paper we present the remote tower centerconcept and develop a model that optimizes the assignment ofairports to the remote tower modules. Computational results fora possible scenario based on real data for Swedish airports arepresented.

• 222.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Geotelix AB. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Räddningstjänsten Östra Götaland. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Norrköping Municipality. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Using Semi-professionals in Emergency Response2016In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Andrea H. Tapia, Pedro Antunes, Victor A. Bañuls, Kathleen Moore and João Porto de Albuquerque, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)

The term semi-professional can be used to denote occupational groups that do not have emergency response as their primary profession but who get additional responsibilities within rescue and response, e.g. by performing a first response or assisting the professional emergency services. In this study, four different groups of possible semi-professional resources are analyzed and compared. Similarities and differences between the four groups are discussed. Factors, important for the successful implementation of a cross-sector collaboration of this kind, are highlighted. The preliminary results show that all four groups have the potential to act as semi-professional resources within emergency response. Interestingly, the basic requirements are the same for all groups, despite different prerequisites.

• 223.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Effektivt sambruk av kommunala resurser för ökad säkerhet och trygghet2017Report (Other academic)

Användandet av så kallade semiprofessionella resurser i räddningsinsatser har blivit allt vanligare i Sverige. En semiprofessionell är en person som fått utökade arbetsuppgifter inom respons och räddning inom ramen för sitt ordinarie yrke. Det kanske mest kända exemplet är väktare som responderar på den kommunala räddningstjänstens ärenden.

I det projekt som avrapporteras här, är syftet att undersöka vilka yrkesgrupper som skulle passa bra som semiprofessionella, och vad som krävs för att de effektivt ska kunna utföra de nya arbetsuppgifterna, bland annat i form av utbildning och utrustning. Vidare syftar projektet till att utvärdera vilken samhällsnytta semiprofessionella kan bidra med. Som studieobjekt används Norrköpings kommun, och via en aktionsforskningsinspirerad metodansats är målet att projektresultaten ska kunna bidra till en ökad säkerhet och trygghet i kommunen.

En kombination av kvalitativa och kvantitativa metoder används för att uppnå syftet. Genom workshops identifieras först fyra potentiella yrkesgrupper (räddningstjänstens dagtidspersonal, hemtjänstpersonal, förvaltningsentreprenörer och väktare), för vilka detaljerad data erhålls via fokusgruppsintervjuer. En grupp (räddningstjänstens dagtidspersonal) väljs ut för vidare analys, och ytterligare en workshop genomförs, plus ett experiment i form av en simulerad olycka där semiprofessionella får göra en första insats. En prototyp av ett utlarmningssystem tas fram, inklusive en smartphoneapplikation som de semiprofessionella kan använda för att ta emot och hantera larm. Med hjälp av applikationen utförs ett experiment där historiska larm skickas till potentiella semiprofessionella under två månaders tid, och de får svara på om de kan åka eller inte, samtidigt som deras position noteras. Genom att jämföra deltagarnas uppskattade insatstider med räddningstjänstens historiska, kan möjliga insatstidsförkortningar beräknas. Detta kompletteras med en bedömning av vad de kan bidra med i respektive händelse.

Bedömningen görs enligt en strukturerad metod av professionell personal från två olika räddningstjänstorganisationer. De beräknade insatstiderna och den skattade förmågan vägs samman till en monetär nytta av den semiprofessionella insatsen.

Resultatet visar att det finns ett stort antal yrkesgrupper som skulle kunna vara lämpliga att nyttja som semiprofessionella. I rapporten redovisas en lista med 23 grupper som anses ha potential och möjlighet att utföra räddningsinsatser som en del av sitt yrke. Vidare redovisas ett antal utmaningar och möjligheter, baserat på analysen av de fyra utvalda grupperna. En konkret sammanställning har gjorts i form av listor på utbildning och utrustning som krävs för att de effektivt kunna utföra sitt nya uppdrag. Dessa krav är förhållandevis enkla att uppfylla, och handlar om grundläggande utbildning i riskbedömning, brandsläckning och livräddande åtgärder, samt utrustning som tex handbrandsläckare och förbandslåda. Mer utmanande är de organisatoriska förändringar som är nödvändiga för att de semiprofessionella akut ska kunna lämna sina pågående arbetsuppgifter, samt hur utlarmningen ska kunna integreras i de tekniska system som används för professionella räddningsresurser. Vidare visar resultaten att semiprofessionella kan larmas, och förväntas göra nytta på en stor mängd olika typer av händelser, dock främst vid händelser med personskador eller akuta sjukdomsförlopp. Den monetära nyttan av att införa ett fåtal (i snitt 3,4 st) semiprofessionella i Norrköping och Linköpings kommuner beräknades till mellan 600 000 och 2 400 000 kr per år, beroende på hur lång tid det tar för de semiprofessionella ifrån att de får larm tills de påbörjar färden mot händelseplatsen.

