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  • 1.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    et al.
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm. KTH.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH.
    Holzapfel, Andre
    KTH.
    Pauletto, Sandra
    KTH.
    Gulz, Torbjörn
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Jazz. KTH.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music and Media Production. KTH.
    Misgeld, Olof
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Folk Music. KTH.
    Mattias, Sköld
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Folk Music. Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Composition and Conducting. KTH.
    Student involvement in sound and music computing research: Current practices at KTH and KMH2019In: Combined proceedings of the Nordic Sound and Music Computing Conference 2019 and the Interactive Sonification Workshop 2019, 2019, p. 36-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To engage students in and beyond course activities has been a working practice both at KTH Sound and Music Computing group and at KMH Royal College of Music since many years. This paper collects experiences of involving students in research conducted within the two institutions.  We describe how students attending our courses are given the possibility to be involved in our research activities, and we argue that their involvement both contributes to develop new research and benefits the students in the short and long term.  Among the assignments, activities, and tasks we offer in our education programs are pilot experiments, prototype development, public exhibitions, performing, composing, data collection, analysis challenges, and bachelor and master thesis projects that lead to academic publications.

  • 2.
    Hansen, Kjetil Falkenberg
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Holzapfel, Andre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Pauletto, Sandra
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Gulz, Torbjörn
    KMH Royal College of Music in Stockholm.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    KMH Royal College of Music in Stockholm.
    Misgeld, Olof
    KMH Royal College of Music in Stockholm.
    Mattias, Sköld
    KMH Royal College of Music in Stockholm.
    Student involvement in sound and music computing research: Current practices at KTH and KMH2019In: Combined proceedings of the Nordic Sound and Music Computing Conference 2019 and the Interactive Sonification Workshop 2019, Stockholm, 2019, p. 36-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To engage students in and beyond course activities has been a working practice both at KTH Sound and Music Computing group and at KMH Royal College of Music since many years. This paper collects experiences of involving students in research conducted within the two institutions. 

    We describe how students attending our courses are given the possibility to be involved in our research activities, and we argue that their involvement both contributes to develop new research and benefits the students in the short and long term.  Among the assignments, activities, and tasks we offer in our education programs are pilot experiments, prototype development, public exhibitions, performing, composing, data collection, analysis challenges, and bachelor and master thesis projects that lead to academic publications.

  • 3.
    Mattias, Sköld
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori.
    Computer-aided Composition Using a Sound-Based NotationIn: Computer music journal, ISSN 0148-9267, E-ISSN 1531-5169Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the music data format of the recently introduced Sound Notation system, and how it makes possible computer-aided composition of scores represent- ing sound-based music. The Sound Notation system is an adaptation of Lasse Thoresen’s spectromorphological analysis notation, developed for composition and analysis. A detailed description of the data format is followed by two examples of its application in a computer-aided composi- tion process resulting in the sounding interpretation of two score excerpts of an electroacoustic composition. Generat- ing sound structures as symbolic notation data in this way provided possibilities for the creation of sound-based mu- sic otherwise limited to works of traditional notation.

  • 4.
    Mattias, Sköld
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori.
    Notation as visual representation of sound-based music2022In: Journal of New Music Research, ISSN 0929-8215, E-ISSN 1744-5027, Vol. 51, no 2-3, p. 186-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This text describes the musical evaluation of a hybrid music notation system that combines traditional notation with symbols and concepts from spectromorphological analysis. During three academic years from 2017 to 2020, three groups of composition students learned to work with sound notation, recreating and interpreting short electroacoustic music sketches based solely on their notation transcriptions – they had not heard the original sketches. The students’ score interpretations bore obvious similarities to the original music sketches and their written reflections showed that there were no major difficulties in understanding the notation although some difficulties existed concerning finding suitable sounds, especially sounds with stable pitch.

  • 5.
    Mattias, Sköld
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori.
    Sound Notation: The visual representation of sound for composition and analysis2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This compilation thesis details steps taken to develop and evaluate a new Sound Notation system for composition, analysis, and transcription with the capacity to describe all types of sound. Ideas from electroacoustic music analysis are combined with traditional notation to form a hybrid system. In this notation, all symbols are related to physical qualities in the sound, so that a person or a computer can identify the symbols from their sonification or musical interpretation.

