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  • 151.
    Adnane, Bouchaib
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optical characterization of Silicon-based self-assembled nanostructures2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This PhD thesis summarizes the work carried on the optical characterizations of some Si-based self-assembled nanostructures, particularly SiGe/Si quantum dots (QDs) and nanocrystalline (nc)-Si embedded in mesoporous silica (MS) using photoconductivity (PC), photoluminescence (PL), and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) measurements.

    The spectroscopic studies of SiGe/Si QDs grown on Si by molecular beam epitaxy revealed for the first time well-resolved PLE resonances. When correlated with numerical analysis, these resonances were directly related to the co-existence of spatially direct (inside the SiGe dot) and indirect (across the Si/Ge interface) recombination processes involving different dot populations selected by the monitored detection energy for PLE acquisition. The characteristics of these two transitions were further studied in detail by PLE (in some case implemented together with selective PL) on various samples, which contained either only one Ge dot layer or multiple Gedot/Si stacks, grown at substrate temperatures ranging from 430 to 580 °C; especially the temperature- and excitation power-dependence of the excitation properties. The results illustrated that the electronic structure of SiGe dots are influenced by size, Ge composition, as well as strain connected, and sometimes a mixed effect.

    Another attempt of the project was the fabrication of lateral transport mid-infrared photodetectors based on multiple Ge-dot/Si stacked structures. A broadband photoresponsivity of the processed multi-finger detectors was estimated to be about 90 mA/W over 3-15 μm range at 20 K, and the peaked photoresponse was measured at ~10 μm. The origin of the measured photocurrent, as elucidated by photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopies, was related to intersubband absorption of normal incidence infrared radiation corresponding to energies between the ground states of the heavy hole and the light hole in the valence band of the SiGe/Si QDs, and subsequent charge transfer to the Ge 2D wetting layer acting as a conduction channel. The absence of photocurrent in the energy range expected for a transition from the ground state to the first excited state of the heavy hole indicated that the holes in the SiGe dots behave essentially as 2D in character rather than a truly 3D confinement, where the transitions between heavy holes states are not allowed for TE polarized radiation (normal incidence).

    Finally, Si(or Ge) nanocrystals embedded in mesoporous silica samples prepared by spincoating and atomic layer chemical vapor deposition were optically investigated by means of PL with various excitation powers, together with several attempts using different post rapid thermal annealing processes. The shape and energy position of the PL spectra of the nc-Si embedded in MS samples and a reference MS template without nc incorporation were rather similar, but the luminescence was much more intense for those embedded with nanocrystals. This implies that the emission mechanism for MS samples with or without nc-Si could be the same, i.e., the light emission was governed by the surface properties of silica. The semiconductor nanocrystals played a role by sensitizing the luminescence emission through generating more photo-excited carriers. These carriers were then trapped in the defect state e.g. the interfacial oxygen defect sites and subsequently recombine to increase the PL intensity.

  • 152.
    Adnane, Bouchaib
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elfving, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhao, Ming
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnuson, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mid/far-infrared detection using a MESFET with B-modulation doped Ge-dot/SiGe-well multiple stacks in the channel region2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple modulation-doped Ge-dot/SiGe-QW stack structures were grown using MBE, and processed as FET devices for mid/far infrared detection. From a non-optimized device, a broadband photoresponse has been observed in the mid-infrared range of 3-15 μm. A peak responsivity was estimated to be as high as 100 mA/W at T= 20 K. This work indicates that SiGE QD/QW structures using the lateral transport geometry can be a potential candidate for photodetectors operating in far-infrared range.

  • 153.
    Adnane, Bouchaib
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of self-assembled SiGe/Si quantum dots2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) experiments are reported for various self-assembled SiGe/Si dot samples grown on Si(001) by molecular beam epitaxy at substrate temperatures ranging from 430 to 580 C. Two excitation peaks were observed, and the characteristics of the involved optical transitions were studied in detail by PLE (in one case implemented together with selective photoluminescence, SPL) on different samples containing either only one SiGe dot layer or multiple SiGe-dot/Si stacks. The temperature- and power-dependence of the excitation properties together with the results of six-band k.p calculations support the assignment of the observed PLE peaks to spatially direct and indirect transitions collected from two different SiGe dot populations.

  • 154.
    Adnane, Bouchaib
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spatially direct and indirect transitions of self-assembled SiGe/Si quantum dots studied by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy2010In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 96, no 18, 181107- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Well-resolved photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra are reported for selfassembled SiGe dots grown on Si(100) by molecular beam epitaxy. The observation of two excitation resonance peaks is attributed to two different excitation/de-excitation routes of interband optical transitions connected to the spatially direct and indirect recombination processes. It is concluded that two dot populations are addressed by each monitored luminescence energy for the PLE acquisition.

  • 155.
    Adnane, Bouchaib
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhao, Ming
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Origin of photoresponse at 8-14 μm in stacks of self-assembled SiGe/Si quantum dots2009In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235XArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A normal incidence photodetector operating at 8-14 μm is demonstrated using p-type δ-doped SiGe dot multilayer structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(001) substrates. Based on the experimental results of photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopies together with numerical analysis, the origin of the measured photocurrent was attributed to intersubband optical transitions between the heavy hole and light hole states of the valence band of the self-assembled SiGe dots and subsequent lateral transport of photo-excited carriers in the conduction channels formed by Ge wetting layers.

  • 156.
    Adnane, Bouchaib
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lai, Yi-Fan
    National Nano Device Labs, Taiwan.
    Shieh, Jia-Min
    National Nano Device Labs, Taiwan.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Photoluminescence study of nanocrystalline-Si(Ge) embedded in mesoporous silica2009In: Solid-State Electronics, ISSN 0038-1101, Vol. 53, no 8, 862-864 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoluminescence (PL) properties of mesoporous silica (MS) samples incorporated with Si or Ge nanocrystals (nc) have been investigated with various excitation powers and post-RTA processes. The analysis of experimental results revealed a superlinear intensity dependence (m = 1.7) in the MS reference sample without nanocrystals, while a sublinear behavior (m = 0.8) is observed for the nc-Si in MS. It thus suggests the same recombination responsible for the luminescence at similar to 2.75 eV for both samples, but different kinetic limitations for the carrier transfer processes. Si nanocrystals play in this case an important role in generating more photo-excited carriers, enhancing the PL intensity.