En slutsats från projektet är att semiprofessionella skulle bidra till en ökad säkerhet och trygghet i Norrköping kommun, om de används som förstainsatsresurser, som ett komplement till befintlig professionell räddningspersonal.

• 224.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. CARER.
SICS East Swedish ICT AB, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. CARER.
Dynamisk planering av räddningstjänst2014Report (Other academic)

Dynamisk planering innebär bland annat att brandmännen delar in sig i mindre grupper än traditionellt. Dessa kan då arbeta förebyggande med utbildning eller placeras strategiskt till exempel i närheten av olycksdrabbade vägsträckor, för att snabbare kunna nå fram till en olycksplats. Då en olycka inträffar larmas de brandmän som snabbast kan nå fram, och det kan vara nödvändigt att larma flera olika grupper.

En utmaning vid dynamisk planering är att planeringssituationen blir svårare. Det är inte längre självklart vilka brandmän som ska larmas till en viss olycka. Det kan också vara svårt att hitta de bästa placeringarna för brandmän som snabbt ska kunna göra en insats.

I projektet har vi utvecklat och utvärderat datorbaserade verktyg som kan stödja dynamisk planering av räddningstjänst.

Bland verktygen finns en beredskapskalkylator med tillhörande visualisering, vilken beräknar beredskapen som en funktion av tiden det tar för de nödvändiga resurserna att nå fram till en viss typ av olycka och sannolikheten för att olyckan ska inträffa i närområdet. Ett annat verktyg kan ge förslag på vilka resurser som bör skickas till en olycksplats för att de ska komma fram så fort som möjligt. Ett tredje verktyg kan ge förslag på hur fordon och personal dynamiskt bör placeras för att beredskapen ska förbättras, dvs. de ska kunna nå fram så fort som möjligt till de platser där det är störst sannolikhet att en olycka kommer att inträffa.

Verktygen har utvärderats genom två experimentserier. I experimenten testades mänskligt beslutsfattande i en simulerad räddningstjänstmiljö. I den första serien fick personal från olika räddningstjänster prova på dynamisk planering utan hjälp av de datorbaserade verktygen. I den andra serien fick andra räddningstjänster köra samma scenarier, men då ta hjälp av de i projektet utvecklade verktygen.

Resultaten visar att verktygen kan hjälpa räddningstjänsten med planeringen av beredskapen, men också att det finns risk att detta sker på bekostnad av att planeringen tar något längre tid. En tydlig majoritet av de deltagande räddningstjänstbefälen var positivt inställda till de utvecklade verktygen och tyckte verktyg av detta slag skulle kunna hjälpa dem i det dagliga arbetet.

Resultaten tydliggör också att olika personer – till och med nära kollegor inom samma räddningstjänst – uppfattar begreppet beredskap på olika sätt. Det visade sig dock att beredskapsvisualiseringen kan bidra till att denna skillnad i uppfattning minskar; i den andra experimentserien, där de hade tillgång till detta verktyg, minskade variationerna i bedömningarna och deltagarnas uppfattningar stämde bättre överens med den beräknade beredskapen.

• 225.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. CARER. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SICS Swedish ICT, Linkoping, Sweden.
Supporting dispatch decisions for the fire and rescue services2015In: 2015 IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 2562-2567Conference paper (Refereed)

Decision support tools for efficient dispatching of fire and rescue resources are developed and evaluated. The tools can give suggestions about which resources to dispatch to new accidents, and help the decision makers in evaluating the current preparedness for handling future accidents. The tools are evaluated using simulation game based experiments, with players from the fire and rescue services. The results indicate that the tools can help the fire and rescue services in identifying the closest resources to new accidents, and to select resources that preserve the preparedness in the area. However, the results also indicate that there is a risk that the tools increase the decision time.

