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  • 1.
    Aminifar, Amir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Embedded Control Systems2016Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, many embedded or cyber-physical systems, e.g., in the automotive domain, comprise several control applications, sharing the same platform. It is well known that such resource sharing leads to complex temporal behaviors that degrades the quality of control, and more importantly, may even jeopardize stability in the worst case, if not properly taken into account.

    In this thesis, we consider embedded control or cyber-physical systems, where several control applications share the same processing unit. The focus is on the control-scheduling co-design problem, where the controller and scheduling parameters are jointly optimized. The fundamental difference between control applications and traditional embedded applications motivates the need for novel methodologies for the design and optimization of embedded control systems. This thesis is one more step towards correct design and optimization of embedded control systems.

    Offline and online methodologies for embedded control systems are covered in this thesis. The importance of considering both the expected control performance and stability is discussed and a control-scheduling co-design methodology is proposed to optimize control performance while guaranteeing stability. Orthogonal to this, bandwidth-efficient stabilizing control servers are proposed, which support compositionality, isolation, and resource-efficiency in design and co-design. Finally, we extend the scope of the proposed approach to non-periodic control schemes and address the challenges in sharing the platform with self-triggered controllers. In addition to offline methodologies, a novel online scheduling policy to stabilize control applications is proposed.

  • 2.
    Aminifar, Amir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Self-Triggered Controllers, Resource Sharing, and Hard Guarantees2016Inngår i: 2016 2ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EVENT-BASED CONTROL, COMMUNICATION, AND SIGNAL PROCESSING (EBCCSP), IEEE , 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, many control applications in embedded and cyber-physical systems are implemented on shared platforms, alongside other hard real-time or safety-critical applications. Having the resource shared among several applications, to provide hard guarantees, it is required to identify the amount of resource needed for each application. This is rather straightforward when the platform is shared among periodic control and periodic real-time applications. In the case of event-triggered and self-triggered controllers, however, the execution patterns and, in turn, the resource usage are not clear. Therefore, a major implementation challenge, when the platform is shared with self-triggered controllers, is to provide hard and efficient stability and schedulability guarantees for other applications. In this paper, we identify certain execution patterns for self-triggered controllers, using which we are able to provide hard and efficient stability guarantees for periodic control applications.

  • 3.
    Aminifar, Amir
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bini, Enrico
    Scuola Super Sant Anna, Italy.
    Eles, Petru lon
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Analysis and Design of Real-Time Servers for Control Applications2016Inngår i: I.E.E.E. transactions on computers (Print), ISSN 0018-9340, E-ISSN 1557-9956, Vol. 65, nr 3, 834-846 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, a considerable portion of embedded systems, e.g., automotive and avionic, comprise several control applications. Guaranteeing the stability of these control applications in embedded systems, or cyber-physical systems, is perhaps the most fundamental requirement while implementing such applications. This is different from the classical hard real-time systems where often the acceptance criterion is meeting the deadline. In other words, in the case of control applications, guaranteeing stability is considered to be a main design goal, which is linked to the amount of delay and jitter a control application can tolerate before instability. This advocates the need for new design and analysis techniques for embedded real-time systems running control applications. In this paper, the analysis and design of such systems considering a server-based resource reservation mechanism are addressed. The benefits of employing servers are manifold: providing a compositional and scalable framework, protection against other tasks misbehaviors, and systematic bandwidth assignment and co-design. We propose a methodology for designing bandwidth-optimal servers to stabilize control tasks. The pessimism involved in the proposed methodology is both discussed theoretically and evaluated experimentally.

  • 4.
    Aminifar, Amir
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bini, Enrico
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bandwidth-Efficient Controller-Server Co-Design with Stability Guarantees2014Inngår i: Design, Automation & Test in Europe, DATE 2014, IEEE Computer Society, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many cyber-physical systems comprise several control applications implemented on a shared platform, for which stability is a fundamental requirement. This is as opposed to the classical hard real-time systems where often the criterion is meeting the deadline. However, the stability of control applications depends on not only the delay experienced, but also the jitter. Therefore, the notion of deadline is considered to be artificial for control applications that promotes the need for new techniques for designing cyber-physical systems. The approach in this paper is built on a server-based resource reservation mechanism, which provides compositionality, isolation, and the opportunity of systematic controller--server co-design. We address the controller--server co-design of such systems to obtain design solutions with the minimal bandwidth to guarantee stability.

