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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Institutional structures and actor collaborations for the governance of global nitrogen and phosphorous cycles: investigating polycentric order2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite an increased interest from the global change and resilience community, there is limited knowledge about the features and outcomes of polycentric governance. Moreover, there are few examples from the literature explaining transitions from lower to higher degrees of polycentric order. This seriously limits the explanatory power and application potential of the theory. The present study addresses this gap by investigating the global governance of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) cycles. Those biophysical flows are two of the identified Earth-system processes in the “planetary boundaries” framework. This study explores governance challenges associated to these processes by analysing present institutional structures and actor collaborations. This is done by studying the network structures among all relevant multilateral agreements, EU (-level) Directives, and agreements on trade, combined with a more in-depth analysis of one global partnership initiative as a means to assess a possible emerging structure of polycentric order. The present study provides insights into how the current governance regimes in place for regulating the issues related to N and P flows look like, as well as issues and synergies of having a global partnership in place. The study suggests a global structure of polycentricity, which has the possibility to evolve into a better “match” with the dynamics of those biophysical flows through a larger governance context. 

  • 2.
    al Rawaf, Rawaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-Ecological Urbanism: Lessons in Design from the Albano Resilient Campus2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is a demand for practical ways to integrate ecological insights into practices of design, which previously have lacked a substantive empirical basis. In the process of developing the Albano Resilient Campus, a transdisciplinary group of ecologists, design scholars, and architects pioneered a conceptual innovation, and a new paradigm of urban sustainability and development: Social-Ecological Urbanism.  Social-Ecological Urbanism is based on the frameworks of Ecosystem Services and Resilience thinking. This approach has created novel ideas with interesting repercussions for the international debate on sustainable urban development. From a discourse point of view, the concept of SEU can be seen as a next evolutionary step for sustainable urbanism paradigms, since it develops synergies between ecological and socio-technical systems. This case study collects ‘best practices’ that can lay a foundational platform for learning, innovation, partnership and trust building within the field of urban sustainability. It also bridges gaps in existing design approaches, such as Projective Ecologies and Design Thinking, with respect to a design methodology with its basis firmly rooted in Ecology.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mapping supply and demand of ecosystem services in the Helge Å catchment area, Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research on ecosystem services has accelerated the last few years, but there is a knowledge gap on how to integrate the concept into management in a way that is mindful of the complex, dynamic and non-linear dimensions of ecosystem services. Ecosystem services are often approached from a supply side, and more often than not services are approached individually without attempt to capture the trade-offs and synergies between services. The overall aim of this master’s thesis is to contribute to the operationalization of the ecosystem services concept, within a social-ecological systems framework. This is done through a case study of the Helge Å catchment in Southern Sweden, in which I use publically available data to map the supply and demand of a selection of locally relevant provisioning, regulating, and, to some extent, cultural ecosystem services. The thesis analyses some of the challenges of, as well as opportunities for, making tangible sense of this complex social-ecological concept in a way that can inform decision making on ecosystem services for sustainable development. The results show that mapping both supply and demand adds important dimensions to ecosystem service assessment that has value within management contexts. Especially important are the added social dimensions of ecosystem service provision, and the incorporation of societal demand as a factor in mapping. There are some obvious challenges still associated with this type of mapping, foremost associated with mapping of cultural ecosystem services and data availability, which have yet to be resolved through continued research efforts.

  • 4.
    Berg, Alicia
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Empowering the Steel Industry as a Stakeholder: Environmental Management and Communication through a Social-Ecological Approach2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores a case study of a Swedish tool steel company undergoing a transition from traditional environmental management practices to an enterprise identifying its place as part of a social-ecological system. The Corporate Ecosystem Services Review (ESR) was utilized by the company to begin this process by focusing on ecosystem services to determine how an ESR approach contributes to environmental management in practice. What resulted moved beyond the ESR to a tailored methodology, the internalization of a systems perspective, and a proposed new environmental management system.

    The results of the study provide a concrete, effective method for internalizing a systems perspective through a focus on ecosystems and presents a case for further analysis into what made it successful. It also provides an example of translating theory into practice, illustrating how a company can engage in sustainable development by valuing and managing the resilience of social-ecological systems through identifying their place in that system. The value of the results can be high for the case study company as well as for business in general.

  • 5.
    Berggren, Maja
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Is Growing Larger the Same as Becoming Resilient? A case study of the Gothenburg Pelagic Offshore Fishery2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Scale enlargement and increased use of market mechanisms to improve fisheries’ management are a trend in many fisheries. These developments have economic benefits, but can also lead to loss of social-ecological knowledge, resilience, and employment opportunities in fishing communities. Successful large-scale fishers who have access to quotas benefit from these trends, but they also risk ending up in a lock-in, where a high degree of specialisation of fishing activities makes them vulnerable to economic and ecological fluctuation. Economic theory explains scale enlargement as an effect of economies of scale, but it cannot explain why these effects occur for certain groups of fishers and not for others. This study addresses this knowledge gap by exploring a small group of pelagic offshore fishers in Gothenburg, Sweden, who stand out in terms of their scale enlargement, profitability and political influence. Recently they also contributed to a change of management system towards increased use of economic management tools (Individual Transferable Quotas, ITQs). Using interviews with actors within and outside the pelagic offshore fishery, combined with participant observations, I describe a number of factors that can explain the Swedish development towards scale enlargement. Important for this development, it seems, is the fishers’ ‘entrepreneurial spirit’ and flexibility towards changing conditions. These are qualities that, in turn, have been supported by different contextual factors including abundant pelagic stocks, regulatory changes and a supportive community culture. Understanding the interaction between fishers’ activities and contextual developments can highlight why, and how, different development trajectories emerge in fisheries.

  • 6.
    Berry, Margaret
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Slow Food in Transition: A study of niche development in Stockholm2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Food systems represent one of the most critical resources under threat as a result of an unsustainable dominant regime. It is essential that the agricultural sector and food systems be addressed in order to achieve systemic and lasting change for sustainable development. This study uses transition theory’s strategic niche management approach to analyze a social innovation focused on creating systemic change within the currently unsustainable food system regime in order to influence a sustainability transition, using Slow Food Stockholm (a local level grassroots and social-ecological innovation niche) as a case study. Theoretically informed practical recommendations are given to help the Stockholm Slow Food movement grow and diffuse beyond its niche: to address social network weaknesses by broadening and strengthening relationships with underrepresented groups as well as resourceful and mainstream regime actors; to strengthen learning processes by fostering second-order learning through the creation of a platform for active and critical contemplation and knowledge sharing regarding niche growth and niche related topics; to manage expectations more realistically by identify and clarify niche goals for both the long term and the short term using tangible projects to stimulate involvement and concrete action opportunities for activists. Finally, reflections are given regarding remaining research gaps and the need for further studies relating to innovations for sustainable food system transitions. 

  • 7.
    Björk, Nicola
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Opportunities and obstacles implementing animal welfare friendly meat to the Swedish public catering sector2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Provision of meat to public catering canteens in Sweden is done through public procurement processes according to the Law of Public Procurement. However, due to the lack of a harmonized assessment standard and policy for communication throughout the supply chain, there is no animal welfare certification or label that contracting authorities can use to verify animal welfare friendly meat, in order to verify that the meat they purchase comes from reliable sources. My question is; is there a future in which animal welfare friendly meat is provided as the norm, to consumers at public canteens? To answer this question, the aim of this thesis was to identify a feasible way for Swedish wholesale dealers who provide food to the public sector, to implement meat originating from a source where animal-based assessments have been made according to the Welfare Quality® project.

    The findings showed that the top four critical elements to consider for an animal welfare friendly future are: 1. The consciousness and attitude by each stakeholder – a positive attitude among not only supply chain actors but also among the decision makers eases the process to bring animal welfare friendly meat. 2. The local political vision - in order for contracting authorities to work proactively towards bringing animal welfare friendly meat the political vision is fundamental. 3. A united legislation on animal welfare friendly systems in EU - based upon an animal-based assessment standard. 4. The Law of Public Procurement and its stance on an animal welfare friendly production – the requirements that can be set from an animal-based assessment system needs to be compatible with the Law of Public Procurement. Further research on the specific findings is recommended in order to deeper evaluate the needs to implement animal welfare friendly meat to Swedish public catering canteens. 

  • 8.
    Björklund, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Eco-gastronomy: creative food for transformation2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Present-day food systems are characterised by industrial mass-production and are becoming exceedingly untenable from a social, ecological and economic perspective. The era of favourable growing conditions and stability is no longer guaranteed, and arguments for holistic and transformative solutions are raised, that can reconnect humanity to the biosphere and create resilient food systems. The overall aim of this study is to describe eco-gastronomy within a Swedish context, and to explore its potential to act as an incubator for change within the foodservice sector. The findings contribute to the transformation framework with contextual understanding on how sub-processes (in the preparation phase) play out in an eco-gastronomic context. One of the main challenges for the future and viability of eco-gastronomy is associated with limited supply and access to high quality and sustainable Swedish produce. Food professionals envision and innovate new pathways through social-ecological innovation, network building, novel organization and close collaboration (e.g. knowledge exchange, feedback). Collaborative efforts are made to support diversity, quality and access to eco-gastronomic produce. However, eco-gastronomic practices are both adaptive and transformative, and a potential trade-off is outlined between the goal of achieving an extensive change in food preferences and transformative production practices. Low social sustainability (e.g. low salaries) and small networks can threaten the longevity and expansion of eco-gastronomy. However, networks are growing in size and number, and a new type of food awareness is described, that in extension can become a seed to a more sustainable food culture. Eco-gastronomy is not a blueprint for resilient food systems but it provides solutions that can result in a more sustainable and delicious future. 

  • 9.
    Björkvik, Emma
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Explaining the decline in Swedish Baltic Sea small-scale fisheries: A historical analysis of fishers in their  social and ecological context2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish fisheries, as many other European fisheries are characterized by overcapacity. Efforts trying to reduce the overcapacity have led to fewer but bigger vessels. Hence, fish catches are aggregated among fewer and fewer fishers with bigger and bigger boats while problems with overcapacity remain. Instead, it is the fishers with smaller vessels that faced major declines and the Swedish Baltic Sea small-scale fisheries (SSF) have been identified to soon disappear. A disappearance would be unfortunate because SSF represent values that could be used in the development towards more ecological and social sustainable fisheries. The decline of SSF appears to be structural persistent, produced by factors interacting over time. To address the negative trend, it is essential to know how and why the decline became structural persistent. The objective of this study is therefore to investigate the long-term historical development of the SSF as a social-ecological system. A mixed-method approach was used to assess and identify interactions between fishers and contextual factors over time. The results show how the decline became structurally persistent in 1960s after a conjunction in time where fishers’ livelihood became more dependent upon fisheries while fish abundance started to decline. After the conjunction fishers became trapped within a system where social and ecological contextual factors constrained their fishing practices. This thesis provides new insights on the difficult situation in which SSF are currently trapped. These insights can be used for future development of Swedish fisheries, which needs to move away from increased economic optimization and instead enhance long-term sustainability.