• 226.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
A Novel MIP-based Airspace Sectorization for TMAs2017Conference paper (Refereed)
• 227.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Automatic Design of Aircraft Arrival Routes with Limited Turning Angle2016In: 16th Workshop on Algorithmic Approaches for Transportation Modelling, Optimization, and Systems (ATMOS 2016) / [ed] Marc Goerigk and Renato Werneck, Dagstuhl, Germany, 2016, Vol. 54, p. 9:1-9:13Conference paper (Refereed)

We present an application of Integer Programming to the design of arrival routes for aircraft in a Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA). We generate operationally feasible merge trees of curvature-constrained routes, using two optimization criteria: (1) total length of the tree, and (2) distance flown along the tree paths. The output routes guarantee that the overall traffic pattern in the TMA can be monitored by air traffic controllers; in particular, we keep merge points for arriving aircraft well separated, and we exclude conflicts between arriving and departing aircraft. We demonstrate the feasibility of our method by experimenting with arrival routes for a runway at Arlanda airport in the Stockholm TMA. Our approach can easily be extended in several ways, e.g., to ensure that the routes avoid no-fly zones.

• 228.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Convex Sectorization--a Novel Integer Programming Approach2017In: 2017 INTEGRATED COMMUNICATIONS, NAVIGATION AND SURVEILLANCE CONFERENCE (ICNS), 2017Conference paper (Refereed)

The powerpoint presentation is about review of sectorization method that balances sector task load through extension by convex sectors, the results for Stockholm TMA. Also provides the comparison to convex sectorizations obtained by enumerating all possible topoligies for the given #sectors with highly flexible approach and fine-grained view on the TMA.

• 229.
Univ Gavle, Sweden.
Univ Gavle, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Gavle, Sweden.
Experimental and numerical investigations of a new ventilation supply device based on confluent jets2018In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 137, p. 18-33Article in journal (Refereed)

In developed countries, heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for more than 10% of national energy use. The primary function of a HVAC system is to create proper indoor environment. A number of ventilation strategies have been developed to minimize HVAC systems energy use whilst still maintaining a good indoor environment. Among these strategies are confluent jet ventilation and variable air volume. In this study, an air supply device with a novel nozzle design that uses both of the above-mentioned strategies was investigated both experimentally and numerically at three different airflow rates. The results from the numerical investigation using the SST k - omega turbulence model regarding velocities and flow patterns are validated by experimental data carried out by Laser Doppler Anemometry. The results from both studies show that the flow pattern and velocity in each nozzle is directly dependent on the total airflow rate. However, the flow pattern does not vary between the three different airflow rates. The numerical investigation shows that velocity profiles for each nozzle have the same pattern regardless of the airflow rate, but the magnitude of the velocity profile increases as the airflow increases. Thus, a supply device of this kind could be used for variable air volume and produce confluent jets for the airflow rates investigated.

• 230.
University of Borås, Sweden.
Jönköping University, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
Interrupted Time Series Versus Statistical Process Control in Quality Improvement Projects2016In: Journal of Nursing Care Quality, ISSN 1057-3631, E-ISSN 1550-5065, Vol. 31, no 1, p. E1-E8Article in journal (Refereed)

To measure the effect of quality improvement interventions, it is appropriate to use analysis methods that measure data over time. Examples of such methods include statistical process control analysis and interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis. This article compares the use of statistical process control analysis and interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis for evaluating the longitudinal effects of quality improvement interventions, using an example study on an evaluation of a computerized decision support system.

• 231.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Berggren, ChristianLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Sussex.
Kunskapsintegration och innovation i en internationaliserande ekonomi: Slutrapport från ett forskningsprogram2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)