  • 5.
    Aminifar, Amir
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bini, Enrico
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Designing Bandwidth-Efficient Stabilizing Control Servers2013Inngår i: IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, RTSS 2013, IEEE , 2013, 298-307 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Guaranteeing stability of control applications in embedded systems, or cyber-physical systems, is perhaps the alpha and omega of implementing such applications. However, as opposed to the classical real-time systems where often the acceptance criterion is meeting the deadline, control applications do not primarily enforce hard deadlines. In the case of control applications, stability is considered to be the main design criterion and can be expressed in terms of the amount of delay and jitter a control application can tolerate before instability. Therefore, new design and analysis techniques are required for embedded control systems. In this paper, the analysis and design of such systems considering server-based resource reservation mechanism are addressed. The benefits of employing servers are manifold: (1) providing a compositional framework, (2) protection against other tasks misbehaviors, and (3) systematic bandwidth assignment. We propose a methodology for designing bandwidth-efficient servers to stabilize control tasks.

  • 6.
    Aminifar, Amir
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jfair: A Scheduling Algorithm to Stabilize Control Applications2015Inngår i: 21st IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, Cyber-Physical Systems Week, Seattle, WA, April 2015, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, 63-72 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Control applications are considered to be among the core applications in cyber-physical and embedded realtime systems, for which jitter is typically an important factor. This paper investigates whether it is possible to guarantee certain amount of jitter for a given set of applications on a shared platform. The effect of jitter on the stability of control applications and its relation with the latency will be discussed. The importance arises from the fact that it is considerably easier to manage the constant part of the delay (known as latency), while the process of coping with the varying part of the delay (known as jitter) is more involved. The proposed solution guarantees certain jitter limits, and at the same time does not lead to overly pessimistic latency values. The results are later used in a design optimization problem to minimize the resource utilized.

  • 7.
    Aminifar, Amir
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cervin, Anton
    Dept. of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden.
    Control-Quality Driven Design of Cyber-Physical Systems with Robustness Guarantees2013Inngår i: Design, Automation & Test in Europe (DATE 2013), IEEE , 2013, 1093-1098 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many cyber-physical systems comprise several control applications sharing communication and computation resources. The design of such systems requires special attention due to the complex timing behavior that can lead to poor control quality or even instability. The two main requirements of control applications are: (1) robustness and, in particular, stability and (2) high control quality. Although it is essential to guarantee stability and provide a certain degree of robustness even in the worst-case scenario, a design procedure which merely takes the worst-case scenario into consideration can lead to a poor expected (average-case) control quality, since the design is solely tuned to a scenario that occurs very rarely. On the other hand, considering only the expected quality of control does not necessarily provide robustness and stability in the worst-case. Therefore, both the robustness and the expected control quality should be taken into account in the design process. This paper presents an efficient and integrated approach for designing high-quality cyber-physical systems with robustness guarantees.

  • 8.
    Aminifar, Amir
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cervin, Anton
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Stability-Aware Analysis and Design of Embedded Control Systems2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT), 2013, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, 1-10 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many embedded systems comprise several controllers sharing available resources. It is well known that such resource sharing leads to complex timing behavior that can jeopardize stability of control applications, if it is not properly taken into account in the design process, e.g., mapping and scheduling. As opposed to hard real-time systems where meeting the deadline is a critical requirement, control applications do not enforce hard deadlines. Therefore, the traditional real-time analysis approaches are not readily applicable to control applications. Rather, in the context of control applications, stability is often the main requirement to be guaranteed, and can be expressed as the amount of delay and jitter a control application can tolerate. The nominal delay and response-time jitter can be regarded as the two main factors which relate the real-time aspects of a system to control performance and stability. Therefore, it is important to analyze the impact of variations in scheduling parameters, i.e., period and priority, on the nominal delay and response-time jitter and, ultimately, on stability. Based on such an analysis, we address, in this paper, priority assignment and sensitivity analysis problems for control applications considering stability as the main requirement.