  • 10.
    Blandon, Abigayil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    A Sea Change: Unpacking the different conceptualisations of fisheries development in Eastern Africa2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The global narratives behind development aid are constantly changing, but aid is still criticized for being ineffective. The most recent trend within development thinking is the push for complexity science concepts to be incorporated, in order to better capture the uncertainties and dynamics of the real world. Fisheries is a sector of development where priorities are changing and there are multiple approaches being advocated with no current consensus. The ways institutions and individuals think about the fisheries development system will therefore have implications for project implementation on the ground. In this study, I use the World Bank as a focal organisation to investigate how institutions and individuals conceptualise the fisheries development system in Eastern Africa, and whether this aligns with complexity thinking. I find a clear shift in the institutional paradigm of the World Bank from a narrow sectoral approach with tangible interventions such as infrastructure, to a more holistic approach pushing for softer solutions such as stakeholder engagement. I map the conceptualisations of a number of implementers of fisheries development projects in Tanzania and Kenya in relation to the World Bank paradigms and find that the actors have a wide range of perceptions, not necessarily buying into the current World Bank paradigm or agreeing with each other. Differing conceptualisations of fisheries development has implications for project implementation and the policy coherence of aid that is currently being pushed by the Paris Declaration of Aid Effectiveness and the Accra Agenda for Action. I also find evidence of complexity science concepts expressed by the implementers and the World Bank, with more concepts expressed in the current World Bank paradigm. It is encouraging to see actors and institutions incorporate complexity concepts into their thinking, although further work is needed to fully embed the paradigm into fisheries development.

  • 11.
    Crimella, Daniele
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Exploring future land system change in Central and Eastern Africa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Central and Eastern African region is confronted with increasing socio-economic demands and global change pressures which could in the near future threaten the sustainability of its land system. Significant land use and cover (or land system) change would critically impact nature and people both locally and globally. Yet, its action is comparatively less studied than for other parts of the world, highlighting the need to have improved information on plausible future land system change in this region.

    This work synthesised a set of underlying drivers and proximate causes of land system change in the region through a metastudy, to than conduct a scenario analysis based on identified critical uncertainties, exploring future change in this land system.

    Multiple social and biophysical underlying drivers emerged as acting on proximate causes through chains of causation, driving change in cropland, forest, infrastructure, urban, and dryland areas. Two identified critical uncertainties, global versus local economic system orientation and fragmented versus integrated regional governance, defined four plausible scenarios exploring different land system change.

    The findings of this work contribute to the understanding of plausible future change in this understudied land system, and provide the base for complementary land system research. Additionally, reported conclusions could inform policy or practice processes aimed at steering the future of this land system at a critical juncture.

  • 12.
    D. Mateos, Lara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Aquatic food production and resource management: Freshwater use in Chinese aquaculture2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaculture will play an important role for future seafood supply, but its increasing dependency on freshwater resources may pose a challenge for its growth. This thesis explores the freshwater footprint of cultured aquatic animals, using the global aquaculture giant, China, as a case study. Main objectives were to: a) perform a preliminary estimation of the freshwater footprint (m3 tonne-1) at the national/regional scale, using the conceptual framework and methodology of the Water Footprint Network (WFN), b) identify key methodological aspects and variables specifically related to measuring the water footprint in aquaculture, c) analyse and discuss water consumption to inform future sustainable water management strategies, through a deeper understanding of Chinese aquaculture as a social-ecological system (SES). Results show that aquaculture’s freshwater footprint is similar to terrestrial animal production systems, with an average of 14 952 m3 tonne-1. Water consumption mainly takes place at the farm through evaporation from freshwater ponds, and dilution of freshwater in brackish water ponds. Indirect water footprint through feed consumption is mainly influenced by the composition of ingredients, and the assimilation efficiency of the different species. The trend is towards intensification of production, and this has the potential to lower water consumption per yield, however, increased consumption of higher quality feed in such systems may work in the opposite direction. Key sustainability aspects that require further attention within the WFN’s methodology include cross-scale interactions between the focal scale and its upper and lower scales, and the interconnectedness of water scarcity issues to other resource uses and associated impacts. An integrated framework is needed to allow the comparison and aggregation of indices across the three pillars of sustainability. Here, the transdisciplinarity of the SES approach can help create sustainability criteria that reflect water consumption impacts in a more integrated way.

  • 13.
    d'Armengol i Catà, Laia
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social diversity for ecosystem management in La Palma Biosphere Reserve, Canary Islands: Perspectives, knowledge and management practices among local stewards in the near-shore marine ecosystem2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive approaches to ecosystem management emphasize that ecosystems need to be treated as complex social-ecological systems. Furthermore, both ecological and social diversity need to be enhanced to improve the adaptability of such systems to surprises. Social diversity is approached here by studying the diversity of plausible contributions of local stewards groups to ecosystem management, i.e. perspectives of the ecosystem, ecological knowledge and management practices. These variables are explored by means of 28 interviews to representatives of the 8 local steward groups of the near-shore marine ecosystem of La Palma Biosphere Reserve. The flow diagramming technique is used to elicit mental models about ecosystem. Results show that local stewards of the studied system provide social diversity. Their contribution differs among local steward groups, being acknowledgeable for official managers, conservationists and professional fishers. However, key carriers of diversity are found in all groups. Local stewards share a mental model in terms of consensually acknowledging that the near-shore marine ecosystem is degraded and what are the main drivers that lead to this situation. However, they have not been able to respond to them in the current governance system. Different kinds of knowledge, including experiential and scientific, are gathered, combined, and spread through formal and informal social networks. These networks can provide channels to combine the social diversity in place for the sake of ecosystem management. The Biosphere Reserve Consortium has a key role in facilitating these networks with the potential to become a platform for learning. The findings draw attention to the need of enhancing formal and informal social networks to gather the diversity provided by local stewards, avoiding the risk of this leading to homogenisation of mental models and knowledge.

  • 14.
    Dreijer, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The complex evolution of Japan's distant water fisheries: Exploring the evolution of Japan's distant water fisheries from 1950-20142018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fisheries are dynamic social-ecological systems shaped by the interplay of diverse political, economic, social and ecological factors. Recently, recognition has grown that fisheries are complex adaptive systems and warrant examination within a broader social-ecological context. While there has been a recent trend within fisheries science and management towards embracing more holistic approaches, research on global fisheries rarely addresses the complexities that shape large-scale fishing patterns. In this thesis I adopt a complex systems perspective with the ambition of understanding the complex and context-specific nature of global fishing by exploring the evolution of the Japanese distant water fishery (DWF). By combining investigation of global catch statistics with a review of associated primary, secondary and grey literature, I produce a narrative of how the Japanese DWF has expanded and contracted between 1950 and 2014, its geographical extent, and the factors that have contributed to these patterns. The results illustrate how complex and context-specific the DWF system is in the case of Japan. Using this in-depth study, I then address recent publications on global fisheries that use approaches that tend to minimise complexity through generalisations rather than seeking a deeper understanding of how this complexity shapes global fisheries. Finally, based on the exploratory findings of this thesis, I suggest that to better understand the complex dynamics inherent to global fisheries, further research informed by complexity thinking is needed on distant water fishing nations.

  • 15.
    Fagerlind, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Deconstructing the Great Acceleration2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Anthropocene is characterized by a strong human influence on the Earth System that is threatening the future prosperity of human societies. A mid-20th century onset of the Anthropocene is being proposed supported by the global phenomenon the Great Acceleration, but much concern has been raised that defining the Anthropocene based on global averages fails to recognize the massive inequalities in humanity’s contribution to current pressures on the Earth System. This study uses increase in growth rate as in indication of system change and conducts a statistical analysis to determine the largest change in the socio-economic domain of the Earth System on both a global and national level. The aim is to examine the empirical support for an unequal Anthropocene from a systems perspective. 814 of these events are identified across all the Great Acceleration indicators. The magnitude of the changes is typically large, with the growth rate increasing by more than 100% in 86% of the identified events. The findings suggest that while there is good evidence for a substantial change in the socio-economic domain of the Earth System the mid-20th century it is not the result of a globally synchronous event, but rather the culmination of a gradual process that display large temporal disparities with these system changes moving like waves across the Earth. The observed disparities show striking similarities to current developmental status suggesting that when deconstructed, the Great Acceleration can be used both to support global patterns and to illustrate inequalities between countries and people, making it a powerful tool to communicate the many facets of the Anthropocene.

  • 16.
    Florêncio, Cláudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Learning to bridge conservation and development: A case study of the Environmental Monitors Programme in Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We live in a world that faces several social and environmental problems and achieving sustainable development in contexts where it is necessary to alleviate poverty without eroding the capacity of the ecosystems to support future generations is challenging. Therefore, fostering sustainable development requires enabling both society and environment to cope with disturbances, adapt to and shape change (resilience).

    Literature suggests that adaptive co-management practices are appropriate for building resilience and fostering sustainable development. Additionally, studies have highlighted the role of bridging organizations in coordinating and facilitating adaptive co-management. However, adaptive co-management has not been studied in poverty contexts.

    This thesis aims to understand what the main tasks of bridging organizations are, and how they facilitate and stimulate adaptive co-management in poverty contexts and their role in nurturing sustainability.

    The Environmental Monitors Programme of the Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve was chosen as a case-study. Biosphere reserves are considered learning sites for sustainable development. The programme was studied through the lenses of a bridging organization.

    Semi-structured interviews and participatory observation with stakeholders identified: 1) the importance of existing networks and collaborations; 2) monitoring contribution to the identification of social and environmental issues, experimentation contribution to the implementation of sustainable harvesting practices; 3) environmental education combined with social learning lead to community empowerment and adaptive responses that e.g. address erosion; 4) environmental monitors have a crucial role in linking organizations and communities; 5) challenges related to low income settings include communities’ basic needs.

    This study illustrates the need to address both social and ecological problems in a concerted manner, by capacitating and empowering communities while conserving the environment. Additionally, points out the need of studying alternative co-management strategies that give focus on different priorities regarding stakeholders’ interests and the influence of power in decision-making in poverty contexts.