Den här skriften presenterar ett urval resultat och texter från forskningsprogrammet ”Kunskapsintegration och innovation i en internationaliserande ekonomi” (Knowledge Integration and Innovation in Transnational Enterprise, KITE) som finansierats av Riksbankens Jubileumsfond i två faser under åren 2007–2015. I programmet har vi analyserat hur företag, speciellt i tekniktunga industrier, påverkas av den allt mer globala konkurrensen om nya produkter och tjänster, hur nya specialiserade kunskaper växer fram och tas tillvara, och hur de kan förenas med existerande kunskapsbas. I denna skrift finns studier på tre olika nivåer: branschnivån, med analyser av innovationsprocesser och kunskapsutmaningar i industriella sektorer; företagsnivån, med skildringar av förändringar i företagens interna organisering av kunskapsbildande processer och undersökningar av nya former för utbyte och samspel mellan företag; samt mikronivån, med undersökningar av samspelet mellan individuella specialister inom företag. Skriften vänder sig både till den intresserade allmänheten och till forskare med annan vetenskaplig bakgrund. Fokus är på internationellt konkurrerande branscher och företag, men analyserna av kunskapens delning och sammanflätning, separation och integration, har bäring också på andra kunskapsintensiva sektorer och verksamheter, från statliga verk till sjukvård.

En vetenskaplig presentation av programmets forskning under de första fyra åren finns i boken Knowledge Integration and Innovation: Critical Challenges Facing International Technology-Based Firms (redigerad av Berggren, Bergek, Bengtsson, Hobday & Söderlund och utgiven av Oxford University Press 2011). En uppföljande volym, Managing Knowledge Integration Across Boundaries, planeras av samma förlag 2016 (redigerad av Tell, Berggren, Brusoni & Van de Ven). I den medverkar ett antal internationella författare vilket visar kunskapsområdets globala tyngd och intresse. Under programmets drygt åtta år har deltagarna publicerat ett mycket stort antal artiklar, konferensbidrag, bokkapitel och liknande. För dessa hänvisar vi till programmets hemsida www.liu.se/kite.

Vi har under hela programperioden arbetat intensivt med att diskuteraoch konstruktivt kritisera och utveckla varandras bidrag. Därför har det varit naturligt att denna skrift inbegriper många programdeltagares medverkan. En presentation av samtliga medverkande finns i slutet av denna skrift. Följande KITE-forskare har medverkat i nedan angivna kapitel:

Hans Andersson (kapitel 4)

Lars Bengtsson (kapitel 7)

Marie Bengtsson (kapitel 3)

Anna Bergek (kapitel 2)

Christian Berggren (kapitel 1)

Karin Bredin (kapitel 6)

Cecilia Enberg (kapitel 5, 7)

Mattias Johansson (kapitel 4)

Nicolette Lakemond (kapitel 7)

Lars Lindkvist (kapitel 3)

Thomas Magnusson (kapitel 1)

Camilla Niss (kapitel 6)

Jonas Söderlund (kapitel 6)

Fredrik Tell (kapitel 5)

Vi vill också tacka Jenny Björkman på Riksbankens Jubileumsfond och Makadam förlag för deras engagerade arbete med redigering och produktion av slutresultatet.

• 232.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Knowledge management and throughput optimization in large-scale software development2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Large-scale software development companies delivering market-driven products have introduced agile methodologies as the way of working to a big extent. Even though there are many benefits with an agile way of working, problems occur when scaling agile because of the increased complexity. One explicit problem area is to evolve deep product knowledge, which is a domain specific knowledge that cannot be developed anywhere else but at the specific workplace. This research aims to identify impediments for developing domain specific knowledge and provide solutions to overcome these challenges in order to optimize knowledge growth and throughput.

The result of the research shows that impediments occur in four different categories, based on a framework for knowledge sharing drivers. These are people-related, task-related, structure-related and technology-related. The challenging element with knowledge growth is to integrate the training into the feature development process, without affecting the feature throughput negatively.

The research also shows that by increasing the knowledge sharing, the competence level of the whole organization can be increased, and thereby be beneficial from many perspectives, such as feature-throughput and code quality.

• 233.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Monitoring of troponin release from cardiomyocytes during exposure to toxic substances using surface plasmon resonance biosensing2010In: ANALYTICAL AND BIOANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, ISSN 1618-2642, Vol. 398, no 3, p. 1395-1402Article in journal (Refereed)

Troponin T (TnT) is a useful biomarker for studying drug-induced toxicity effects on cardiac cells. We describe how a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor was applied to monitor the release of TnT from active HL-1 cardiomyocytes in vitro when exposed to cardiotoxic substances. Two monoclonal human TnT antibodies were compared in the SPR immunosensor to analyse the TnT release. The detection limit of TnT was determined to be 30 ng/ml in a direct assay set-up and to be 10 ng/ml in a sandwich assay format. Exposure of the cardiomyocytes to doxorubicin, troglitazone, quinidine and cobalt chloride for periods of 6 and 24 h gave significant SPR responses, whereas substances with low toxicity showed insignificant effects (ascorbic acid, methotrexate). The SPR results were verified with a validated immunochemiluminescence method which showed a correlation of r(2)=0.790.