  • 9.
    Aminifar, Amir
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Samii, Soheil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Control-Quality Driven Task Mapping for Distributed Embedded Control Systems2011Inngår i: Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA), 2011 IEEE 17th International Conference on, IEEE, 2011, 133-142 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many embedded control systems are implemented on execution platforms with several computation nodes and communication components. Distributed embedded control systems typically comprise multiple control loops that share the available computation and communication resources of the platform. It is well known that such resource sharing leads to complex delay characteristics that degrade the control quality if not properly taken into account at design time. Scheduling in computation nodes and communication infrastructure, as well as execution periods of the controllers impact the delay characteristics and, consequently, the control quality. In addition, mapping of tasks on computation nodes affect both scheduling of tasks and messages, and the assignment of periods of the control applications. Therefore, control synthesis must be considered during mapping, scheduling, and period assignment in order to achieve high control quality. This paper presents a control-quality optimization approach for integrated mapping, scheduling, period selection, and control synthesis for distributed embedded control systems.

  • 10.
    Aminifar, Amir
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Samii, Soheil
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cervin, Anton
    Dept. of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden.
    Designing High-Quality Embedded Control Systems with Guaranteed Stability2012Inngår i: 33rd IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2012, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many embedded systems comprise several controllers sharing available resources. It is well known that such resource sharing leads to complex timing behavior that degrades the quality of control, and more importantly, can jeopardize stability in the worst-case, if not properly taken into account during design. Although stability of the control applications is absolutely essential, a design flow driven by the worst-case scenario often leads to poor control quality due to the significant amount of pessimism involved and the fact that the worst-case scenario occurs very rarely. On the other hand, designing the system merely based on control quality, determined by the expected (average-case) behavior, does not guarantee the stability of control applications in the worst-case. Therefore, both control quality and worst-case stability have to be considered during the design process, i.e., period assignment, task scheduling, and control-synthesis. In this paper, we present an integrated approach for designing high-quality embedded control systems, while guaranteeing their stability.

  • 11.
    Aminifar, Amir
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tabuada, Paulo
    University of California at Los Angeles, USA.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Self-Triggered Controllers and Hard Real-Time Guarantees2016Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 DESIGN, AUTOMATION & TEST IN EUROPE CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION (DATE), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, 636-641 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that event-triggered and self-triggered controllers implemented on dedicated platforms can provide the same performance as the traditional periodic controllers, while consuming considerably less bandwidth. However, since the majority of controllers are implemented by software tasks on shared platforms, on one hand, it might no longer be possible to grant access to the event-triggered controller upon request. On the other hand, due to the seemingly irregular requests from self-triggered controllers, other applications, while in reality schedulable, may be declared unschedulable, if not carefully analyzed. The schedulability and response-time analysis in the presence of self-triggered controllers is still an open problem and the topic of this paper.

  • 12.
    Bordoloi, Unmesh D.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Aminifar, Amir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, ESLAB - Laboratoriet för inbyggda system. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Schedulability Analysis of Ethernet AVB Switches2014Inngår i: 20th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA 2014), Chongqing, China, Aug. 20-22, 2014., IEEE Computer Society, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethernet AVB is being actively considered by the automotive industry as a candidate for in-vehicle communication backbone. However, several questions pertaining to schedulability of hard real-time messages transmitted via such a switch remain unanswered. In this paper, we attempt to fill this void. We derive equations to perform worst-case response time analysis on Ethernet AVB switches by considering its credit-based shaping algorithm. Also, we propose several approaches to reduce the pessimism in the analysis to provide tighter bounds.

  • 13.
    Mahfouzi, Rouhollah
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Aminifar, Amir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland.
    Eles, Petru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Peng, Zebo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Programvara och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Villani, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Statistik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Intrusion-Damage Assessment and Mitigation in Cyber-Physical Systems for Control Applications2016Inngår i: RTNS '16 Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems, New York: ACM Press, 2016, 141-150 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With cyber-physical systems opening to the outside world, security can no longer be considered a secondary issue. One of the key aspects in security of cyber-phyiscal systems is to deal with intrusions. In this paper, we highlight the several unique properties of control applications in cyber-physical systems. Using these unique properties, we propose a systematic intrusion-damage assessment and mitigation mechanism for the class of observable and controllable attacks.

    On the one hand, in cyber-physical systems, the plants follow certain laws of physics and this can be utilized to address the intrusion-damage assessment problem. That is, the states of the controlled plant should follow those expected according to the physics of the system and any major discrepancy is potentially an indication of intrusion. Here, we use a machine learning algorithm to capture the normal behavior of the system according to its dynamics. On the other hand, the control performance strongly depends on the amount of allocated resources and this can be used to address the intrusion-damage mitigation problem. That is, the intrusion-damage mitigation is based on the idea of allocating more resources to the control application under attack. This is done using a feedback-based approach including a convex optimization.

1 - 13 of 13
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