  • 17.
    Franco Nieto, Paloma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Exploring the role of urban environments for human wellbeing: an analysis of people's experiences in Madrid2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    If urban planning is to ensure wellbeing while reducing negative environmental impacts, a better understanding on how different urban environments support or hinder wellbeing is needed. This thesis uses softGIS methodology to understand how different urban environments impact people’s experiences in Madrid. An online PPGIS survey collected people’s positive and negative experiences in Madrid (n=400) as well as the perceived environmental qualities for each experience. The thesis applies affordance theory to analyse experiences. For the spatial analysis, the study uses 6 environmental features and analyses the perceived environmental qualities (PEQ) in all of them. The results suggest that social interaction is the main PEQ for having positive experiences and that it is higher in built environments. On the other hand, the presence of nature is reported to be the most important PEQ in positive experiences in nature environments. However, social interaction is the main cause for having negative experience regardless of the type of environment. The thesis concludes that this method allows to map restorative environments and describe their PEQ providing a useful tool for urban planners to design cities for citizens’ wellbeing. This thesis suggests that in order to achieve sustainability goals in urban areas while ensuring wellbeing, a focus should be put on transforming places with high number of negative experiences by including some nature elements that can reduce the feeling of crowding without eroding the dynamics of these environments. Also, a better distribution of nature environments could improve wellbeing in urban areas. In addition, creating spaces for social interaction should be other priority in urban planning in Madrid, due to the importance it has for people’s wellbeing.

  • 18.
    Fryers Hellquist, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Exploring Change Agents in Watershed Governance: The Case of Lake Mälaren, Sweden.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world is changing rapidly and it has become increasingly important to build resilience, through adaptation and transformation, to maintain the ecosystem services that watersheds provide. The importance of change agents to prepare for and navigate the transformation, as well as build resilience in the new state has been highlighted by scholars, however not in a comprehensive way, but rather as a final conclusion. This study investigates the role and perceptions of change agents around Lake Mälaren, Sweden. Through in-depth interviews, it explores incentives for change, visions, and strategies to reach those visions. The findings show that many actors without holistic and overarching governance creates dissatisfaction among change agent. Components of their visions are shared: well-functioning ecosystems that provide ecosystem services in the future, and to achieve legislated goals. Their strategy on how to reach their vision diverge: powerful political decisions and stricter steering, or changes in values and the inclusion of local knowledge of citizens. This study adds nuance to visions, highlights the importance of a common strategy and that collaboration is key to maintain the future provision of the essential ecosystem services watersheds provide.

  • 19.
    Gartz, Mira
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Desire, cows and resilience: Investigating motivations to steward a bio-cultural refuge in Northern Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, centuries of agricultural modernization have marginalized locally adapted food cultures and food production systems. Yet in some places these practices and cultures survive, even in areas that lack conducive circumstances for agricultural production. These places are called bio-cultural refugia.

    Dominant agricultural practices are based on the production of only a few species which reduce biodiversity and the resilience of landscapes. Bio-cultural refugia provide important alternatives and pathways toward sustainable agricultural development, but are currently conceived of as living museums and are not well-connected to markets. This study investigates a re-emerging bio-cultural refuge in Northern Sweden, which revolves around an endangered native cattle breed, traditional recipes and an open landscape.

    It is unclear how bio-cultural refugia emerge or can persist. Recent literature on human adaptive capacity in social-ecological systems explains how sustainability outcomes depend on the dynamic interrelations of opportunities, abilities and desires. In this thesis I empirically investigate the role of desires to stewardship practices through a discourse analysis with roots in psychoanalytic theory. The aim of the thesis is to add to the understanding of how and why a bio-cultural refuge can emerge and persist in the Global North.

    I find that desires expressed by stewards in the bio-cultural refuge is mostly directed to people, and not to achieve ecological sustainability for its own sake. The most commonly articulated motivation is to care for people in the village by developing the local economy, contradicting a general conception of stewardship originating in pro-environmental values. Nevertheless, the informants do steward a bio-cultural refuge. This is explained by the coincidental opportunity to buy the native cattle and existing subsidies to keep them, and by abilities such as farming- and cooperation skills, creativity and entrepreneurial thinking.

    Stewardship of bio-cultural refugia is crucial for biosphere resilience. In order to maintain and develop existing bio-cultural refugia we must start to re-imagine what they can mean not only for ecologies but also for society and people, as they hold important knowledge on energy efficient food production. By creating opportunities that resonate with people’s needs and desires in particular places it may be possible to attract new stewards for bio-cultural refugia, and to (re)produce the ecological knowledge that is necessary for a sustainable and resilient future

  • 20.
    Griffiths, Hannah Rose
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Learning to Adapt: A Swedish case study on adaptation of biodiversity management within Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget (SCA)2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving adaptation within an organisation occurs largely through the process of organisational learning. The identification of organisational learning cycles and the factors that influence an organisation’s adaptation can improve understanding of how organisations adapt to complex sustainability issues. To date, efforts to analyse the factors that affect organisational adaptation have not been researched extensively within the Swedish forest industry. In order to address this gap, an operationalization of the organisational adaptation model in a case study of a Swedish forestry actor, Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget (SCA), has been carried out. This study uses the model presented in Berkhout et al. (2006) on organisational adaptation to articulate the role of organisational learning in establishing and implementing adaptation measures for biodiversity management within SCA throughout the 1980s-1990s. It also identifies the factors that determined this process. There is evidence that two parallel organisational adaptation cycles occurred within SCA that shaped the emergence of two key adaptation options on biodiversity within the company, the Ecological Landscape Plan (ELP) and re-invention of SCA operations. Subsequently several factors were identified that affected this process of adaptation overtime including, mind-sets and values, employee skills, organisational culture and the context surrounding the company. This has implications for which adaptive measures may (or may not) be selected and carried out. Further research should be done to clarify which kind of innovations may be most effective to reduce the factors that act as barriers to organisational adaptation.

  • 21.
    Gripenberg, Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Measuring Sustainable Development Goals: A Social-Ecological Perspective2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The 2030 Agenda and its Sustainable Development Goals provide benchmarks for global sustainable development. However, there may be trade-offs between goals if they are not treated as interlinked components of a larger system. The achievement of these goals then relies on countries’ ability to monitor and measure them consistently and interdependently. This study compares seven measures of development and welfare that goes beyond Gross Domestic Product in relation to the Sustainable Development Goals. The aim of this study is to clarify which measures are suitable for monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals. This is done by assessing measure indicators similarities with the indicators suggested by the United Nations for each goal. The study utilises a social-ecological framework emphasising the three dimensions of sustainability: the economy, the society and the biosphere. The result of this study indicates that measures, such as the Social Progress Index and Sustainable Society Index are the most suitable for measuring the Sustainable Development Goals. However, none of the chosen measures exhibit similarities with all the goals. The goals belonging to the society are most covered, whereas goals belonging to the economy and biosphere being least covered. This study suggests three possibilities for these results: First, measures that goes beyond Gross Domestic Product view the progress of human prosperity from the dimension of society. Secondly, measures are shaped and shape development issues where knowledge and trends lead to bases of frameworks and indicators used, where certain topics, such as sanitation, is overrepresented and infrastructure and technology underrepresented. Finally, measures inclusion of the biosphere is based on human needs and direct interaction with ecosystems and not the condition of ecosystem per se. This study propose that measures need to be complemented from a social-ecological system perspective, to be useful for the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.

  • 22.
    Guerrero Lara, Leonie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    How to “flip the tortilla”: Exploring opportunities for a more sustainable food system in Spain through TEK-driven innovation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The modern global food system is a main driver of the Anthropocene: Food production entails profound global environmental changes from greenhouse gas emissions to biodiversity loss. Shifting diets further impact planetary and human health. Innovative approaches are needed to shift towards more sustainable, equitable and healthy food systems. Following the ‘Seeds of Good Anthropocenes’ project, this thesis analyses innovative initiatives that have the potential to make the food system more sustainable. More specifically, building on the increasing recognition of the importance of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) in sustainable food systems, this thesis explores initiatives that are using TEK to improve food systems in Spain. This study conceptualizes the food system as a complex social-ecological system and builds on transformations theory, the concepts of social-ecological innovation, leverage points and TEK. It uses a case-study approach and is set in three different regions in Mediterranean Spain, where I conducted and analyzed 12 semi-structured interviews with food seed initiatives. I found that the initiatives’ main drive was towards enhancing food values that are linked to traditional food production, which are not currently widely appreciated. The presence of TEK can inspire different innovations within the food system, whereas the absence of TEK can present barriers to innovation. Most importantly, the absence of gastronomic knowledge among consumers on how to process and prepare local varieties and species was found to hinder the implementation of shorter value chains, that are recognized as an efficient approach for sustainable food systems. By reintroducing gastronomic TEK, direct consumer-producer links were strengthened. Such innovative applications of TEK can help to safeguard biocultural diversity that is crucial for the transformation of food systems towards sustainability. I suggest that taking into account the presence of TEK can enhance the success of conventional systems of innovation that emphasize scientific and technological knowledge.

  • 23.
    Hakkarainen, Viola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    On the other end of research: Two cases of knowledge exchange in small-scale fisheries in Zanzibar, Tanzania2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability science has recently adopted a more action-oriented approach in addition to purely increasing knowledge. It is argued that mobilising more and better knowledge is needed for sustaining human wellbeing and promoting sustainable development. There is an increasing recognition of knowledge exchange (KE) as a key factor to enhance social, environmental and economic impacts of research. KE in the context of marine resource management has mostly been studied in relation to the science-policy interface in the Global North. To expand understanding of science-society interactions within sustainability science, this thesis adopts an explorative approach and studies two cases of KE between external researchers and local stakeholders in small-scale fisheries in Zanzibar, Tanzania, with a particular focus on community-level encounters. First, the context of these encounters is explored through flows of benefits and patterns of interactions between researchers and local stakeholders. Second, experiences of actors engaged in KE are studied. The thesis concludes that as KE is a complex and dynamic process, i) history and relationships between actors shape the outcomes of KE, ii) knowledge-based outcomes of KE are complex and unpredictable as different actors create their own meaning from shared information, and iii) KE includes other than knowledge-based outcomes as multiple incentives of different actors shape KE and how it is experienced.

  • 24.
    Hardardottir, Hildur
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Volunteer motivations and long-term viability of volunteer-based adaptive co-management: a case study of the Noosa biosphere reserve, South East Queensland, Australia2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Citizens worldwide are increasingly volunteering in natural resource management and governments as well as public and private environmental organizations rely heavily on unpaid volunteers to further their commitments. Another growing trend is adaptive and co-management approaches to ecosystem-based management. For this thesis purpose the focus will be on adaptive co-management and the knowledge gap about the sustainability and challenges of this approach when it relies greatly on and is driven by citizen volunteers.

    Studies stress a need to increase knowledge about volunteer-based natural resource management - who volunteers, volunteer motivations and experiences, as well as challenges associated with volunteerism in order to sustain volunteers’ commitments in the long term.

    The study aims to contribute to an understanding of volunteer motivations and the long-term viability of a volunteer-based adaptive co-management through a case study of Noosa biosphere reserve in Queensland, Australia. Methods used are both qualitative and quantitative; where the analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants and a survey conducted with 42 volunteers.

    The study shows an advantage of relying on volunteers to be when volunteer involvement maximizes quantity of social networks enabling communication between diverse actors and groups in society. The results also indicate that shared decision-making power amongst the volunteers enhances a creative learning environment; accumulating knowledge through experiments combined with science that fosters self-organization.