• 234.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Cellartis AB, Gothenburg, Sweden . University of Gothenburg. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University of Gothenburg. Sahlgrens University Hospital. University of Gothenburg. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry. Cellartis AB, Gothenburg, Sweden . Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Assaying cardiac biomarkers for toxicity testing using biosensing and cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells2010In: JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY, ISSN 0168-1656, Vol. 150, no 1, p. 175-181Article in journal (Refereed)

Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derived cardiomyocytes are in the present study being used for testing drug-induced cardiotoxicity in a biosensor set-up. The design of an in vitro testing alternative provides a novel opportunity to surpass previous methods based on rodent cells or cell lines due to its significantly higher toxicological relevance. In this report we demonstrate how hESC-derived cardiomyocytes release detectable levels of two clinically decisive cardiac biomarkers, cardiac troponin T and fatty acid binding protein 3, when the cardiac cells are exposed to the well-known cardioactive drug compound. doxorubicin. The release is monitored by the immuno-biosensor technique surface plasmon resonance, particularly appropriate due to its capacity for parallel and high-throughput analysis in complex media.

• 235.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Construct Tools PC AB, Sweden.
A co-simulation method for system-level simulation of fluid-structure couplings in hydraulic percussion units2017In: Engineering with Computers, ISSN 0177-0667, E-ISSN 1435-5663, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 317-333Article in journal (Refereed)

This paper addresses a co-simulation method for fluid power driven machinery equipment, i.e. oil hydraulic machinery. In these types of machinery, the fluid-structure interaction affects the end-product performance to a large extent, hence an efficient co-simulation method is of high importance. The proposed method is based on a 1D system model representing the fluid components of the hydraulic machinery, within which structural 3D Finite Element (FE) models can be incorporated for detailed simulation of specific sub-models or complete structural assemblies. This means that the fluid system simulation will get a more accurate structural response, and that the structural simulation will get more correct fluid loads at every time step, compared to decoupled analysis. Global system parameters such as fluid flow, performance and efficiency can be evaluated from the 1D system model simulation results. From the 3D FE-models, it is possible to evaluate displacements, stresses and strains to be used in stress analysis, fatigue evaluation, acoustic analysis, etc. The method has been implemented using two well-known simulation tools for fluid power system simulations and FE-simulations, respectively, where the interface between the tools is realised by use of the Functional Mock-up Interface standard. A simple but relevant model is used to validate the method.

• 236.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Modeling of Fuel Dynamics in a Small Two-Stroke Engine Crankcase2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

For any crankcase scavenged two-stroke engine, the fuel dynamics is not easily predicted. This is due to the fact that the fuel has to pass the crankcase volume before it enters the combustion chamber. This thesis is about the development of a model for fuel dynamics in the crankcase of a small crankcase scavenged two-stroke engine that gives realistic dynamic behavior.

The crankcase model developed in this thesis has two parts. One part is a model for wall wetting and the other part is a model for concentration of evaporated fuel in the crankcase. Wall wetting is a phenomenon where fuel is accumulated in fuel films on the crankcase walls. The wall wetting model has two parameters that have to be tuned. One is for the fraction of fuel from the carburetor that is not directly evaporated and one parameter is for the evaporation time of the fuel film.

The thesis treats tuning of these parameters by running the model with input data from measurements. Since not all input data are possible to measure, models for these inputs are also needed. Hence, development of simple models for air flows, fuel flow, gas mixing in the exhaust and the behavior of the λ-probe used for measurements are also treated in this thesis.

The parameter estimation for the crankcase model made in this thesis results in parameters that corresponds to constant fraction of fuel from the carburetor that evaporates directly and a wall wetting evaporation rate that increases with increasing engine speed. The parameter estimation is made with measurements at normal operation and three specific engine speeds. The validity of the model is limited to these speeds and does not apply during engine heat-up.