  • 157.
    Adolfsson, Dan
    et al.
    NXP Semiconductors corp., Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    Siew, Joanna
    Philips Applied Technologies, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    Larsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marinissen, Erik Jan
    IMEC, Leuven, Belgium).
    Deterministic Scan-Chain Diagnosis for Intermittent Faults2009In: European Test Symposium (ETS 2009), Sevilla, Spain, May 25-29, 2009 (Poster)., 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 158.
    Adolfsson, Dan
    et al.
    NXP Semiconductors corp., Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    Siew, Joanna
    Philips Applied Technologies, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
    Marinissen, Erik Jan
    IMEC, Leuven, Belgium.
    Larsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On Scan Chain Diagnosis for Intermittent Faults2009In: IEEE Asian Test Symposium (ATS), Taichung, Taiwan, November 23-26, 2009., 2009, 47-54 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diagnosis is increasingly important, not only for individual analysis of failing ICs, but also for high-volume test response analysis which enables yield and test improvement. Scan chain defects constitute a significant fraction of the overall digital defect universe, and hence it is well justified that scan chain diagnosis has received increasing research attention in recent years. In this paper, we address the problem of scan chain diagnosis for intermittent faults. We show that the conventional scan chain test pattern is likely to miss an intermittent fault, or inaccurately diagnose it. We propose an improved scan chain test pattern which we show to be effective. Subsequently, we demonstrate that the conventional bound calculation algorithm is likely to produce wrong results in the case of an intermittent fault. We propose a new lowerbound calculation method which does generate correct and tight bounds, even for an intermittence probability as low as 10%.

  • 159.
    Adolfsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Visual Evaluation of 3D Image Enhancement2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Technologies in image acquisition have developed and often provide image volumes in more than two dimensions. Computer tomography and magnet resonance imaging provide image volumes in three spatial dimensions. The image enhancement methods have developed as well and in this thesis work 3D image enhancement with filter networks is evaluated.

    The aims of this work are; to find a method which makes the initial parameter settings in the 3D image enhancement processing easier, to compare 2D and 3D processed image volumes visualized with different visualization techniques and to give an illustration of the benefits with 3D image enhancement processing visualized using these techniques.

    The results of this work are;

    1. a parameter setting tool that makes the initial parameter setting much easier and

    2. an evaluation of 3D image enhancement with filter networks that shows a significant enhanced image quality in 3D processed image volumes with a high noise level compared to the 2D processed volumes. These results are shown in slices, MIP and volume rendering. The differences are even more pronounced if the volume is presented in a different projection than the volume is 2D processed in.

  • 160.
    Adolfsson, Lovisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Collection structure design of deposited PET bottles and aluminium cans in northern Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Returpack är ansvariga för Sveriges retursystem av tomma PET-flaskor och aluminiumburkar där insamling och hantering av förpackningar är en stor del av verksamheten. Transport av tomma förpackningar från butik till Returpacks fabrik i Norrköping sker huvudsakligen i form av lösvikt (bulklast) av Returpack. Övriga transporter av förpackningar sker i kartong eller säck där dryckesleverantörer sköter insamlingen. Syftet med denna studie är att skapa och undersöka olika typer av inhämtningsstrukturer för tomma förpackningar, där Returpack strävar efter att på ett kostnadseffektivt och miljömässigt sätt sköta inhämtningen samt öka kontrollen över flödet. I studien kommer fem områden i norra Sverige att undersökas, vilka skiljer sig från övriga områden i Sverige då dessa kännetecknas av långa avstånd mellan butiker samt låga volymer av förpackningar. I studien utförs ruttplanering av lösviktsinsamling samt totalkostnadberäkningar för varje område, där ett antal scenarier skapats med olika typer av inhämtningsstrukturer. I scenarierna varieras antalet butiker, mellanlager, ruttider samt insamlingsbilar. Utöver detta undersöks även fyra olika hubblösningar där förpackningarna gör en övergång från kartong- och säckflödet till lösviktsflödet. Resultaten av ruttplanerningarna visar att två av områdena har en hög belastning där antalet insamlingsbilar behöver ökas. Totalkostnadsberäkningarna tyder på att det går att sänka totalkostnaden i två av områdena genom att öka lösviktsinsamlingen. I de övriga tre områdena ger den nuvarande strukturen den lägsta totalkostnaden. Resultaten visar också att antalet fordonskilometer kan minska genom att addera ytterligare ett mellanlager i två av områdena. I studien visas det också att hubbar kan sänka kostnader för Returpack och minska antalet inkommande kartonger och säckar till fabriken. Att införa hubbar minskar också antalet fordonskilometer med mer än 50 %.

  • 161.
    Adolfsson, Victor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thyberg, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utveckling av en e-utbildningsapplikation för mobiltelefoner2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The web production bureau Houdini develops solutions, among other things, for electronic learning. This form of education relies on electronic devices, and is often interactive. In the past, Houdini has mostly developed e-learning for computers. However, Houdini are now looking to explore the concept of developing e-learning for mobile phones.

    It was decided that a software prototype for mobile phones was to be developed by using an iterative and user-centered system design process. A prototype was developed through incremental and evolutionary prototyping. It was evaluated together with users throughout the development process.

    The work lead to an application for mobile phones, where users can watch educational films. The films are streamed via the Internet to the mobile phone. During the course of the education, the user can complete exercises. In order to complete the education, the user has to pass a final test.

    The prototype shows that the technology is mature enough for one to be able to develop a well-functioning e-learning application for mobile phones. What is needed are companies that are willing to invest in the idea.