    However, challenges emerged such as the notion of volunteers’ pet projects where actions are not necessarily based on urgent issues of the social-ecological system. Additionally, volunteer burnout and turnover often results in knowledge and skill turnover, which in turn hampers feedback processes and the capacity to adapt.

    Reflecting motivations emerging as important, the study suggests three underlying motivational categories that can be used to increase managerial capacity in order to sustain volunteer commitments and the long-term viability of a volunteer-based adaptive co-management: a) the Moralist, being morally convicted to promote sustainable trajectories; the Hands-on environmentalist, wanting to use ones skills and learn and interact in ones natural environment; and the Social contributor, whose aim is to strengthen social ties and contribute to the community and future generations.

  • 25.
    Hernandez, Dayana
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Understanding the conducive space for social learning in the context of flood risk management: a case study of the city of Cali, Colombia2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The potential occurrence of natural disasters associated with hydro-climatological hazards poses challenges to urban SES. Considering the urbanization trend worldwide and the uncertainty linked to the manifestation of such hazards, these challenges are expected to increase. Faced with these conditions, social domains of urban systems are tasked to enhance their ability to anticipate, prepare or deal with the disruptions caused by natural disasters. Social learning, understood as a socialised process of learning, can foster the capacity of social domains to prepare for change.  

     

    Cali, Colombia was considerably affected by the floods associated with the Rainy-Season 2010-2011 that the country experienced due to La Niña phenomenon. This is a case study carried-out in the city of Cali in relation to flood risk management. The study provides an exploration of the environment conducive for social learning. Such environment was unpacked in terms of relational spaces and attributes of interaction. 

     

    Results show that an ad-hoc organization called The Adaptation Fund and a recently- enacted disaster risk management policy accounts for formal relational spaces, which play a predominant role in fostering stakeholder dialogue and knowledge exchange around natural disasters risk. Likewise, actors converging into the configuration of a community of practice and actors configuring a network are a nuanced indication of informal relational spaces. Trust and reciprocity, as attributes qualifying interactions, appeared to explain informal spaces. Such attributes, however, are not adhered to the public sphere where the formal spaces are embedded.

     

    The findings draw attention to the challenges posed by context-specific conditions where formal spaces are crucial for fostering processes of engagement between stakeholders, but where lack of attributes qualifying interactions in a positive way can undermine effectiveness. It also calls attention to the convenience of enhancing connections between actors whose understandings and competences revolve around disaster risk management and those with technical expertise on matters that are pertinent to the issue of flooding.  

  • 26.
    Holmberg, Catarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    How can traditional knowledge be mobilized in a legitimate, credible, and salient way?: A comparative study of three approaches to developing and applying indicators for Aichi Target 182014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of including indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLCs) and their traditional knowledge (TK) into environmental forums such as the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is being increasingly recognized. Despite numerousefforts to open up forums and assessment processes to diverse types of knowledge, extensive challenges remain for the full and effective participation of IPLCs at all levels of environmental governance.

    This paper explores three cases of assessment processes at different levels, where TK has been mobilized for monitoring progress towards Aichi Target 18 of the CBD. Through in-depth interviews with representatives for IPLCs, policy-makers and scientists, the mechanisms for mobilizing TK across scales in ways that are legitimate and credible and fulfill the needs for multiple actors are explored. Findings suggest that community-based monitoring and information systems (CBMIS) have greater potential than top-down approaches for capturing the complexity of social-ecological systems and for monitoring progress towards Aichi Target 18. In addition, CBMIS is embedded in the institutions and ecosystem management of IPLCs, providing a direct link between knowledge and action, hence advancing implementation of the CBD on the ground. However, findings across the three cases also demonstrate that hierarchies between knowledge systems and institutional norms of science constitute substantial barriers for the inclusion of insights and knowledge from local monitoring into national and international processes. Overcoming such barriers requires an increase in focus on the process of knowledge sharing rather than solely on the outcomes. A Multiple Evidence Based Approach, where TK and science are viewed as equally valid knowledge, is suggested as a way forward to mobilize TK in forums such as the CBD. Parallel validation methods and intercultural dialogue between TK-holders, scientists and policy-makers is key for creating processes that are legitimate, credible, and salient among a diversity of actors.

  • 27.
    Holén, Elinor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Using soil properties to indicate regulating ecosystem services in a Sudano-Sahelian agro-ecological landscape2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In semi-arid low yielding agro-ecological landscapes such as the Sahel both water and soil nutrients are limiting factors for crop growth. In addition to this there is a distinct difference in how well different land cover/land use types, so called ecotopes, perform in producing ecosystem services (ES) related to small-scale agriculture. This thesis seeks to explain differences in provisioning ES supply with the prevalence of regulating ES using indicators as proxies. The results show that the produced biomass is three times higher in the ecotope characterized as Depression than in Field. However, there are no or little significant differences between ecotopes regarding nutrients, organic matter and texture. In evaporation measurements the ecotope characterized as Fallow turned out to have the lowest evaporation rate, while there seemed to be little or no difference between Field and Depression. Water holding capacity, on the other hand, was slightly higher in Depression, which would mean that crops would manage a dry spell for between 6 to 10 days longer compared to other ecotopes. The absence of distinct differences in chemical and physical properties of the soil, even though this difference is evident in provisioning ES supply, shows that selecting relevant indicators is not easily done with available standard soil-plant systems indicators. Potential differences relating to water regulation could be further investigated by looking at factors that determine the direction of water flows and distance to ground water as a potential water supply for crops, e.g. topography, soil depth and the occurrence of crusts and hardpans as well as how they impact the patterns of runoff and runon in the landscape. 

  • 28.
    Håkansson, Irene
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Berlin’s Intercultural Gardens: Urban Landscapes of Social-Ecological Memory2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Efforts to achieve urban sustainability include ecological practices within civic society. A prominent example of this is the voluntary stewardship of green urban spaces such as community gardening. People participating in these practices – so the argument goes – draw on social-ecological memory (SE-memory) – knowledge, experience, and practice of local ecosystem management. The present study scrutinises the components and implications of the concept of SE-memory. It identifies and fills a theoretical gap by investigating and adding neglected dimensions of individual memory while strengthening the concept’s social component by examining implications of SE-memory for its actual individual carriers. The study centres on Berlin’s intercultural gardens – urban community gardens where processes of SE-memory are particularly diverse. It is based on five months of fieldwork, including intensive participant observations and in-depth interviews in such gardens. The findings show that the reviving, modifying, and transmitting of SE-memory involve expressions of individuality as well as community and comprise inter-locking streams of both individual and social memory. These play a pivotal role for individuals’ sense of belonging, social inclusion, and commitment to cultural diversity central to the intercultural gardens’ contribution to social urban sustainability as they provide space for personal memory revival, allow for people to practice their culture of origin, and offer points of manifold exchange with others.

  • 29.
    Jacobson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Transforming air travel behavior in the face of climate change: Incentives and barriers in a Swedish setting2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Air travel accounts for a major share of individual greenhouse gas emissions in high-income countries. Technical development alone will not be sufficient to meet international climate goals if air travel continues to increase as predicted. Behavioral change is thus essential.

    Earlier research has shown that the gap between environmental attitudes and behavior is large when it comes to air travel; few reduce flying because of climate concerns. However, some people do, and there is a rising debate about individual responsibility and travel habits. This study, based on semi-structured interviews with Swedish residents who quit, reduce or continue flying, describes how such behavioral change comes about. Important incentives and barriers for this process are highlighted. A framework of societal transformation is applied to show where these incentives and barriers are located – in personal and political spheres.

    This thesis suggests that internalized knowledge about the impacts of global warming is crucial to spark the process of reducing air travel. This awareness evokes negative emotions, often anxiety, guilt or frustration, which may lead to a personal tipping point where a decision to reduce flying is made. For many, such behavioral change is counteracted by both personal values and societal structures promoting air travel. Also individuals with a strong personal drive to reduce flying may feel trapped in social and professional practices, and even counteracted and ridiculed by society.

    The study shows a lack of incentives from societal levels, pointing to the need for political action aiming to create economic incentives and more attractive alternatives to air travel, as well as deepened climate knowledge and change of social norms. The findings are valuable for policy makers who want to contribute to a transformation towards a more sustainable travel system.

  • 30.
    Jelinek Boman, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nurturing urban environmental stewardship – a case study of Greenpoint, Brooklyn New York2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits of engagement in civic ecology practices and stewardship of urban green space areincreasingly recognized in supporting human health and well-being, providing ecosystem servicesin urban environments and enabling learning and interaction with local ecosystems. There is still a lack in knowledge on how stewardship develops in urban landscapes and how itmay be nurtured and supported. Retrieving additional knowledge on this subject will help guidepolicy and create institutional arrangements that enhance stewardship in order to strengthen itspotential as an innovative force and community asset in improving local urban environments. This exploratory study draws upon current research from the Stewardship Mapping Assessment Project (STEW-MAP) in New York and examines a case study of urban environmental stewardship in the neighborhood of Greenpoint, Brooklyn in New York City. It sets out to describe and analyze the structure and key roles of a network of stewardship groupsand individuals, and further the role of a temporary fund that supports activities related to environmental improvements in Greenpoint. Findings reveal a few core groups and individuals that are crucial for the local environmental community. The study also shows that connections to local politicians are an important component for these groups to achieve agency on a local level, and that an arrangement such asthe studied fund can function to strengthen relationships among the local groups.

  • 31.
    Joandi, Linnéa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Revealing distal drivers in coral reef social-ecological systems: Mapping land grabbing and human migration at a global scale2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is well recognized that coral reefs are suffering from a multitude of anthropogenic stressors which are threatening their integrity and existence. This includes stressors such as overharvesting, reduced water quality and habitat fragmentation. However, these stressors (proximate drivers) are surrounded and influenced by distal socioeconomic dynamics that are increasingly steered by global socioeconomic processes (distal drivers). Despite the fact that large-scale socioeconomic processes are receiving increasing attention, research on these aspects is still limited. This thesis scrutinizes, for the first time, how the two distal drivers land acquisition (or “land grabbing”) and human migration play out globally in countries that encompass coral reefs. Results show that land grabbing occurs in coastal areas adjacent to coral reefs, both at a domestic, but mainly at an international scale. The land grabbings are, however, unevenly distributed among the different coral reef regions. For human migration, it can be concluded that some coral reef regions have lost more people than they have gained in their coral reef adjacent coastal zones. However, it can also be concluded that the net migration to and within these areas, at a global scale, has been positive from 1970-2000. Consequently, this suggests that coral reefs are facing increased anthropogenic pressure from a broad variety of distal actors and drivers. The study also suggests a new, more inclusive, approach of how to view actors of coral reef management, as well as suggests an alternative way of how to estimate anthropogenic pressure in terms of migration.