    Pierre Schaeffer early identified musique concrète's lack of music theory and music vocabulary as a major problem for its integration with music theory and musicology. Schaeffer, Denis Smalley, and later Lasse Thoresen would go a long way to provide the genre of electroacoustic music with classification, terminology, and graphical symbols for the benefit of its study. But if we are to think of music as a language, it becomes apparent that the lack of a shared inter-subjective notation system is a problem. Such a notation system would provide sound-based music with possibilities that were previously only afforded music based on pitch structures. This includes transcriptions and re-interpretations of musical works, notation-based ear-training and (computer-aided) composition.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Mattias Sköld - Sound Notation
  • 6.
    Mattias, Sköld
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori.
    The notation of sound for composition and transcription: An adaptation of Lasse Thoresen's spectromorphological analysis2020In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation -- TENOR'20 / [ed] Rama Gottfried, Georg Hajdu, Jacob Sello, Alessandro Anatrini, John MacCallum, Hamburg, 2020, p. 106-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper details my adaptation of Lasse Thoresen’s spectromorphological analysis notation for the sake of composition and transcription, re-imagining the analysis symbols for use over a spectrum staff system over which pitch and spectra can be indicated with great detail, and possibly interpreted by musicians and computers for performance. A sound object is notated with regard to its spectral width, density, centroid frequency, significant sound components, modulation and amplitude envelope. It can also have a spectrum reference. The symbols are placed over a spectrum grand-staff with a frequency scale to show each parameter both from a frequency and pitch perspective. Also included are suggestions for the visual representation of spatialisation where positions and movements are displayed in two or three dimensions above the sound notation while constant rotations are notated as modulations. 

  • 7.
    Mattias, Sköld
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori.
    The visual representation of spatialisation for composition and analysis2019In: Combined proceedings of the Nordic Sound and Music Computing Conference 2019 and the Interactive Sonification Workshop 2019 / [ed] Andre Holzapfel and Sandra Pauletto, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2019, p. 70-77Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The motivation for this text is my ongoing research into creating a uniform and comprehensive notation system for music regardless of sound sources, acoustic or electronic. I propose a way to visually represent the positions and movements of sound in composition and analysis of music which in different ways utilises space as a parameter. I address a number of aspects of spatialised music to take into account when defining a notation language for the music. I suggest visually representing the room in different ways depending on how the music relates to the concept of space: as projections from the center of a sphere for more structural work, or as coordinates in a cubic room for works that depict a physical or imagined space. I also show how these descriptions of space are integrated with my existing notation system.

  • 8.
    Mattias, Sköld
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för komposition, dirigering och musikteori.
    The Visual Representation of Timbre2022In: Organised Sound, ISSN 1355-7718, E-ISSN 1469-8153, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 387-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This text deals with the difficult task of notating timbre by addressing how it can be classified, synthesised, recognised and related to visual correspondences, and then looking at the relevance of these topics for notational purposes. Timbre is understood as dependent on both spectral and time-dependent features that can be notated in ways that make sense in relation to both perception and acoustics. This is achieved by taking the starting point in Lasse Thoresen’s spectromorphological analysis. Symbols originally developed for perception-based analysis are adapted for use over a hybrid spectrum-staff system to indicate the spectral qualities of timbre. To test the system, it was used to transcribe excerpts of three classic electroacoustic music works. In addition to the benefit of being able to compare the three excerpts transcribed with the same system, there is the advantage that the visual representation is based on spectral measurable qualities in the music. The notation system’s intuitiveness was also explored in listening tests, showing that it was possible to understand spectral notation symbols placed over a staff system, particularly for examples with two sound objects instead of one.

  • 9.
    Panariello, Claudio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Mattias, Sköld
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KMH Royal College of Music.
    Frid, Emma
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    From vocal sketching to sound models by means of a sound-based musical transcription system2019In: Proceedings of the Sound and Music Computing Conferences, CERN , 2019, p. 167-173Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how notation developed for the representation of sound-based musical structures could be used for the transcription of vocal sketches representing expressive robot movements. A mime actor initially produced expressive movements which were translated to a humanoid robot. The same actor was then asked to illustrate these movements using vocal sketching. The vocal sketches were transcribed by two composers using sound-based notation. The same composers later synthesized new sonic sketches from the annotated data. Different transcriptions and synthesized versions of these were compared in order to investigate how the audible outcome changes for different transcriptions and synthesis routines. This method provides a palette of sound models suitable for the sonification of expressive body movements.