  • 162.
    Adsten, M
    et al.
    Univ Uppsala, Angstrom Lab, S-75121 Uppsala, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Joerger, R
    Univ Uppsala, Angstrom Lab, S-75121 Uppsala, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wackelgard, E
    Univ Uppsala, Angstrom Lab, S-75121 Uppsala, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Optical characterization of industrially sputtered nickel-nickel oxide solar selective surface2000In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, Vol. 68, no 4, 325-328 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tandem absorbers are often used in the design of solar absorbers for photo thermal conversion. They consist of a thin coating, selectively absorbing in the wavelength range of the solar spectrum, on a metal substrate. The optical performance of a tandem absorber depends on the optical constants and thickness of the absorbing coating and also on the reflectivity of the underlying metal. A very high solar absorptance is achieved when the coating has a non-uniform composition in the sense that the refractive index is highest closest to the metal substrate and then gradually decreases towards the front surface. This type of composition suppresses coating interference and gives a low front surface reflection if the refractive index at the front surface is low. We report on optical analysis of a, Solar absorber with a graded index coating of sputtered nickel-nickel oxide deposited on aluminium. The optical constants have been determined from reflectance, transmittance and ellipsometry data by fitting the data to a two-layer model of the coating. The optical constants of the two layers can be regarded as effective optical constants for the lower and upper part of the graded index coating respectively. It is found that the effective refractive index of the top layer is somewhat tower than for the base layer. The extinction coefficient is higher in the lower part of the coating. Both effective refractive index and extinction coefficient of the base layer increase monotonically with increasing wavelength as for metallic materials. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 163.
    Adén, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Modellbaserad diagnostik tillämpad för hydrauliska applikationer2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I en globaliserad värld där produktägare finner sina produkter på alltmer avslägsna platser, ökar behovet av att på ett så ekonomiskt och tidseffektivt sätt som möjligt, utföra reperationer och underhållningsarbeten. Att erbjuda en stark och mer effektiv eftermarknadssupport kan öka företagens konkurrenskraft och framför allt göra dem kostnadseffektiva med avseende på lägre bemanningsstyrka. Ett sätt att underlätta underhållningsarbetet är genom att använda modellbaserad diagnos för att generera underlag vid exempelvis reperationsarbeten.

    Denna rapport undersöker möjligheterna att utifrån en modell av en hydraulisk applikation, utföra autogenererad diagnostik bland annat iform av felträdsanalys.

    Innehållet i rapporten beskriver även hur modelleringsarbetet har gått till och utveckling av modellens ingående komponenter.

    Examensarbetet är utfört på Combitech AB, Linköping. 

  • 164.
    Aerts, S
    et al.
    Free Univ Brussels, Fundamenten Exacte Wetenschappen, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium Los Alamos Natl Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA Linkoping Univ, Matemat Inst, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Gdansk, Inst Theoret Phys & Astrophys, PL-80952 Gdansk, Poland.
    Kwiat, P
    Free Univ Brussels, Fundamenten Exacte Wetenschappen, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium Los Alamos Natl Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA Linkoping Univ, Matemat Inst, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Gdansk, Inst Theoret Phys & Astrophys, PL-80952 Gdansk, Poland.
    Larsson, Jan-Åke
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics.
    Zukowski, M
    Free Univ Brussels, Fundamenten Exacte Wetenschappen, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium Los Alamos Natl Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA Linkoping Univ, Matemat Inst, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Gdansk, Inst Theoret Phys & Astrophys, PL-80952 Gdansk, Poland.
    Comment on "Two-photon Franson-type experiment and local realism" - Reply2001In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, Vol. 86, no 9, 1909-1909 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 165.
    Aerts, Sven
    et al.
    Fundamenten van de Exacte Wetenschappen, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussel, Belgium.
    Kwiat, Paul
    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico.
    Larsson, Jan-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zukowski, Marek
    Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej i Astrofizyki Uniwersytet Gdański, Gdańsk, Poland .
    Two-photon Franson-type experiments and local realism1999In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, Vol. 83, no 15, 2872-2876 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The two-photon interferometric experiment proposed by J. D. Franson [Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2205 (1989)] is often treated as a “Bell test of local realism.” However, it has been suggested that this is incorrect due to the 50% postselection performed even in the ideal gedanken version of the experiment. Here we present a simple local hidden variable model of the experiment that successfully explains the results obtained in usual realizations of the experiment, even with perfect detectors. Furthermore, we also show that there is no such model if the switching of the local phase settings is done at a rate determined by the internal geometry of the interferometers.

  • 166.
    Aerts, Sven
    et al.
    Fundamenten van de Exacte Wetenschappen Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Larsson, Jan-Åke
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics.
    Kwiat, Paul
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Zukowski, Marek
    Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej i Astrofizyki Uniwersytet Gdanski.
    Aerts et al. Reply2001In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, Vol. 86, no 9, 1909-1909 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 167.
    A.F. Da, Silva
    et al.
    Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Ondina, Salvador-Ba, 40210-340, Brazil.
    Meira, M.V.C.
    Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Ondina, Salvador-Ba, 40210-340, Brazil, CETEC-Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, Cruz das Almas-Ba, 44380-000, Brazil.
    Baldissera, G.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, C.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gutman, N.
    Racah Institute of Physics, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel.
    Saar, A.
    Institute of Physics, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel.
    Klason, P.
    Department of Physics, Göteborg University, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Canestraro, C.D.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba-PR, 81531-990, Brazil.
    Moreno, T.V.
    Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba-PR, 81531-990, Brazil.
    Roman, L.S.
    Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba-PR, 81531-990, Brazil.
    Growth, electrical and optical properties of SnO2: F on ZnO, Si and porous Si structures2009In: Nanotechnology 2009: Fabrication, Particles, Characterization, MEMS, Electronics and Photonics - Technical Proceedings of the 2009 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Expo, NSTI-Nanotech 2009, CRC Press, 2009, Vol. 1, 352-355 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we have analyzed the optical absorption of the ZnO and SnO2:F (FTO) films and applied them in porous silicon light-emitting diodes. The absorption and energy gap were calculated by employing the projector augmented wave method [1] within the local density approximation and with a modeled on-site self-interaction-like correction potential within the LDA+U SIC [2]. Experiment and theory show a good agreement when the optical absorption and optical energy gap are considered. A layer of FTO is deposited by spray pyrolysis on top of porous Si (PSi) or ZnO/(PSi) in order to make the LEDs. The morphology and roughness of the films are analyzed by Atomic Force Microscopy before and after the FTO deposition. The electrical and optical properties are studied by characteristics curves J × V, and electroluminescence intensity versus bias.