  • 32.
    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Human and natural drivers of multiple coral reef regimes across the Hawaiian archipelago2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Loss of coral reef resilience can lead to dramatic changes in benthic structure, so called regime shifts, which significantly alter ecosystem processes and functioning. Loss of ecosystem services associated with these regime shifts can be substantial and have significant impacts on human well-being and societal development. Reversing regime shifts once they have occurred can be very difficult and costly. In the face of global change and increasing human impact, there is an urgent need for anticipating and preventing unwanted regime shifts, or conversely, forcing (reversing) shifts of already degraded reef states. Such challenges require a better understanding of the dynamics and processes (i.e. resilience) that support or undermine different reef regimes. The Hawaiian archipelago extends across a wide gradient of natural and anthropogenic conditions and provides a unique opportunity to investigate the relationships between multiple reef regimes, their dynamics and potential drivers. Here I apply a combination of exploratory ordination methods and inferential statistics to one of the most comprehensive coral reef datasets available, in order to detect, visualize and define potential multiple ecosystem regimes. The present study demonstrates the existence of three distinct reef regimes occurring across the whole archipelago, dominated by hard corals, turf algae, or macroalgae. Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) against a broad set of human and natural predictor variables were used in order to determine what might drive the different reef regimes. Results show that herbivore biomass, effluent, latitude and depth play out as particularly important variables. Finally, I highlight some trends in benthic habitat that depend on fish biomass and reciprocally, some critical thresholds in measures of fish diversity that occur across gradients of regimes, providing novel insights into the multi-scale dynamics of reef resilience and regime shifts.

  • 33.
    Juárez Bourke, Alba
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Natural resource management and participation in Doñana (SW Spain): Elements of adaptive co-management and potential for change2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive co-management is an approach to the management of social-ecological systems that deals with their complexity and unpredictability. Stakeholder participation is one of the central aspects of this approach. Using semi-structured interviews, direct observations and a review of documentation, I examine the involvement of stakeholders in the development of a land-use plan in Doñana, in south-west Spain, and the potential of the existing management practices to transition towards an adaptive co-management approach. Results show that elements of adaptive co-management are present to some extent, but that these have not succeeded in overcoming the on-going conflict over the use of natural resources and in achieving a sustainable use of the resources. Findings suggest that this is related to a lack of a common vision among the different stakeholders. Building a common vision could enable the construction of solutions that satisfy the needs of all parties, rather than settling for the compromise currently put forward by the land-use plan. I propose that the existence of a bridging organisation could facilitate the construction of a common vision by enabling and coordinating a constructive dialogue among stakeholders. This case study shows how different levels of governance interact, with management practices and stakeholders’ actions at the local and regional levels being affected by processes at European and international levels. This study also illustrates the challenges of achieving adaptive co-management, particularly in a context of conflict, where win-win situations are not immediately apparent.

  • 34.
    Järnberg, Linn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Prospects for a sustainable agricultural transformation in Ethiopia: green niche actors navigating a challenging institutional context2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying pathways of agricultural development that enable substantial productivity improvements is of prime importance for food security and human development across Sub-Saharan Africa. To ensure long-term welfare for its people and landscapes, it is imperative that such agricultural transformations are environmentally sustainable. This study explores the case of Ethiopia and aims to assess constraints and opportunities for a sustainable agricultural transformation, by analysing a) the governance context, b) narratives of agricultural development, and c) strategies employed by “green” non-state actors in the agricultural sector to lever change in the direction they perceive as desirable. By assessing the governance structure, the study finds that many non-state actors face significant legal and practical barriers to action, and that the strong government domination and rigid structures provide limited opportunities for influence. Further, the study finds that agricultural policy is dominated by a “Green Revolution”-inspired narrative focused on production and productivity, although food security and environmental rehabilitation narratives exist alongside. Issues of agricultural production and natural resource management are found to be largely decoupled in policy, which constitutes another barrier for green non-state actors working across the divide. Given these challenging conditions, green non-state actors in Ethiopia choose a strategy of close collaboration with government institutions, which, while offering the possibility of large-scale impact, may also reduce the prospects for more radical change. Applying current theories of sustainability transformations to a new type of system, the study concludes with a call for new conceptualisations of endogenous and exogenous change in future research to ensure that the theory fits a broader range of social-ecological realities.

  • 35.
    Kaliff, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Blockchain as Social Innovation: How the technology behinds cryptocurrencies could support Transformation to Sustainability2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the need to understand the role of technology in transformation to sustainability, at the same time as evaluating the transformative capacity of the novel, yet under-researched blockchain technology. It relates to the need to evaluate what social innovations holds the greatest promise for sustainability transformation in the light of emerging environmental crisis. It is the first study of blockchain as a social innovation and identifies four mechanisms through which blockchain could support transformation to sustainability and proposes a lack to acknowledge ecological variables in the transformation process. These finding are useful for future studies of blockchain as a social innovation as well as for the development of transformation theory.

  • 36.
    Kylin, Hanna Linnéa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Assessing the performance of Ecological Compensation in Sweden: A comparative case study of an emerging tool in different contexts2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of ecological compensation (EC) assumes that ecological values are substitutable across spatial units. EC is increasingly recognised in Sweden as a novel policy instrument for land-use planning, however, it suffers from inconsistency in application and outcome. For example, there are no legal provisions to require EC for urban development or new roads and railways. This study shows that there are many context dependent variables affecting the performance of EC in Sweden, which can partly be explained by authorities’ lacking experience in administrating these questions, and by the absence of a standardised structure for handling the full EC process. These shortcomings together with an inadequate legislation may cause EC to result in “license-to-trash” and fails to guarantee no net loss of ecological values. The performance of EC in Sweden was assessed through two case studies: the Sigtuna trading estate and the Aitik mine expansions. Implementation procedures and compensation designs were investigated by analysis of written documents and semi-structured interviews. The data was structured in an analytical framework, displaying similarities and context dependent disparities. The results suggest that, for the Aitik-case, licence-to-trash is a risk if compensation schemes are reviewed by the regulatory authorities during the processing of the application. The Sigtuna case suggests, opposed to earlier findings, that the Plan and Building Act can be utilised for EC if the compensation measures are regulated in a development agreement between the municipality and the landowner/developer. Both cases suggest that additionality can be met by appropriate institutional design, whereas no net loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services hardly can be achieved within the existing Swedish legal framework. To improve the performance of EC, structures for handling the process from quantification of social and ecological values, to monitoring of compensation outcomes must be implemented in all development projects affecting nature.

  • 37.
    Käll, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Exploring opportunities for social learning in community response to natural hazards: A case study of Morpeth Flood Action Group, northwest of England2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social learning has had a growing recognition in the environmental debate and is argued to increase resilience. However, recent literature has spurred a discussion on shortcomings of the use of the concept. This study aims to add more empirical understanding to social learning by using a case study of flood hazards in Morpeth, England, as a critical lens. Moreover, there has been a call for more community involvement in disaster mitigation as well as increased understanding of long-term learning dimension. Therefore this research has focused on a self-organised community group, Morpeth Flood Action Group, triggered by a community response to a flood hazard. The findings, based on qualitative interviews and participatory observations, suggest various elements of, and opportunities for social learning in the organisational viability and the everyday operation of the studied community group. The findings indicate that social network over scales, institutional development by a bottom up processes and long-term possibilities for learning are instrumental. This study has identified enabling key factors for local learning process to happen and to be sustainable, which can be instructive for future development for local response capacity in disaster risk reduction and resilience. The study concludes that this type of spontaneously, “real-world” approach to social learning for can be a suitable study object for future empirical research.

  • 38.
    Källén, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Functional Importance of Herbivores: Tying the knot between fish biomass, parrotfish feeding and benthic structure on Kenyan coral reefs2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Herbivory is considered a key ecosystem process on coral reefs as it enhances reefs resilience by preventing shifts to macroalgal states. In trying to understand mechanisms and consequences of such shifts, research have taken on a variety of approaches, from the effect of declining habitat condition on (herbivorous) fish communities to the roles of specific herbivore functional groups and size classes therein. This study aimed to incorporate these different foci by investigating the interplay between roving herbivore biomass (surgeonfish and parrotfish), parrotfish functional impact and a coral-macroalgal gradient, represented by four Kenyan reefs. The feeding function (here, the amount and type of algae removed) was measured at the parrotfish community level and an in-depth assessment was made of two target species (Chlorurus sordidus and Scarus psittacus) to determine the effect of benthic condition and fish size. Both herbivore biomass and the parrotfish community functional impact declined over the coral-macroalgal gradient, and the transition was found at herbivore biomass of ~300 kg ha-1. Interestingly, benthos appeared to only have limited effect on the function of individual parrotfish, whereas size was highly important as large fish were found to be functionally superior. It was the discussed how herbivore biomass and level of herbivory can be both cause and consequence of benthic community structure, and whether biomass can serve as a measure of function. Lastly, the question is raised on how to balance the trade-off between fish for food or fish for function, discussing management implications that can allow for fishing without undermining function provided.

  • 39.
    Laggan, Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The power within social-ecological transformations: a case study of Bristol's food system, UK2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urban civil society and community groups are experimenting with new ways to provide food that could reduce global dependence on industrial agriculture and make the food system more resilient in a time of change. Changing the way cities provide food is conceptualized as a social-ecological transformation because it requires a fundamental shift in the way cities connect to close-by and far away ecologies, but also a rebalancing of power relations in urban food provision. The literature identifies specific individuals or groups, so-called ‘agents of change’, as critical for igniting processes of social-ecological transformation but are seen as less important when processes and norms and rules formalise.

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether this assumption on agents of change holds in the context of urban food provision. Bristol was selected as a critical incident case as it has progressed far in such a transformation and is institutionalising its trajectory in urban politics and civil society. Interviews with agents of change were gathered to determine who these people are and what they do when on the surface ‘power’ seems more or less equal.

    The results from this study demonstrate that:

    1) Institutionalisation can empower the community and its networks to become agents of change

    2) The ability to transform is not an exclusive property of leaders, but is embodied by ordinary people

    3) There are different types of agents of change that manifest their ability to transform resources and relations through networks.

    4) Conflicts between the food movement and authorities are not to put food on the agenda, but rather to make sure community-led development is prioritised and allocated resources.

    Given the right resources the food movement can support sustainable resource management and spaces for citizen planning and grassroots democracy, which could help rebalance power in the food system. 