The model is run and compared to validation data at some different operation conditions. The model predicts dynamic behavior well, but has a bias in terms of mean level of the output λ. Since this mean value depends on the relation between input air and fuel flow, this bias is probably an effect of inaccuracy in the simple models developed for these flows.

• 237.
Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Asymptotic behavior and effective boundaries forage-structured population models in aperiodically changing environment2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Human activity and other events can cause environmental changes to the habitat of organisms. The environmental changes effect the vital rates for a population. In order to predict the impact of these environmental changes on populations, we use two different models for population dynamics. One simpler linear model that ignores environmental competition between individuals and another model that does not. Our population models take into consideration the age distribution of the population and thus takes into consideration the impact of demographics. This thesis generalize two theorems, one for each model, developed by Sonja Radosavljevic regarding long term upper and lower bounds of a population with periodic birth rate ; see [6] and [5]. The generalisation consist in including the case where the periodic part of the birth rate can be expressed with a finite Fourier series and also infinite Fourier series under some constraints. The old theorems only considers the case when the periodic part of the birth rate can be expressed with one cosine term. From the theorems we discover a connection between the frequency of oscillation and the effect on population growth. From this derived connection we conclude that periodical changing environments can have both positive and negative effects on the population.

• 238.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Detecting a Distributed Denial-of-Service Attack Using Speed Test Data: A Case Study on an Attack with Nationwide Impact2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis

This thesis presents a case study that investigates a large Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack and how it affected speed tests observed by the crowd-based speed test application Bredbandskollen.  Furthermore, the thesis also investigates the possibility of using crowd-based speed tests as a method to detect a DDoS attack. This method has very low overhead which makes it an interesting complement to other methods. This thesis also shows that there was a significant deviation in the number of measurements during the DDoS attack considered in the case study compared to the year average. Furthermore, the measurements of the peak day of the attack had a higher average download speed than the year average. Whereas the higher download speed observation at first may appear non-intuitive, we briefly discuss potential explanations and how such positive anomalies could potentially be used to detect attacks. Detecting DDoS attacks early can lead to earlier recognition of network problems which can aid Internet Service Providers (ISPs) in maintaining the availability of their networks.

• 239.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Fully Slot-Die-Coated All-Organic Solar Cells2015In: ENERGY TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 2194-4288, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 437-442Article in journal (Refereed)

Solar cells are perhaps the most environmentally friendly way to generate electricity available. The main drawback is the relatively large investments required by conventional technologies. Organic photovoltaics could be much cheaper. Here, we produce and characterize fully slot-die-coated, all-organic devices in a roll-to-roll process using only cheap components, benign solvents, and materials with a low environmental impact. One of the main problems with this type of device is a predisposition for short circuits. The reason for this is here identified to be mechanical failures in the active layer due to swelling of the bottom electrode material during processing. A solution to the swelling problem is provided and fully functional devices are demonstrated. On an industrial scale, this process requires only very simple slot-die coating equipment and can offer very cheap solar cells that have a very low environmental impact over their life cycle.

• 240.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish E Science Research Centre SeRC, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Swedish E Science Research Centre SeRC, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Swedish E Science Research Centre SeRC, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Swedish E Science Research Centre SeRC, Sweden.
Correction: Quantitative Assessment of Turbulence and Flow Eccentricity in an Aortic Coarctation: Impact of Virtual Interventions (vol 6, pg 281, 2015)2015In: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1869-408X, E-ISSN 1869-4098, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 577-589Article in journal (Refereed)

Turbulence and flow eccentricity can be measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we propose quantitative techniques to assess turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and flow eccentricity that could assist in the evaluation and treatment of stenotic severities. These hemodynamic parameters were studied in a pre-treated aortic coarctation (CoA) and after several virtual interventions using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), to demonstrate the effect of different dilatation options on the flow field. Patient-specific geometry and flow conditions were derived from MRI data. The unsteady pulsatile flow was resolved by large eddy simulation (LES) including non-Newtonian blood rheology. Results showed an inverse asymptotic relationship between the total amount of TKE and degree of dilatation of the stenosis, where the pre-stenotic hypoplastic segment may limit the possible improvement by treating the CoA alone. Spatiotem-poral maps of TKE and flow eccentricity could be linked to the characteristics of the post-stenotic jet, showing a versatile response between the CoA dilatations. By including these flow markers into a combined MRI-CFD intervention framework, CoA therapy has not only the possibility to produce predictions via simulation, but can also be validated pre-and immediate post treatment, as well as during follow-up studies.