  • 168. af Forselles, J.
    et al.
    von Eckardstein, S.
    Stegeryd, Y.
    Svanström, M.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular genetics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integration of rape case related information in the electronic communication between the Swedish police and the forensic laboratory2009In: Book of Abstracts, 2009, 126- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 169.
    Afazeli, Siamak
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sattari Dabaghi, Alireza
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Görn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assessment of   Enterprise Quality and Export Performance: An Empirical Study on the Pharmaceutical Industry in IRAN2011In: Proceedings QMOD Conference on Quality and Service Science 2011, 14th QMOD Conference 29st-31st August, 2011, San Sebastian, Spain: From LearnAbility & InnovaAbility to SustainAbility / [ed] Carmen Jaca, Ricardo Mateo and Elizabeth Viles Javier Santos, Pamplona, Spain: Servicios de Publicaciones Universidad de Navarra , 2011, 55-73 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between export involvement and domestic market performance with focus on pharmaceutical firms. The study covers three research questions including: 1: How to assess the export involvement/performance of the Iranian pharmaceutical companies? 2: How to assess the performance of Iranian pharmaceutical companies in domestic market? 3: How to examine the relationship between export involvement/performance and domestic market performance?

    An intensive literature review and integration of relevant views and models helped us to build our own framework as a conceptual and analytical model. The model consists of EXPERF model, EFQM model, Export performance evaluation, domestic performance evaluation and the relationship between domestic performance and export performance. EFQM model and respective ILL indices was used for measuring domestic performance of the organizations on nine components of leadership, policy and strategy, people, partnership and resources, processes, people results, customer results, society results and key performance results. In order to achieve true representative of Iranian pharmaceutical companies K-mean clustering algorithm has been used to cluster Iranian pharmaceutical companies. EXPERF scale was used to measure export performance of the pharmaceutical companies in Iran on three aspects of financial export performance, strategic export performance and satisfaction with the export venture. Six clusters emerged after running the clustering algorithm in MATLAB software. This software enables us to put the similar companies together. Then centroids of the clusters were chosen to verify the relationship. Then relationship between export involvement (export performance) of pharmaceutical companies and their domestic performance was determined by use of Pearson coefficient.

    Pearson correlation = 0.708 and Sig= 0.026which is less than 0.0 5 then with 95% confidence we can claim that there is a significant relation between export performance of the Centroids and Domestic performance of the centroids of Iranian pharmaceutical companies and considering that the correlation

    coefficient value is positive, it means better export performance will result in better domestic performance. In other words Export performance of the companies has positive direct effect on domestic performance of Iranian pharmaceutical companies. Further studies can be done on clustering of Iranian pharmaceutical companies; effects of export involvement on individual components of EFQM based performance of firms and also verification of effect of export involvement and domestic performance in other business contexts.

  • 170.
    Afghari, Kamran
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Study and Design of High Performance Voltage-Controlled Oscillators in 65nm CMOS Technology2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, oscillators are considered as inevitable blocks in many electronic systems. They are commonly used in digital circuits to provide clocking and in analog/RF circuits of communication transceivers to support frequency conversion. Nowadays, CMOS technology is the most applicable solution for VLSI and especially for modern integrated circuits used in wireless communications. The main purpose of this project is to design a high performance voltage-controlled oscillator (LC VCO) using 65nm CMOS technology. To meet the state-of-the-art requirements, several circuit solutions have been explored and the design work ended-up with a Quadrature VCO. The circuit operates at center frequency of 2.4 GHz. The phase noise of QVCO obtained by simulation is -140 dBc/Hz at 1MHz offset frequency which is 6 dB less compared to conventional LC VCOs. The power consumption is 3.6mW and the tuning voltage can be swept from 0.2 V to 1.2 V resulting in 2.25 GHz - 2.55 GHz frequency range.

  • 171.
    Afshari, Davood
    et al.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran .
    Mohammd, Sedighi
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran .
    Zuhier, Barsoum
    Department of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, KTH – Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden .
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Approach in Prediction of Failure in Resistance Spot Welded Aluminum 6061-T6 under Quasi-static Tensile Test2012In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part B, journal of engineering manufacture, ISSN 0954-4054, Vol. 226, no 6, 1026-1032 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to predict the failure load in resistance spot welded aluminum 661-T6 sheets with 2 mm thickness under quasi-static tensile test. Various welding parameters, e.g. welding current, welding time and electrode force are selected to produce welded joints with different quality. The results show that for all the samples in this study only interfacial failure mode was observed in tensile-shear test and no pull-out mode was observed. According to the failure mode, an empirical equation was used for the prediction of failure load based on nugget size and hardness of failure line. Microstructure study has been carried out to investigate microstructural changes in the welded joints. For determination of the minimum hardness, microhardness tests have been carried out to find hardness profiles. The minimum hardness value was observed for a thin layer around the nugget with large and coarse grains. The results show that by using the presented empirical equation, the failure can be predicted with a good agreement only by measuring nugget size.                   .

  • 172.
    Afzal, Nadeem
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Complexity and Power Reduction in Digital Delta-Sigma Modulators2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of state-of-the-art low power consuming digital delta-sigma modulator (ΔΣ) architectures for digital-to-analog converters (DAC) are presented in this thesis. In an oversampling ΔΣ DAC, the primary job of the modulator is to reduce the word length of the digital control signal to the DAC and spectrally shape the resulting quantization noise. Among the ΔΣ topologies, error-feedback modulators (EFM) are well suited for so called digital to digital modulation.

    In order to meet the demands, various modifications to the conventional EFM architectures have been proposed. It is observed that if the internal and external digital signals of the EFM are not properly scaled then not only the design itself but also the signal processing blocks placed after it, may be over designed. In order to avoid the possible wastage of resources, a number of scaling criteria are derived. In this regard, the total number of signal levels of the EFM output is expressed in terms of the input scale, the order of modulation and the type of the loop filter.