  • 40.
    Larsson, Catarina
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The role of initial ecosystem state for future resilience and ecosystem outcome2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Loss of marine ecosystem resilience can lead to abrupt changes in ecosystem structure, so called regime shifts, which affects dynamics and function of the ecosystem. Loss of ecosystem provisioning services can have a substantial impact on human well-being. Reversing an ecosystem back to its original state after a regime shift can be difficult, costly and impossible. Management strategies applied after a regime shift can have a different future outcome than applied before the regime shift. In the face of climate change and intensification of nutrient loading and fishing, there is a need to understand how to manage marine ecosystems in order to prevent future regime shifts and to understand the outcome from applied management strategies. The Central Baltic Sea is a heterogeneous water body with hydrographical differences from the south to the north, and with Gotland basin suffering with hypoxic conditions and summer algal blooms and it provides an interesting opportunity to explore ecosystem response on a smaller spatial scale. Here I combine ecosystem modeling and future scenarios to explore past ecosystem dynamics and by testing future management strategies from two initial states explore the ecosystem outcome and resilience. The present study have successfully constructed an Ecopath with Ecosim food web model of Gotland basin from 1980 to 2009 where the results shows that past, i.e., 1980-2009 dynamics were in line with the changes occurring on a larger scale, the Central Baltic Sea. Results from future projections show that the level of nutrients has a large impact on the future outcome of the ecosystem and the influence initial ecosystem states have for future outcome is found to be low. 

    Finally, I discuss drivers and processes behind the past changes and future projections in Gotland food web, bringing insights to the role of initial ecosystem state for future ecosystem-based management.

  • 41.
    Lenell, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Decrease in traditional ecological knowledge through modernization: Perspectives on culturally protected village fengshui forests in Southeast China2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    China’s fast development after the founding of the People’s Republic in 1949 involved intense pressure on forests, leading to a massive decrease and degradation of forest landscapes, loss of biodiversity, soil erosion and flooding. However, many village fengshui forests (VFFs) have been spared devastation due to protection by informal village institutions built on fengshui, a form of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK).

    This study aimed to find out what happens with TEK of VFFs as Chinese society goes through modernization by looking at the difference between younger and older generations in Wuyuan County in Southeast China regarding: (1) knowledge about, beliefs related to, and attitude towards[1] the VFFs; and (2) values associated with ecosystem services (ES) provided by the VFFs.  Ninety-four interviews with “young” and “old” villagers were carried out in 10 villages in the county. The results show that TEK of VFFs is weakening and that the older generation values ES provided by the VVFs significantly higher than younger generations.

    As a complement, questions on historical changes in management and livelihoods from the VFFs where posed, revealing possible causes of the loss of TEK, such as suppression of belief systems and abandonment of ancient culture during the political campaigns of the 1960’s and 70’s in China. In conclusion, protection of VFFs will likely require recognition from higher authorities and inclusion in conservation policies. Further, the health and continued survival of the interlinked social-ecological system of VFFs will require acknowledging existing fengshui culture and involving local stewards in VFF management.

  • 42.
    Linder, Noah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Exploring tools to promote pro-environmental behaviour:: Can behavioural insights from psychology and behavioural economics be utilized to increase the recycling of food waste in Hökarängen, Sweden?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human behaviour need to change in order to avoid potentially catastrophic global environmental changes, thus promoting pro-environmental behaviour amongst individuals is one of today’s greatest challenges. This thesis presents a methodological approach for developing and designing implementations to promote pro-environmental behaviour, using behaviour insights from psychology and behavioural economics, mainly by combining theories from nudging and social marketing. The method was tested on a case study in Hökarängen, - a suburb of Stockholm (Sweden) and was used to design an information hand-out aimed at encouraging the pro-environmental behaviour of recycling food waste. The effect of the implementation was then tested through a natural field experiment and evaluated using a difference-in-difference analysis. The results indicate a significant increase in food waste collected and a significant decrease in unsorted household waste compared to a control group in the research area. This study provides a promising methodological approach for fostering behaviour change: and contributes to advancing the scientific fields of green-nudges and social marketing to nurture pro-environmental behaviour. Insights from this study could be used to guide development of policy tools to help Stockholm and Sweden reach environmental policy goals.

  • 43.
    Lindström, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nudging towards sustainable meat consumption: a natural field experiment2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The greatest leverage of reducing anthropogenic climate impact lies within curbing the increasing trend of global meat consumption. As such, there is a need for new types of tools within policy and business, as targeting food consumption with standard policy measures has proven difficult. This study examines the role of altering choice architectures in grocery stores in Sweden by implementing three types of so-called nudges with the purpose of making consumers reduce their minced beef consumption by supplementing it with carrots and beans. The effects of the nudges were tested through a natural field experiment involving 26 ICA stores in Stockholm-Mälardalen region. The results show a significant increase of consumption of carrots and beans. To determine if the nudge-intervention has an effect (a reduction) also on the minced beef, more research is needed. The study provides insights of what could work when it comes to applying nudges in food stores and concludes that nudging has the potential of being a valuable tool for policy makers and business leaders to steer consumers towards more sustainable consumption. Moreover, the study contributes to the understudied field of green nudging and natural field experiments in food stores. 

  • 44.
    Luna, Flor
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Transformation of urban lake governance in Bangalore, India: A comparison of civic initiatives2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urban lakes connected though channels across the city of Bangalore generate multiple ecosystem services including flood control, groundwater recharge, and water use for local livelihoods as well as recreation. However, on-going lake restorations often focus on recreation while excluding other users such as the urban poor, and fail to take into account lake connectivity and ecological function. Furthermore, restoration events are not followed up with adequate management actions. This study analyses and contrasts five lakes with co-management agreements, of which two were in more advanced state, and present the findings based on interviews with individuals involved in the initiatives.  Aim was to a) identify key phases in navigating change, and b) actors who were key in the different phases and their characteristics.

     

    The results suggest that strong leadership connected with emotional ties to ecosystems is key to initiating and navigating early stages of the transformation efforts, while successful interactions with formal authorities seem to be leveraged by politically engaged actors with knowledge about the functioning of the government system across scales. Stages related to the preparation of plans and proposals require the presence of actors with ecosystem-oriented knowledge, as their inputs seem to be strongly connected with improved ecological outcomes. Finally, a varied set of actors organized in sub-groups seem to facilitate phases related to building resilience in improved states.

     

    In identifying and analysing the capacities and competencies needed to initiate, develop, and facilitate transformation, the study reflects on general lessons for local and cross-scale governance of urban commons in complex governance contexts. 

  • 45.
    Lyckman Alnered, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    What facilitates or hinders the introduction of Adaptive Governance approaches into water quality management on a local level?: A case of Swedish municipalities2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive Governance approaches are being implemented by officials in Swedish municipalities. A close dialogue and cooperation between municipalities, and the acceptance of the uncertainty and unpredictability of climate change are included in the strategic work, and facilitate the introduction of Adaptive Governance approaches.

    However, Adaptive Governance approaches are at the same time hindered by the municipal systems, which does not allow for the introduction of new and innovative information. In particular, this study demonstrates that the systems are not structured to include such information from informal sources, such as citizens and farmers.

    This comparative study investigates water quality management at the local level, applying the concept of Adaptive Governance in three Swedish municipalities: Kalmar, Västerås and Upplands Väsby.The analysis is based on the theoretical framework of Adaptive Governance that expands on the understanding of adaptive management. The 17 semi-structured interviews conclude that the facilitators for Adaptive Governance are most evident within the areas of collaboration and shared responsibility between municipalities. Barriers to the development of Adaptive Governance are identified as a failure in the systems to include ecological knowledge.

    Expanding Adaptive Governance research to a larger number of municipalities within the European Union would shed some more light on what facilitates and what hinders the inclusion of Adaptive Governance approaches at the local level. Such research would have a dual effect: as a contribution to science and as a promotion for the practical implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive according to the Adaptive Governance approaches of the European water quality management.

     

  • 46.
    Mahajan, Shauna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Who benefits and who loses?: Evaluating the impacts of community-based marine protected areas on ecosystem services and human wellbeing2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Coral reef ecosystems are some of the most biologically diverse systems in the world, and provide a number of ecosystem services that humans depend on for their wellbeing. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a social-ecological intervention that while conserving these ecosystems, also have significant impacts on the communities that depend on them for their wellbeing. Community-based MPAs are growing in popularity with the assumption that by putting communities at the forefront of their planning and management, more participation will occur, ensuring positive social and ecological impacts. This study, through mixed qualitative and quantitative methods, examines two community-based MPAs in coastal Kenya (called tengefus) to understand how each tengefu was incepted, and how resource users perceive the impacts of the tengefu on ecosystem services and human wellbeing. Participation in and donor support for the tengefu were found to influence how resource users perceived impacts. Individuals who were more engaged in the project or held some type of leadership position perceived more positive impacts on ecosystem services and human wellbeing compared to those not involved. In the two cases, tangible benefits (e.g. fisheries spillover and ecotourism) from the marine enclosure itself are too few to benefit the community as a whole. For tengefus to be social successes, more attention should be given to engaging all resource-dependent community members in their planning, implementation and management, and to understanding the multifaceted role of donor funding in supporting these initiatives.

  • 47.
    Malmborg, Katja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Identifying ecotopes on a regionalscale in Burkina Faso2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sudano-Sahelian West Africa is expected to undergo major changes to its biophysical systems asa result of climate and land use change. A majority of the population in Sudano-Sahelian BurkinaFaso is directly dependent on the land for their livelihoods. Therefore, in light of the expectedenvironmental changes, it is essential to understand how social and ecological systems areinterlinked to safeguard people’s livelihoods. For this purpose, a landscape approach focusing onecotopes was developed by Sinare (2013) for mapping the sets of provisioning ecosystemservices supplied in the village landscape. To increase management relevance, the purpose of thepresent study was to investigate if and how the ecotopes can be scaled up. The results show thatthe ecotopes can be generalized from the village scale to a larger landscape level and that theecotopes can be mapped to a degree satisfactory enough to capture the composition of thelandscape using easily accessible remotely sensed data. These maps can then be used in thedecision process when designing locally adapted management interventions that will help sustainthe social and ecological resilience in Sudano-Sahelian Burkina Faso, a multi-functionallandscape that is undergoing large environmental and societal changes.

  • 48.
    Matamoros, Grazzia
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Uno para todos y todos para uno: Emergence and long-term endurance of collective action for governance of marine resources in Roatán, Honduras2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Illegal fishing is one of the main threats to coral reefs around the world. To address this and other problems related with natural resources degradation, self-organized collective action has been provided as an alternative to conventional management by the state. This study examines factors that enable the emergence and moreover, the long-term endurance of successful collective action for governance of marine resources. The case under study is the Roatan Marine Park Association (RMP), a grassroots initiative created to protect the reef from illegal fishing in Roatán, Honduras. The findings suggest the critical importance of social capital- measured in this study through features of trust, reciprocity and civic engagement- as well as leadership- performed by agents of change- for the initiation and the sustainability of the RMP. While the role of both factors was clearly evident for the emergence and endurance of the initiative, the findings also demonstrate that the decrease of community trust in the RMP can potentially affect its long-term endurance. In addition, context and other factors, i.e. recognizing the importance of managing the resources users depend on for their livelihoods, homogeneity in livelihoods and socio-cultural heterogeneity, and legal support from the government, also play an important role in the endurance of collective action. An approach where governments and self-organized initiatives work in partnerships is proposed. Furthermore, governments are called to support existing initiatives and create institutional mechanisms that people can use to organize themselves and collectively contribute to achieving more sustainable social-ecological systems.