• 241.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
Multidirectional WSS disturbances in stenotic turbulent flows: A pre- and post-intervention study in an aortic coarctation2017In: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380, Vol. 51Article in journal (Refereed)

Wall shear stress (WSS) disturbances are commonly expressed at sites of abnormal flow obstructions and may play an essential role in the pathogenesis of various vascular diseases. In laminar flows these disturbances have recently been assessed by the transverse wall shear stress (transWSS), which accounts for the WSS multidirectionality. Site-specific estimations of WSS disturbances in pulsatile transitional and turbulent type of flows are more challenging due to continuous and unpredictable changes in WSS behavior. In these complex flow settings, the transWSS may serve as a more comprehensive descriptor for assessing WSS disturbances of general nature compared to commonly used parameters. In this study large eddy simulations (LES) were used to investigate the transWSS properties in flows subjected to different pathological turbulent flow conditions, governed by a patient-specific model of an aortic coarctation pre and post balloon angioplasty. Results showed that regions of strong near-wall turbulence were collocated with regions of elevated transWSS and turbulent WSS, while in more transitional-like near-wall flow regions a closer resemblance was found between transWSS and low, and oscillatory WSS. Within the frame of this study, the transWSS parameter demonstrated a more multi-featured picture of WSS disturbances when exposed to different types of flow regimes, characteristics which were not depicted by the other parameters alone. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

• 242.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Improving Written Communcation Skills in Engineering Programs2016In: Proceedings of the International CDIO Conference, 2016, article id 225Conference paper (Refereed)

This study focuses on the improvement of students’ written communication skill in highereducation, aiming at higher quality of reports at different course levels. Towards this aim, twosupportive guideline documents, “report structure” and “report format”, have been writtenaligned with the courses’ syllabi and introduced as complementary material.

• 243.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Gränssnittsdesign för kundnöjdhet och administration2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis

Kundnöjdhet är en stor inkomstkälla för företag. Det finns många sätt att mäta kundnöjdhet och ett av de nyaste sätten är genom en digital monter placerad i fysisk butik. Denna studie ämnar undersöka hur gränssnitt till en undersökningsapplikation skall utformas för att tilltala en bred målgrupp att lämna omdömen och hur ett användbart gränssnitt till den administrativa sidan för denna applikation kan utformas. Resultaten från utvärderingen av undersökningsgränssnittet visar att det finns designelement som tilltalar vissa användare mer än andra. Detta ger en fingervisning om hur design kan utformas för att vara tilltalande för användarna att lämna omdömen via teknisk plattform. Utvärderingen av administrationsgränssnittet visade att genom att följa teorin kan ett lättanvändbart administrationsgränssnitt skapas.

• 244.
FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency.
FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency.
Estimation of crowd behaviour using sensor networks and sensor fusion2009Conference paper (Refereed)

Commonly, surveillance operators are today monitoring a large number of CCTV screens, trying to solve the complex cognitive tasks of analyzing crowd behavior and detecting threats and other abnormal behavior. Information overload is a rule rather than an exception. Moreover, CCTV footage lacks important indicators revealing certain threats, and can also in other respects be complemented by data from other sensors. This article presents an approach to automatically interpret sensor data and estimate behaviors of groups of people in order to provide the operator with relevant warnings. We use data from distributed heterogeneous sensors (visual cameras and a thermal infrared camera), and process the sensor data using detection algorithms. The extracted features are fed into a hidden Markov model in order to model normal behavior and detect deviations. We also discuss the use of radars for weapon detection.

• 245.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Solenne BV, Groningen, The Netherlands. Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Mixed C60/C70 based fullerene acceptors in polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells2012In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 13, no 12, p. 2856-2864Article in journal (Refereed)

Different mixtures of identically substituted C60 and C70 based fullerens have been used as acceptors in three polymer: fullerene systems that strongly express various performance limiting aspects of bulk heterojunction solar cells. Results are correlated with, and discussed in terms of e.g. morphology, charge separation, and charge transport. In these systems, there appears to be no relevant differences in either mobility or energy level positions between the identically substituted C60 and C70 based fullerenes tested. Examples of how fullerene mixtures influence the nano-morphology of the active layer are given. An upper limit to the open circuit voltage that can be obtained with fullerenes is also suggested.