    Further on, it is described that the architectural properties of a unit element-based DAC allow us to move some of the digital processing of the EFM to the analog domain with no additional hardware cost. In order to exploit the architectural properties, digital circuitry of an arbitrary-ordered EFM is split into two parts: one producing the modulated output and another producing the filtered quantization noise. The part producing the modulated output is removed after representing the EFM output with a set of encoded signals. For both the conventional and the proposed EFM architectures, the DAC structure remains unchanged. Thus, savings are obtained since the bits to be converted are not accumulated in the digital domain but instead fed directly to the DAC.

    A strategy to reduce the hardware of conventional EFMs has been devised recently that uses multiple cascaded EFM units. We applied the similar approach but used several cascaded modified EFM units. The compatibility issues among the units (since the output of each proposed EFM is represented by the set of encoded signals) are resolved by a number of architectural modifications. The digital processing is distributed among each unit by splitting the primary input bus. It is shown that instead of cascading the EFM units, it is enough to cascade their loop filters only. This leads not only to area reduction but also to the reduction of power consumption and critical path.

    All of the designs are subjected to rigorous analysis and are described mathematically. The estimates of area and power consumption are obtained after synthesizing the designs in a 65 nm standard cell library provided by the foundry.

  • 173.
    Afzal, Nadeem
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wikner, J. Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On Scaling and Output Cardinality of Multi-Bit Digital Error-Feedback Modulators2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to determine a maximum allowed input scale for the stable operation of higher-order delta-sigma modulators, the designers largely depend on the analytical and numerical analysis. In this brief, the maximum allowed input scale to a multi-bit digital error-feedback  deltasigma modulator of arbitrary order is derived, mathematically. The digital modulator with an arbitrary output word length is stable if its output does not overflow. Thus, to avoid overflow of the modulator output, the relations between the peak values of the involved digital signals are devised. A number of example configurations are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the derivations.

  • 174.
    Afzal, Nadeem
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sadeghifar, Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wikner, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A study on power consumption of modified noise-shaper architectures for Sigma-Delta DACs2011In: Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD), 2011, IEEE , 2011, 274-277 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, modified, hybrid architectures for digital, oversampled sigma-delta digital-to-analog converters (ΣΔDACs) are explored in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and power consumption. Two different architectures are investigated, both have variable configurations of the input and output word-length (i.e., the physical resolution of the DAC). A modified architecture, termed in this work as a composite architecture (CA), shows about 9 dB increase in SNR while maintaining a power-consumption at the same level as that of a so-called hybrid architecture (HA). The power estimation is done for modulators on the RTL level using a standard cell library in a 65-nm technology. The modulators are operated at a sampling frequency of 2 GHz.

  • 175.
    Afzal, Nadeem
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wikner, J. Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Power efficient arrangement of oversampling sigma-delta DAC2012In: NORCHIP, 2012, IEEE , 2012, 1-4 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hardware efficient arrangement of digital-to-analog conversion blocks is presented by segmenting digital-to-analog converter (DAC). This segmenting of DAC is done by using buss-split design of digital sigma-delta modulator (DSDM). The reduction in the word length of input to both DSDM and DAC is analyzed with respect to performance because the input word length decides the complexity of these components. We show that effective performance can be achieved from the presented hardware efficient arrangement. All conclusions are drawn based on theory and simulations.

  • 176.
    Afzal, Nadeem
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wikner, J. Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Digital Multi-bit Cascaded Error-Feedback ΔΣ Modulators With Reduced Hardware and Power Consumption2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The hardware of the multi-bit digital error feedback modulator (EFM) of arbitrary order has recently been reduced by using multiple EFMs in cascade. In this paper, a modified cascading strategy is devised. Parts of the processing of consecutively placed EFM stages are merged such that a significant amount of circuitry is removed in each stage. In the proposed design, the modulated output is represented by a set of encoded signals to be used by the signal processing block placed after the EFM.

    To illustrate the savings, a number of configurations of fourth-order EFM designs, composed of two- and three-cascaded stages, have been synthesized in a 65 nm CMOS process technology using conventional and the proposed implementation techniques. Savings of 52.7% and 47%, in terms of area and power consumption, respectively, at an oversampling ratio of 4 could be obtain. The trade-off between sampling frequency and hardware cost is also presented. Due to reduced hardware an increase of up to 600 MHz in the sampling frequency is achieved.

  • 177.
    Afzal, Nadeem
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wikner, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Low-Complexity LMMSE Based Channel Estimation Algorithm for Multiple Standards in Mobile Terminals2010In: Proceedings of the Swedish System On Chip Conference, SSOCC 2010, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A less complex and generic channel estimation algorithm for long term evolution (LTE) and digital video broadcasting-handheld (DVB-H) downlink standards, is proposed. The technique, here referred to as minimum mean square error sliding window (MSW) technique, obtains less computational complexity than previous mean squared error (MSE) algorithms [3] at the cost of some 0.3 dB less SNR. The computational complexity is decreased by a factor 3 for the LTE 5-MHz downlink case and by 30 for the DVB-H standard case. Simulated results in terms of mean squared error and bit error rates are presented for a quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) systems with interleaving and coding of the data. All simulations are done at the behaviolar-level level.

  • 178.
    Afzal, Nadeem
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wikner, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Study of modified noise-shaper architectures for oversampled sigma-delta DACs2010In: NORCHIP, 2010, IEEE , 2010, 1-4 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, modified low-complex, hybrid architectures for digital, oversampled sigma-delta digital-to-analog converters (ΣΔDACs) are explored in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and subDAC complexity. The studied techniques illustrate the trade-off in terms of noise-shaper and DAC implementation complexity and loss in SNR. It is found that a fair amount of improvement in SNR is achieved by maintaining low-complexity of noise shaper. The complexity of the subDAC is yet a parameter, directly related to the number of output bits from the noise shaper. Two different architectures are investigated with respect to subDAC complexity and noise shaper complexity. It is shown that the required number of DAC unit elements (DUE) can be reduced to half.