  • 49.
    Mellegård, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Making craftsmanship visible as a source of social-ecological resilience: From the Swedish Arctic to the Stockholm Archipelago: Sami duodji and Baltic small scale fishing2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Craftsmanship is recognised as a source of practical wisdom that can inform sustainable management and use of natural resources. However, there are many outstanding questions about how the skills and tacit knowledge embedded in craftsmanship can facilitate social-ecological resilience for sustainability. It has also proved difficult to access and articulate the knowledge embedded in craftsmanship. With this study I explore the skill and tacit knowledge components of craftsmanship as a repository of cultural-ecological memory through two case studies: the duodji, or handicrafts, produced by a Sámi craftswoman living in Jokkmokk, Sweden, and the fishing style of a fisherman in the Stockholm archipelago. As such, the research has two main aims: 1) to understand how the skills and tacit knowledge embedded in craftsmanship function as carriers of cultural-ecological memory; 2) to explore ways of mobilising and capturing these knowledge types by making them visible through the use of visual methodologies like photography. The research highlights the value of the accumulated knowledge and the portfolio of skills that are components of craft practices. Visual methods, in particular photo elicitation, invite participants to link their craftsmanship to their culture and identity. In doing so, visual methods contribute a new perspective on the role of craftsmanship as a carrier of cultural-ecological memory because the craft practices themselves become reservoirs of tacit knowledge and embodied skills that can be drawn upon in responding and adapting to changes or disturbances in the social-ecological system.

  • 50.
    Nordqvist, Petter
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    System order and function in urban sanitation governance: Exploring the concept of polycentric systems in the city of Kampala, Uganda2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sanitation provision can in many low-income countries be regarded as a complex collective action problem, and is often managed through complex actor constellations. The theory of ‘polycentric order’ has been proposed for the governance of such constellations, describing ordered systems of interacting but autonomous actors. However, empirical data is largely lacking on how this concept can be applied to contribute to governance analysis in low-economy contexts. This paper uses polycentric systems theory to combine a broad assessment of system order with an evaluation of functional aspects associated with polycentricity. The theories are tested against a case study of the sanitation planning and implementation system of Kampala, Uganda, where responsibilities are split between multi-level authorities, NGOs, private sector actors and local landlords. Interviews with sector representatives indicate a system which is largely polycentric, but also to some extent lacks the essential aspect of common and enforced rules. While the diverse set of actors do show adaptive capacity, the analysis exemplifies how this capacity may give sub-optimal or even counteractive solutions if not matched by relevant incentive mechanisms at each level. Furthermore, the actor diversity is found to give enhanced capacity and sometimes function as a flexible ‘safety net’ in service provision, but also risk giving adverse effects in terms of equity and distribution. While some of these outlined problems may be alleviated by well-designed institutions, others are expected to come at a trade-off between flexibility and stability in actor roles. Conclusively, this study gives an empirical illustration of how a polycentric perspective can allow for a wider analysis of systemic problems in a decentralized, low-income governance context.

  • 51.
    Oehme, Kavita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Reconnecting Initiatives in the Food System: A study on food initiatives in Stockholm and their role in reconnecting people to the biosphere2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reconnecting humanity to the biosphere; i.e. to understand the biosphere and how we affect it, manage natural capital and actively work for a societal change in tune with the planet; is imperative for a sustainable development within the planetary boundaries. The food system is one area where there is a growing disconnect between consumers and producers, and through that also a reduced mental connection to the biosphere that supports food production. This thesis introduces, and analyses, the concept of Reconnecting Initiatives as a sub-category to Alternative Food Initiatives. These Reconnecting Initiatives are the diverse set of actors that are both small-scale producers and larger intermediaries and work with producers on both local and global scales. At the same time they share the similarity of opposing the conventional food system and curate information to consumers about the specific processes of food production and the food system in general. Reconnecting Initiatives are bringing producer and consumer closer together and by informing about food system practices encourage consumers to mentally reconnect to the biosphere. This study looks at Reconnecting Initiatives in Sweden, around the capital Stockholm, and aims to assess their main characteristics and information strategies. The study does this by conducting semi-structured interviews and textual analysis among a diverse set of Reconnecting Initiatives. The study finds that Reconnecting Initiatives around Stockholm are diverse in classification, categorization and size and that they use two information strategies: written channels (e.g. facebook, website, newsletter) and meeting producers. In conclusion, the diversity among Reconnecting Initiatives in Stockholm indicates a possibility for a larger and more diverse group of consumers to get information about the food system functions and enhance their possibility to mentally reconnect to the biosphere.

  • 52.
    Oreskovic, Nikolina
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Influence of local social factors on green area sustenance: Assessment of the protective capacity of Skärholmen, Stockholm2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines local social factors affecting land use change in Skärholmen, a socioeconomically weak and ethnically diverse area in Stockholm City. The goal is to provide insight in the protective capacity of the region in respect to public green areas. The underlining assumption is that different value perspectives compete against each other in affecting land use change, thus making ecosystem service delivery socially contingent. This is especially critical in the urban context where the densification approach increases the competition over limited urban land and people are increasingly disconnected from ecosystems. The study contributes to the portfolio on place-based conditions driving land use change in urban settings, helping to create better understanding of land use transition dynamics on a city scale. Methods for data collection include interviews with officials and members of the civil society, a survey among the local body of associations and real estate data. Main social factors found to affect land use change include limited agency among the local public and the local officials and shortage of bridging social capital on the community level. Further, environmental issues are subordinate to social issues when it comes to local public engagement. Other mechanisms in place are public processes demonstrated respectively by the largest green area (Sätraskogen) being protected by its reserve status, and economic processes in the form of low investment pressure. The latter contributes to preserving smaller green gaps. Overall the area demonstrates low protective capacity. If preservation of unprotected areas is positioned against development in the future, the area’s low socio-economical status might reinforce the risk of green area loss. Having a nature reserve might then be negative for persistence of smaller green areas, which would demonstrate local developmental pressure displacement. Due to limited civic protective capacity, the local community might not be able to counteract this.

  • 53.
    Palm, Celinda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    A Fashion System Without Getting Dressed? A Two-Strand Approach Towards Understanding How to Define and Transform a Global Complex Social-Ecological System2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, I view the global Fashion System in terms of hybridity, with the intention of developing a theoretical understanding of a sustainable fashion system. I explore a perpetuated micro-scale activity – getting dressed each day – as a driver of the fashion system. Thereby aiming to help in redefining and clarifying the dynamics of fashion as a complex social-ecological system, to inform of risks and opportunities towards sustainable fashion.

    This project has two strands; Firstly, a theoretical understanding of fashion as a social-ecological system emphasizing social and abstract representations. Secondly, an action-oriented research approach for understanding how the frameworks applied in a science-business collaborative project relate to sustainable fashion and how that affects their work. For this, I draw on Critical Realism as meta-theory, where the real world consists of both material and non-material stratified layers.  Dividing the fashion system in four stratified layers; physical, material interaction, socio-economic and culture, allows the bridging of theory and practice. I argue that three concepts hybridity, modernity and fashion are essential for visioning a future sustainable fashion system and that key social-ecological resilience theories are limited for weaving them together.

    I found that transformations towards sustainable fashion cannot be reduced to merely socio-technical solutions, as individual’s everyday perpetuated activity of getting dressed is linked to global negative environmental impacts. In the science-business collaborative project, key challenges were identified: inadequate amount of time, and absence of knowledge regarding the fashion industry and fashion theory as well as absence of critical reflections. Finally, I found that the concepts of affordances provide a useful link between human, ‘things’ and the abstract entities created through the value chains of the fashion system. Thus, I propose that affordances could be developed as a tool linking sustainability science, design studies and economic business models, enhancing knowledge in science-business collaborations. 

  • 54.
    Patel, Roweena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Identifying Spatial Distribution of Fishing Effort of Artisanal Fishers in Coastal Kenya2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal ecosystems such as coral reefs are under threat from multiple stressors, which include overfishing, pollution, and climate change. These ecosystems provide services to society for example fisheries provide income and a source of food. The disruption of marine ecosystems has diminished the services available. Marine Spatial Planning is a strategy used to couple social, cultural, economic, and political aspects that overlay biophysical attributes of ecosystems, to help resolve potential stakeholder conflicts. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are used to prevent overexploitation and reduce degradation of the marine ecosystems and their services. However with inadequate information MPA placement can be wide of the mark, reducing the resilience and sustainability of the system. Designating MPAs is especially important for artisanal fishers who fish as a source of livelihood. This study develops a method to identify spatial distribution of fishing effort of artisanal fishers, by comparing métiers (gear and vessel combination) at five locations off the coast of Kenya. K-means clustering algorithm was used to segment GPS fishing tracks into different behaviours e.g. travelling and fishing, by using speed and turning angle (change in heading). Once clusters that indicate travelling were identified a heat map was created with the proportion of time spent in each cell. Subsequently Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was undertaken between unfiltered (all GPS points) and filtered (estimated fishing locations) data, and between métiers. The results of intra-métier analyses indicated there was a difference, but all showed a positive correlation (0.47 to 0.93). Filtered inter-métier analyses produced negative correlations suggesting that all métiers are spatially segregated. This information is useful for many platforms and scales, and will provide a pathway to couple social and ecological systems together to ensure a resilient and sustainable future.

  • 55.
    Perl, Ashley
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Post-disaster recovery trajectories and community-based management: A case of community-based marine protected areas and their recovery from an earthquake in Bohol, Philippines2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a time when natural disasters are increasing, and much of the population that are impacted are from the most vulnerable populations, it has become increasingly important to understand how these populations recover. Vulnerable communities often rely on their natural resources as a source of livelihood, and use forms of community-based management (CBM) to govern resource use. When a disaster does strike, it has the capacity to shock all parts of the community, including natural resources and management tactics. Using a case of seven community-based marine protected areas (CB-MPA) that were impacted by an earthquake in Bohol, Philippines, this study found that CB-MPA systems with robust management capacities are better equipped for recovery in the event of a shock. This study found that level of damage was not a related to CBM recovery rate, but rather what was damaged, and that even communities with weak management capacities can recover from an earthquake if they receive extra support. In the event of a disaster on a community with a CBM area, policy makers should focus their attention on if infrastructure critical to the CBM system functioning was damaged, focus their efforts on communities with weaker management capacities, and should consider incorporating economic incentives into their CBM system in the event of a shock.