• 246.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oulu, Finland, SenSiC AB, Kista, Sweden .
Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany. University of Oulu, Finland. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oulu, Finland. University of Oulu, Finland. Saarland University, Germany. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
SiC-FET sensors for selective and quantitative detection of VOCs down to ppb level2016In: Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058, E-ISSN 1877-7058, Vol. 168, p. 216-220Article in journal (Refereed)

With the increased interest in development of cheap, simple means for indoor air quality monitoring, and specifically in relation to certain well-known pollutant substances with adverse health effects even at very low concentrations, such as different Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), this contribution aims at providing an overview of the development status of the silicon carbide field effect transistor (SiC FET) based sensor platform for ppb level detection of VOCs. Optimizing the transducer design, the gas-sensitive material(s) composition, structure and processing, its mode of operation - applying temperature cycled operation in conjunction with multivariate data evaluation - and long-term performance it has been possible to demonstrate promising resultsregarding the sensor technology’s ability to achieve both single-digit ppb sensitivity towards e.g. naphthalene as well as selective detection of individual substances in a mixture of different VOCs.

• 247.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany. University of Oulu, Finland. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany. University of Oulu, Finland. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Optimization of the Field Effect Transistor transducer platform for the development of air quality sensors2016In: Proceedings EMRS 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
• 248.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oulu, Finland.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oulu, Finland. University of Oulu, Finland. University of Oulu, Finland. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oulu, Finland.
Field Effect Based Gas Sensors, from Basic Mechanisms to the Latest Commercial Device Designs2016In: SENSORS AND ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION ADVANCES (SEIA), INT FREQUENCY SENSOR ASSOC-IFSA , 2016, p. 19-21Conference paper (Refereed)

This contribution treats the latest developments in the understanding of basic principles regarding device design, transduction mechanisms, gas-materials-interactions, and materials processing for the tailored design and fabrication of SiC FET gas sensor devices, mainly intended as products for the automotive sector.

• 249.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
The University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Nested Sequential Monte Carlo Methods2015In: Proceedings of The 32nd International Conference on Machine Learning / [ed] Francis Bach, David Blei, Journal of Machine Learning Research (Online) , 2015, Vol. 37, p. 1292-1301Conference paper (Refereed)

We propose nested sequential Monte Carlo (NSMC), a methodology to sample from sequences of probability distributions, even where the random variables are high-dimensional. NSMC generalises the SMC framework by requiring only approximate, properly weighted, samples from the SMC proposal distribution, while still resulting in a correct SMC algorithm. Furthermore, NSMC can in itself be used to produce such properly weighted samples. Consequently, one NSMC sampler can be used to construct an efficient high-dimensional proposal distribution for another NSMC sampler, and this nesting of the algorithm can be done to an arbitrary degree. This allows us to consider complex and high-dimensional models using SMC. We show results that motivate the efficacy of our approach on several filtering problems with dimensions in the order of 100 to 1 000.

• 250.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
A multiple-ligand approach to extending the dynamic range of analyte quantification in protein microarrays2009In: Biosensors and bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 2458-2464Article in journal (Refereed)

This work describes a concept for extending the dynamic range of quantification in an affinity biosensor assay by using a set of ligands with different affinities toward a common analyte. For a demonstration of the principle, three synthetic, biotinylated polypeptides capable of binding a model protein analyte with different affinities (10-9 M ≤ Kd ≤ 10-7 M) were immobilized in a microarray format on a gold slide covered with an oligo(ethylene glycol)-containing alkane thiolate self-assembled monolayer. For controllable immobilization, coupling was mediated by the biotinneutravidin interaction. A five-element affinity array, comprising single-peptide spots as well as spots where peptides were immobilized in mixtures, was realized by means of piezodispensation. Imaging surface plasmon resonance was used to study binding of the analyte to the different spots. The lower limit of quantification was ~3 nM and the corresponding upper limit was increased by more than an order of magnitude compared to if only the highest-affinity ligand would have been used. Affinity array sensors with multiple ligands for each analyte are particularly interesting for omitting dilution steps and providing highly accurate data in assays where several analytes such as disease biomarkers with extremely variable concentrations are quantified in parallel.

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