  • 179.
    Afzal, Nadeem
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wikner, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reducing Complexity and Power of Digital Multibit Error-Feedback Delta Sigma Modulators2014In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems - II - Express Briefs, ISSN 1549-7747, Vol. 61, no 9, 641-645 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this brief, we propose how the hardware complexity of arbitrary-order digital multibit error-feedback delta-sigma modulators can be reduced. This is achieved by splitting the combinatorial circuitry of the modulators into two parts, i.e., one producing the modulator output and another producing the error signal fed back. The part producing modulator output is removed by utilizing a unit-element-based digital-to-analog converter. To illustrate the reduced complexity and power consumption, we compare the synthesized results with those of conventional structures. Fourth-order modulators implemented with the proposed technique use up to 26% less area compared with conventional implementations. Due to the area reduction, the designs consume up to 33% less dynamic power. Furthermore, it can operate at a frequency 100 MHz higher than that of the conventional.

  • 180. Aganovic, Dario
    et al.
    Pandikow, Asmus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Towards Enabling Innovation Processes for Dynamic Extended Manufacturing Enterprises2002In: Proceedings of the Digital Enterprise Technology Conference, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 181.
    Agekyan, V F
    et al.
    n/a.
    Holtz, P O
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karczewski, G
    n/a.
    Moskalenko, E S
    n/a.
    Yu, A
    n/a.
    Serov, x
    n/a.
    Filosofov, N G
    n/a.
    Exciton localization and sp-d energy transfer in CdMnTe/CdMgTe nanostructures with ultrathin narrow-gap magnetic layers2009In: 17th Int. Symp. “Nanostructures: Physics and Technology”, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 182.
    Agekyan, V F
    et al.
    St Petersburg State University.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karczewski, G
    Polish Acadamy of Science.
    Moskalenko, E S
    Russian Acadamy of Science.
    Yu Serov, A
    St Petersburg State University.
    Filosofov, N G
    St Petersburg State University.
    Effect of a magnetic field on energy transfer of band states to the Mn2+ 3d shell in the CdMgTe matrix with ultrathin CdMnTe layers2010In: PHYSICS OF THE SOLID STATE, ISSN 1063-7834, Vol. 52, no 1, 27-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of external magnetic fields on two radiative (band-to-band and on-site) recombination channels in II-VI dilute magnetic semiconductors and related nanostructures has been considered. The 3d on-site emission of manganese ions in CdMgTe matrices containing periodic inclusions of CdMnTe narrow-band-gap layers with thicknesses of 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 monolayers has been investigated in magnetic fields of up to 6 T. It has been shown that, in a magnetic field, luminescence of manganese ions weakens because of the decrease in the rate of spin-dependent excitation transfer from band states to the Mn2+ 3d shell. The maximum suppression of 3d luminescence has been observed in the matrix with a CdMnTe layer 3.0 monolayers thick. This indicates that the main factor responsible for the energy transfer is the internal field near the CdMnTe layers, which determines the magnetic splitting and spin polarization of band states.

  • 183.
    Agekyan, V F
    et al.
    St Petersburg State University.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karczewski, G
    Polish Academy of Science.
    N Katz, V
    St Petersburg State University.
    Moskalenko, E S
    Russian Academy of Science.
    Yu Serov, A
    St Petersburg State University.
    Filosofov, N G
    St Petersburg State University.
    Magnetoluminescence of CdTe/MnTe/CdMgTe heterostructures with ultrathin MnTe layers2011In: Semiconductors (Woodbury, N.Y.), ISSN 1063-7826, E-ISSN 1090-6479, Vol. 45, no 10, 1301-1305 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CdTe/MnTe/CdMgTe quantum-well structures with one or two monolayers of MnTe inserted at CdTe/CdMgTe interfaces were fabricated. The spectra of the excitonic luminescence from CdTe quantum wells and their variation with temperature indicate that introduction of ultrathin MnTe layers improves the interface quality. The effect of a magnetic field in the Faraday configuration on the spectral position of the exciton-emission peaks indicates that frustration of magnetic moments in one-monolayer MnTe insertions is weaker than in two-monolayer insertions. The effect of a magnetic field on the exciton localization can be explained in terms of the exciton wave-function shrinkage and obstruction of the photoexcited charge-carrier motion in the quantum well.

  • 184.
    Aghaee Ghaleshahi, Nima
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    He, Zhiyuan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru Ion
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Temperature-Aware SoC Test Scheduling Considering Inter-Chip Process Variation2010In: 19th IEEE Asian Test Symposium (ATS10), Shanghai, China, December 1-4, 2010., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems on Chip implemented with deep submicron technologies suffer from two undesirable effects, high power density, thus high temperature, and high process variation, which must be addressed in the test process. This paper presents two temperature-aware scheduling approaches to maximize the test throughput in the presence of inter-chip process variation. The first approach, an off-line technique, improves the test throughput by extending the traditional scheduling method. The second approach, a hybrid one, improves further the test throughput with a chip classification scheme at test time based on the reading of a temperature sensor. Experimental results have demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed methods.

  • 185.
    Aghaee Ghaleshahi, Nima
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Adaptive Temperature-Aware SoC Test Scheduling Considering Process Variation2011In: Digital System Design (DSD), 2011 14th Euromicro Conference on, IEEE, 2011, 197-204 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High temperature and process variation areundesirable effects for modern systems-on-chip. The hightemperature is a prominent issue during test and should be takencare of during the test process. Modern SoCs, affected by largeprocess variation, experience rapid and large temperaturedeviations and, therefore, a traditional static test schedule which isunaware of these deviations will be suboptimal in terms of speedand/or thermal-safety. This paper presents an adaptive testscheduling method which addresses the temperature deviationsand acts accordingly in order to improve the test speed andthermal-safety. The proposed method is divided into acomputationally intense offline-phase, and a very simple online-phase.In the offline-phase a schedule tree is constructed, and inthe online-phase the appropriate path in the schedule tree istraversed, step by step and based on temperature sensor readings.Experiments have demonstrated the efficiency of the proposedmethod.