  • 10.
    Sköld, Mattias
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Composition and Conducting. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Combining Sound- and Pitch-Based Notation for Teaching and Composition2018In: Proceedings Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation: TENOR'18 / [ed] Bhagwati, Sandeep & Bresson, Jean, Montreal, Canada, 2018, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    My research is concerned with finding a common notation for pitch-based, sound-based and spatialized music in an attempt to bridge the gap between acoustic and electronic music, also working towards the possibility of a holistic system for algorithmic composition based on music representation. This paper describes the first step towards this goal, focusing on the combination of pitch-based and sound-based musical structures, introducing a graphical notation system that combines traditional music notation with electroacoustic music analysis notation. I present how this was tested in practice in a case study within the framework of composition education at the Royal College of Music in Stockholm, where composition students were working with, and reacting to, the system.

  • 11.
    Sköld, Mattias
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Composition and Conducting. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Computer-aided Composition Using a Sound-Based NotationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the music data format of the recently introduced Sound Notation system, and how it makes possible computer-aided composition of scores represent- ing sound-based music. The Sound Notation system is an adaptation of Lasse Thoresen’s spectromorphological analysis notation, developed for composition and analysis. A detailed description of the data format is followed by two examples of its application in a computer-aided composi- tion process resulting in the sounding interpretation of two score excerpts of an electroacoustic composition. Generat- ing sound structures as symbolic notation data in this way provided possibilities for the creation of sound-based mu- sic otherwise limited to works of traditional notation.

  • 12.
    Sköld, Mattias
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Composition and Conducting. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Notation as visual representation of sound-based music2023In: Journal of New Music Research, ISSN 0929-8215, E-ISSN 1744-5027, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This text describes the musical evaluation of a hybrid music notation system that combines traditional notation with symbols and concepts from spectromorphological analysis. During three academic years from 2017 to 2020, three groups of composition students learned to work with sound notation, recreating and interpreting short electroacoustic music sketches based solely on their notation transcriptions – they had not heard the original sketches. The students’ score interpretations bore obvious similarities to the original music sketches and their written reflections showed that there were no major difficulties in understanding the notation although some difficulties existed concerning finding suitable sounds, especially sounds with stable pitch.

  • 13.
    Sköld, Mattias
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Composition and Conducting. Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    The Harmony of Noise: Constructing a Unified System for Representation of Pitch, Noise and Spatialization2017In: Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Computer Music Multidisciplinary Research / [ed] Richard Kronland-Martinet, Sølvi Ystad, Mitsuko Aramaki, Marseille: Les éditions de PRISM , 2017, p. 550-555Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a composer of both electroacoustic and acosutic works, I have been puzzled by the lasting discrepancy between the theoretical frameworks surrounding instrumental and electroacoustic music theory, particularly with regard to algorithmic composition. This text outlines the basic ideas for my doctoral studies, focusing on the digital representation of sound for composition, analysis and performance, both as data and graphic notation with the aim of bringing the worlds of acoustic and electronic music closer together.

  • 14.
    Sköld, Mattias
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Composition and Conducting. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    The notation of sound for composition and transcription: An adaptation of Lasse Thoresen's spectromorphological analysis2020In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Technologies for Music Notation and Representation -- TENOR'20 / [ed] Rama Gottfried, Georg Hajdu, Jacob Sello, Alessandro Anatrini, John MacCallum, Hamburg, 2020, p. 106-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper details my adaptation of Lasse Thoresen’s spectromorphological analysis notation for the sake of composition and transcription, re-imagining the analysis symbols for use over a spectrum staff system over which pitch and spectra can be indicated with great detail, and possibly interpreted by musicians and computers for performance. A sound object is notated with regard to its spectral width, density, centroid frequency, significant sound components, modulation and amplitude envelope. It can also have a spectrum reference. The symbols are placed over a spectrum grand-staff with a frequency scale to show each parameter both from a frequency and pitch perspective. Also included are suggestions for the visual representation of spatialisation where positions and movements are displayed in two or three dimensions above the sound notation while constant rotations are notated as modulations. 