  • 186.
    Aghaee Ghaleshahi, Nima
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Efficient Temperature-Gradient Based Burn-In Technique for 3D Stacked ICs2014In: Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition (DATE), 2014, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burn-in is usually carried out with high temperature and elevated voltage. Since some of the early-life failures depend not only on high temperature but also on temperature gradients, simply raising up the temperature of an IC is not sufficient to detect them. This is especially true for 3D stacked ICs, since they have usually very large temperature gradients. The efficient detection of these early-life failures requires that specific temperature gradients are enforced as a part of the burn-in process. This paper presents an efficient method to do so by applying high power stimuli to the cores of the IC under burn-in through the test access mechanism. Therefore, no external heating equipment is required. The scheduling of the heating and cooling intervals to achieve the required temperature gradients is based on thermal simulations and is guided by functions derived from a set of thermal equations. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  • 187.
    Aghaee Ghaleshahi, Nima
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Integrated Temperature-Cycling Acceleration and Test Technique for 3D Stacked ICs2015In: 20th Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC 2015), Chiba/Tokyo, Japan, Jan. 19-22, 2015., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, 526-531 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a modern 3D IC, electrical connections between vertically stacked dies are made using through silicon vias. Through silicon vias are subject to undesirable early-life effects such as protrusion as well as void formation and growth. These effects result in opens, resistive opens, and stress induced carrier mobility reduction, and consequently circuit failures. Operating the ICs under extreme temperature cycling can effectively accelerate such early-life failures and make them detectable at the manufacturing test process. An integrated temperature-cycling acceleration and test technique is introduced in this paper that integrates a temperature-cycling acceleration procedure with pre-, mid-, and post-bond tests for 3D ICs. Moreover, it reduces the need for costly temperature chamber based temperature-cycling acceleration procedures. All these result in a reduction in the overall test costs. The proposed method is a schedule-based solution that creates the required temperature cycling effect along with performing the tests. Experimental results demonstrate its efficiency.

  • 188.
    Aghaee Ghaleshahi, Nima
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Heuristics for Adaptive Temperature-Aware SoC Test Scheduling Considering Process Variation2011In: The 11th Swedish System-on-Chip Conference, Varberg, Sweden, May 2-3, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High working temperature and process variation are undesirable effects for modern systems-on-chip. The high temperature should be taken care of during the test. On the other hand, large process variations induce rapid and large temperature deviations causing the traditional static test schedules to be suboptimal in terms of speed and/or thermal-safety. A remedy to this problem is an adaptive test schedule which addresses the temperature deviations by reacting to them. Our adaptive method is divided into a computationally intense offline-phase, and a very simple online-phase. In this paper, heuristics are proposed for the offline phase in which the optimized schedule tree is found. In the online-phase, based on the temperature sensor readings the appropriate path in the schedule tree is traversed. Experiments are made to tune the proposed heuristics and to demonstrate their efficiency.

  • 189.
    Aghaee Ghaleshahi, Nima
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Process-variation and Temperature Aware SoC Test Scheduling Technique2013In: Journal of electronic testing, ISSN 0923-8174, E-ISSN 1573-0727, Vol. 29, no 4, 499-520 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High temperature and process variation are undesirable phenomena affecting modern Systems-on-Chip (SoC). High temperature is a well-known issue, in particular during test, and should be taken care of in the test process. Modern SoCs are affected by large process variation and therefore experience large and time-variant temperature deviations. A traditional test schedule which ignores these deviations will be suboptimal in terms of speed or thermal-safety. This paper presents an adaptive test scheduling method which acts in response to the temperature deviations in order to improve the test speed and thermal safety. The method consists of an offline phase and an online phase. In the offline phase a schedule tree is constructed and in the online phase the appropriate path in the schedule tree is traversed based on temperature sensor readings. The proposed technique is designed to keep the online phase very simple by shifting the complexity into the offline phase. In order to efficiently produce high-quality schedules, an optimization heuristic which utilizes a dedicated thermal simulation is developed. Experiments are performed on a number of SoCs including the ITC'02 benchmarks and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique significantly improves the cost of the test in comparison with the best existing test scheduling method.

  • 190.
    Aghaee Ghaleshahi, Nima
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Process-Variation and Temperature Aware SoC Test Scheduling Using Particle Swarm Optimization2011In: The 6th IEEE International Design and Test Workshop (IDT'11), Beirut, Lebanon, December 11–14, 2011., IEEE , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High working temperature and process variation are undesirable effects for modern systems-on-chip. It is well recognized that the high temperature should be taken care of during the test process. Since large process variations induce rapid and large temperature deviations, traditional static test schedules are suboptimal in terms of speed and/or thermalsafety. A solution to this problem is to use an adaptive test schedule which addresses the temperature deviations by reacting to them. We propose an adaptive method that consists of a computationally intense offline-phase and a very simple onlinephase. In the offline-phase, a near optimal schedule tree is constructed and in the online-phase, based on the temperature sensor readings, an appropriate path in the schedule tree is traversed. In this paper, particle swarm optimization is introduced into the offline-phase and the implications are studied. Experimental results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method.

  • 191.
    Aghaee Ghaleshahi, Nima
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Process-Variation Aware Multi-temperature Test Scheduling2014In: 27th International Conference on VLSI Design and 13th International Conference on Embedded Systems, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, 32-37 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chips manufactured with deep sub micron technologies are prone to large process variation and temperature-dependent defects. In order to provide high test efficiency, the tests for temperature-dependent defects should be applied at appropriate temperature ranges. Existing static scheduling techniques achieve these specified temperatures by scheduling the tests, specially developed heating sequences, and cooling intervals together. Because of the temperature uncertainty induced by process variation, a static test schedule is not capable of applying the tests at intended temperatures in an efficient manner. As a result the test cost will be very high. In this paper, an adaptive test scheduling method is introduced that utilizes on-chip temperature sensors in order to adapt the test schedule to the actual temperatures. The proposed method generates a low cost schedule tree based on the variation statistics and thermal simulations in the design phase. During the test, a chip selects an appropriate schedule dynamically based on temperature sensor readings. A 23% decrease in the likelihood that tests are not applied at the intended temperatures is observed in the experimental studies in addition to 20% reduction in test application time.

  • 192.
    Aghaee Ghaleshahi, Nima
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Temperature-Gradient Based Burn-In for 3D Stacked ICs2013In: The 12th Swedish System-on-Chip Conference (SSoCC 2013), Ystad, Sweden, May 6-7, 2013 (not reviewed, not printed)., 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    3D Stacked IC fabrication, using Through-Silicon-Vias, is a promising technology for future integrated circuits. However, large temperature gradients may exacerbate early-life-failures to the extent that the commercialization of 3D Stacked ICs is challenged. The effective detection of these early-life-failures requires that burn-in is performed when the IC’s temperatures comply with the thermal maps that properly specify the temperature gradients. In this paper, two methods that efficiently generate and maintain the specified thermal maps are proposed. The thermal maps are achieved by applying heating and cooling intervals to the chips under test through test access mechanisms. Therefore, no external heating system is required. The scheduling of the heating and cooling intervals is based on thermal simulations. The schedule generation is guided by functions that are derived from the temperature equations. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  • 193.
    Aghaee Ghaleshahi, Nima
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Temperature-Gradient Based Test Scheduling for 3D Stacked ICs2013In: 2013 IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits, and Systems, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, 405-408 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Defects that are dependent on temperature-gradients (e.g., delay-faults) introduce a challenge for achieving an effective test process, in particular for 3D ICs. Testing for such defects must be performed when the proper temperature gradients are enforced on the IC, otherwise these defects may escape the test. In this paper, a technique that efficiently heats up the IC during test so that it complies with the specified temperature gradients is proposed. The specified temperature gradients are achieved by applying heating sequences to the cores of the IC under test trough test access mechanism; thus no external heating mechanism is required. The scheduling of the test and heating sequences is based on thermal simulations. The schedule generation is guided by functions derived from the IC's temperature equation. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique offers considerable test time savings.

  • 194.
    Aghapournahr, M
    et al.
    Arak University.
    Melkersson, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Finiteness properties of minimax and coatomic local cohomology modules2010In: ARCHIV DER MATHEMATIK, ISSN 0003-889X, Vol. 94, no 6, 519-528 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Let R be a noetherian ring, alpha an ideal of R, and M an R-module. We prove that for a finite module M, if H-alpha(i)(M) is minimax for all i andgt;= r andgt;= 1, then H-alpha(i)(M) is artinian for i andgt;= r. A local-global principle for minimax local cohomology modules is shown. If H-alpha(i)(M) is coatomic for i andlt;= r (M finite) then H-alpha(i)(M) is finite for i andlt;= r. We give conditions for a module which is locally minimax to be a minimax module. A non-vanishing theorem and some vanishing theorems are proved for local cohomology modules.

  • 195.
    Aghapournahr, Moharram
    et al.
    Arak University.
    Melkersson, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A natural map in local cohomology2010In: ARKIV FOR MATEMATIK, ISSN 0004-2080, Vol. 48, no 2, 243-251 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Let R be a Noetherian ring, a an ideal of R, M an R-module and n a non-negative integer. In this paper we first study the finiteness properties of the kernel and the cokernel of the natural map f: Ext(R)(n) (R/alpha, M) -andgt; Hom(R)(R/alpha, H-alpha(n) (M)), under some conditions on the previous local cohomology modules. Then we get some corollaries about the associated primes and Artinianness of local cohomology modules. Finally we will study the asymptotic behavior of the kernel and the cokernel of the natural map in the graded case.

  • 196.
    Aghapournahr, Moharram
    et al.
    Arak University, Iran .
    Melkersson, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Artinianness of local cohomology modules2014In: Arkiv för matematik, ISSN 0004-2080, E-ISSN 1871-2487, Vol. 52, no 1, 1-10 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some uniform theorems on the artinianness of certain local cohomology modules are proven in a general situation. They generalize and imply previous results about the artinianness of some special local cohomology modules in the graded case.

  • 197.
    Aghapournahr, Moharram
    et al.
    Arak Univ, Arak, Iran.
    Melkersson, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    COFINITENESS AND COASSOCIATED PRIMES OF LOCAL COHOMOLOGY MODULES2009In: Mathematica Scandinavica, ISSN 0025-5521, Vol. 105, no 2, 161-170 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Let R be a noetherian ring, alpha an ideal of R such that dim R/alpha = 1 and M a finite R-module. We will study cofiniteness and some other properties of the local cohomology modules H-alpha(i)(M). For an arbitrary ideal alpha and an R-module M (not necessarily finite), we will characterize alpha-cofinite artinian local cohomology modules. Certain sets of coassociated primes of top local cohomology modules over local rings are characterized.

  • 198.
    Aghapournahr, Moharram
    et al.
    Teacher Training Univ, Fac Math Sci, Tehran 15614, Iran.
    Melkersson, Leif
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics.
    Local cohomology and Serre subcategories2008In: Journal of Algebra, ISSN 0021-8693, Vol. 320, no 3, 1275-1287 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The membership of the local cohomology modules H-a(n) (M) of a module M in certain Serre subcategories of the category of modules is studied from below (i < n) and from above (i > n). Generalizations of depth and regular sequences are defined. The relation of these notions to local cohomology are found. It is shown that the membership of the local cohomology modules of a finite module in a Serre subcategory in the upper range just depends on the support of the module. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 199.
    Aghel Dawood, Menhel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Obradovic, Dragan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Guidelines for control equipment2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete är utfört på ABB LV System som är en del av företaget ABB i Sverige. Detta är ett företag som bygger kontrollutrustning till kunder som befinner sig i många delar av världen. Vår uppgift var att sätta samman en pärm med riktlinjer för montörerna.

    Pärmen ska vara lättläst och samtidigt innehålla alla standarder samt viktig fakta som kan behövas vid byggandet av kontrollutrustning.

    Riktlinjerna som framställts ledde till att montörerna blev bättre uppdaterade om de senaste riktlinjerna och standarder som leder idag. Tack vara att montörerna nu har allt samlat i en lättläslig pärm blir ledtiderna kortare.

  • 200.
    Aghighi, Meysam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Oversubscription planning: Complexity and compilability2014In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, AI Access Foundation , 2014, Vol. 3, 2221-2227 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many real-world planning problems are oversubscription problems where all goals are not simultaneously achievable and the planner needs to find a feasible subset. We present complexity results for the so-called partial satisfaction and net benefit problems under various restrictions; this extends previous work by van den Briel et al. Our results reveal strong connections between these problems and with classical planning. We also present a method for efficiently compiling oversubscription problems into the ordinary plan existence problem; this can be viewed as a continuation of earlier work by Keyder and Geffner.

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