  • 15.
    Sköld, Mattias
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Composition and Conducting. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    The visual representation of spatialisation for composition and analysis2019In: Combined proceedings of the Nordic Sound and Music Computing Conference 2019 and the Interactive Sonification Workshop 2019 / [ed] Andre Holzapfel and Sandra Pauletto, Stockholm, 2019, p. 70-77Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The motivation for this text is my ongoing research into creating a uniform and comprehensive notation system for music regardless of sound sources, acoustic or electronic. I propose a way to visually represent the positions and movements of sound in composition and analysis of music which in different ways utilises space as a parameter. I address a number of aspects of spatialised music to take into account when defining a notation language for the music. I suggest visually representing the room in different ways depending on how the music relates to the concept of space: as projections from the center of a sphere for more structural work, or as coordinates in a cubic room for works that depict a physical or imagined space. I also show how these descriptions of space are integrated with my existing notation system.

  • 16.
    Sköld, Mattias
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Composition and Conducting. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    The Visual Representation of Timbre2022In: Organised Sound, ISSN 1355-7718, E-ISSN 1469-8153, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This text deals with the difficult task of notating timbre by addressing how it can be classified, synthesised, recognised and related to visual correspondences, and then looking at the relevance of these topics for notational purposes. Timbre is understood as dependent on both spectral and time-dependent features that can be notated in ways that make sense in relation to both perception and acoustics. This is achieved by taking the starting point in Lasse Thoresen’s spectromorphological analysis. Symbols originally developed for perception-based analysis are adapted for use over a hybrid spectrum-staff system to indicate the spectral qualities of timbre. To test the system, it was used to transcribe excerpts of three classic electroacoustic music works. In addition to the benefit of being able to compare the three excerpts transcribed with the same system, there is the advantage that the visual representation is based on spectral measurable qualities in the music. The notation system’s intuitiveness was also explored in listening tests, showing that it was possible to understand spectral notation symbols placed over a staff system, particularly for examples with two sound objects instead of one.

  • 17.
    Sköld, Mattias
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Composition and Conducting. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Visual Representation of Musical Rhythm in Relation to MusicTechnology Interfaces - an Overview2019In: Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Computer Music Multidisciplinary Research / [ed] M. Aramaki, O. Derrien, R. Kronland-Martinet, S. Ystad, Marseille, 2019, p. 725-736Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper presents an overview of the ways we make sense of rhythm through visual means in music in terms of visual representation and notation, relating this to the user interfaces of music technology. Besides enabling the communication of rhythmical ideas, our systems of music representation reflect how we make sense of rhythm as a music parameter. Because of the complexity of visually representing rhythm, only software-based solutions provide flexible enough representations of rhythm in user interfaces. While the user interfaces of much rhythm oriented music technology deal with rhythm in looped phrases of 4/4 time, there are several examples of tools that challenge conventional ways of working with and visually representing rhythm.

  • 18.
    Sköld, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KMH Royal College of Music in Stockholm.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Sonification of Complex Spectral Structures2022In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, Vol. 16Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we present our work on the sonification of notated complex spectral structures. It is part of a larger research project about the design of a new notation system for representing sound-based musical structures. Complex spectral structures are notated with special symbols in the scores, which can be digitally rendered so that the user can hear key aspects of what has been notated. This hearing of the notated data is significantly different from reading the same data, and reveals the complexity hidden in its simplified notation. The digitally played score is not the music itself but can provide essential information about the music in ways that can only be obtained in sounding form. The playback needs to be designed so that the user can make relevant sonic readings of the sonified data. The sound notation system used here is an adaptation of Thoresen and Hedman’s spectromorphological analysis notation. Symbols originally developed by Lasse Thoresen from Pierre Schaeffer’s typo-morphology have in this system been adapted to display measurable spectral features of timbrel structure for the composition and transcription of sound-based musical structures. Spectrum category symbols are placed over a spectral grand-staff that combines indications of pitch and frequency values for the combined display of music related to pitch-based and spectral values. Spectral features of a musical structure such as spectral width and density are represented as graphical symbols and sonically rendered. In perceptual experiments we have verified that users can identify spectral notation parameters based on their sonification. This confirms the main principle of sonification that is that the data/dimensions relations in one domain, in our case notated representation of spectral features, are transformed in perceived relations in the audio domain, and back.

1 - 18 of 18
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