  • 56.
    Peters, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Ekosystemtjänster: En studie av kunskapsläge, hinder och strategier inom kommunal förvaltning2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ”Ecosystem services are the ecosystems direct and indirect contributions of ecosystems to human well-being.” In order to reach the generation target and the environmental objectives it is important to increase the awareness of biodiversity and ecosystem services and it’s importance to human welfare and simultaneously highlighting the value of ecosystem services. The value of ecosystem services should be integrated into economic standpoints, political considerations and other decisions in the society. In today’s society there is a problem concerning that the value of ecosystem services are not considered in economic terms, which can result in solutions that are unfavorable for our welfare (Ministry of Environment, 2012). According to Nilsson et al (2007) sustainable development can only be achieved by strategically involving all sectors, economic and environmental policies together, so-called environmental policy integration.

    In January 2013 the Swedish Government established a government commission (M 2013:01) to highlight the value of ecosystem services. This is a step in achieving the milestone of the importance of biodiversity and the value of ecosystem services. This report aims to contribute as groundwork for the government commission with the purpose to illustrate 1) how the municipality of Kristianstad and Eskilstuna, deemed to be in the forefront of integration of ecosystem services, have succeeded in integrating ecosystem services in various planning processes and the underlying success factors, 2) the level of knowledge and management of ecosystem services in four randomly selected municipalities and what obstacles they perceive and what measures are required in order for a municipality to integrate ecosystem services in various planning processes.

    The three main obstacles for a municipality to integrate ecosystem services in their work is lack of knowledge of ecosystem services, absence of a clear link between ecosystem services and spatial planning, and absence of national goals and state coordination. The municipalities of Kristianstad and Eskilstuna have managed to integrate ecosystem services through different projects, for example an ecosystem services analysis and a Resilience Assessment. The possible underlying success factors are key figures that possess knowledge of ecosystem services and who has the authority and desire to operate a change in the municipality. The municipality involves different stakeholders and there is a political will to work with this matter.

    There is an overall lack of knowledge of ecosystem services in the observed municipalities. None of the interviewed respondents in the four municipalities addresses ecosystem services explicitly in their work or work with ecosystem services on a strategic level. But the respondents agree that integrating ecosystem services in the municipality’s work would be a positive opportunity. There seems to be a lack of insight of the link between nature’s contribution to the society and it’s importance and impact on the economy and quality of life. This combined with a lack of sectorial integration are reasons why municipalities may have a long way to go in integrating ecosystem services in various planning processes. A good planning and conservation management for a sustainable use of ecosystem services in the municipalities requires more education and learning processes.

    Keywords: Ecosystem services, municipality, government, environmental policy integration. 

  • 57.
    Petersson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    THE CHANGING LANDSCAPE OF GLOBAL GOVERNANCE: A case study of the role of non-state actors in tuna RFMOs2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The landscape of global governance is changing. Interstate cooperating is increasingly characterized by fragmented network-like arrangements and substantial participation of non-state actors (NSAs), such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and transnational corporations (TNCs). Most studies on NSAs participation in global governance have focused on proving that NSAs matter, as a counter reaction to state-centric approaches that has dominated the field of International Relations. Less focus has however been given to exploring the linkages between NSAs participation and the impact on outcomes of global governance processes.

    This study addresses this gap in research by focusing on trends of NSA participation and exploring the impact of these trends on governance outcomes through a case study of tuna Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (tuna RFMOs). The results of this study show a major difference in institutional access between NGOs and industry representatives that participate in tuna RFMOs, which seems to co-determine their potential to influence governance outcomes. Further, Environmental NGOs (ENGO) increasingly participating as observers in tuna RFMOs which seems to have had positive effects in terms of sustainable management, e.g. more consideration of the precautionary principle. The study also illustrates the increased collaboration between industry and NGOs through the creation of hybrid NGOs and certification schemes. These new initiatives may help steer tuna fisheries towards a more sustainable and desirable trajectory. However, there are also indications that different types of NSAs are competing for influence rather than collaborating to achieve common goals.

  • 58.
    Reid, Nicole
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Patterns of subjective wellbeing in coastal Kenya and Mozambique and factors affecting it2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 59.
    Remolina, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    ROLE OF LOCAL STAKEHOLDERS IN REACHING, DEVELOPING, AND SUSTAINING COLLABORATIVE MANAGEMENT: CASE STUDY OF URBAN WETLANDS OF BOGOTÁ, COLOMBIA2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research analyzes how local stakeholder participation helps reach, develop, and sustain collaborative management in urban wetlands of Bogotá.  Trajectories of management are traced from the early 1990s to present. Based on semi-structured interviews and focus groups carried out in seven urban wetlands, comparison were made by using a framework that allows analyzing deliberate social transformations. The results indicate that types of local stakeholder participation have effect on reaching, developing and sustaining collaborative management. The trajectories toward collaborative management of seven urban wetlands show that five of them reached this type of management at some point, two of these five were able to develop it, and only one could sustain it. All cases start with independent actions but only those that routinize collaborative and transformative participation events were able to develop collaborative management. The only case that sustains this type of management is because local stakeholder participation to make decisions is secured by court ruling that protects it from changes in the city’s political leadership.

     

    The case sheds light on the vulnerability of local stakeholder participation and collaborative management under unstable government rules to manage urban wetlands.  The most successful strategy that local stakeholders use to address this volatile management condition is legal actions, which not only allows reaching collaborative management, but also protects their participation to develop and sustain this type of management.  

  • 60.
    Resare Sahlin, Kajsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Delicious Sustainability?: Synergies and goal conflicts between eating quality and environmental sustainability in Swedish beef production2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Improved production and reduced consumption of beef is often highlighted as key aspects for tackling sustainability issues of the food system because the environmental impact of beef is ~100 times higher than plant-based foods. Both scientist and civil society organisations argue that eating “less but better” beef is important for sustainability. Better quality can encompass better eating quality as well as improved sustainability, but despite the two being very important for overall quality, very little research on interactions between them exists. No tools, applicable in Sweden, allowing for joint assessment have been developed. This study investigates the synergies and trade-offs between eating quality and environmental sustainability by using Swedish beef production as a case study. It reviews peer reviewed literature on factors that contribute to eating quality (flavour, tenderness and juiciness), and four factors that contribute to environmental sustainability (climate, biodiversity, feed/food competition and animal welfare). Based on the findings, an indicator-based sustainability assessment framework and a meat quality grading scheme differentiating Premium and Standard eating quality is developed, aimed to be practical tools for Swedish beef assessments. The study provides a systems-based understanding of synergies and trade-offs that may occur when “less but better” is presented as a strategy for tackling the environmental impact of beef. Results show that there are synergies between eating quality and biodiversity, animal welfare and with the right choices of feed, feed/food competition but with consequent trade-offs with climate impact. The discussion addresses the potential of enhanced eating quality to increase the profitability of Swedish beef production without consequent substantial negative impact on sustainability. The suggested methods have the potential to facilitate a shift from quantity- to quality-based consumption, but further empirical studies are required.

  • 61.
    Samuelsson, Karl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mapping neighbourhood typologies for social-ecological urbanism: A spatial experiential analysis of Stockholm2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on urban environments often display contradictory evidence regarding social and ecological outcomes, asserting conflicting development trajectories. In this thesis, affordance theory is applied with the aim of developing a method for relating high-precision mapping of urban structural characteristics to inhabitants’ experiences. I analyse neighbourhood scale trade-offs and synergies between residential populations (RP), working populations (WP) and the ecosystem service temperature regulation (TR) in Stockholm municipality. Neighbourhood typology is introduced as an empirical classification of neighbourhoods based on these structural characteristics. I further analyse experiential outcome in different typologies by applying inhabitant experience data (N = 1828) from an online public participatory geographic information system survey. Analyses reveal strong trade-off patterns between populations and TR capacity. No typologies feature a large RP, a large WP and high TR capacity. Positive experiences are more likely in neighbourhoods with high TR capacity and negative experiences are more likely in neighbourhoods with a large WP, while most neighbourhoods are equally well experienced despite differences in services. The thesis concludes that affordance theory provides methodological tools that when combined can close the gap between structural characteristics of the environment and experiential outcome, in turn leading to a better understanding of what constitutes social-ecological urbanism.

  • 62.
    Sanecka-Wojda, Joanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Right to the countryside in the city – bottom-up initiatives for green areas in Warsaw2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The engagement of local stewards is critically important for sustaining ecosystems services in cities. But what makes urban dwellers interested in stewardship of urban nature? This study conducted in Warsaw shows that activism is related to three intertwined areas of motivations: nature, place and community. Activism can be motivated by reasons not related to the natural environment such as democratization of decision-making in the city. The three areas of motivations combined create an ideal urban environment activists were willing to engage for. It can be called “countryside in the city”. This desirable urban environment provides naturalistic-looking nature, stronger social bonds between people, allow for feeling safe and relaxed. Activists are also acting against degradation of nature, places and community right to take a part in decision-making about their living environment. Activism for green areas in the city may require engaging in conflicts over the city space and discourse about it. Higher level of engagement was found aiming at co-creating the city. Social-ecological memory of agency was identified – a collective memory of the possibility of influencing urban environment based on previous experiences. The results suggest that urban stewardship seems to require all kinds of engagement also aiming for taking an active role in co-creating the city. The social-ecological memory of agency might be an important tool of activism. Engagement for urban nature may be driven by other than environmental reasons. This gives hope that various groups could potentially engage in activism for green areas. The idea of “countryside in the city” if seen in other context may be used for participatory urban planning.

  • 63.
    Seco Pérez, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sumak Kawsay: Listening to the voices of the Living Forest: Resilience and Identity for Indigenous peoples in the Ecuadorian Amazon2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Indigenous peoples around the world are expected to deal with exogenous socio-political models, which pursuit their development and the establishment of alliances for conserving their ecosystems. In many cases, these models threaten their existence, in mind and soul, as peoples bonded with nature through identity. In order to safeguard their well-being and most significantly, their identities, building resilience becomes vital. The present thesis explores this resilience-identity relationship through a case of Indigenous social-ecological systems in the South-Central Ecuadorian Amazon: the Amazonian descendants’ Living Forest. In 2008, Ecuador conceptualized Sumak Kawsay, harmony with nature, as a new notion of welfare informed by indigenous wisdom. By relying on this, the study listened to the voices of the Living Forest through qualitative interviewing. An in-depth comparative analysis of three native villages was also carried out and complemented with key stakeholders’ narratives to illustrate how the state-wide conservation and poverty alleviation initiative Socio Bosque, interacts with the Amazonian descendants’ identity. Findings show that Amazonian descendants want to “remain” as peoples of the Living Forest. “Remaining” is rooted in a cultural-ecological identity whose intrinsic characteristic is resilience. Such identity is pivotal for achieving Sumak Kawsay. However, the cases also demonstrate that the presence of Socio Bosque undermines the Amazonian descendants’ self-determination of “remaining”. It, therefore, suggests that the Sumak Kawsay that is being mobilized in Ecuador constrains Indigenous peoples’ resiliencies. Consequently, the research recalls for a transformation, in the academic and socio-political realms, for dignifying Indigenous peoples’ identities and resiliencies if respectful collaborations are intended. 

  • 64.
    Sellberg, My
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Resilience in Practice for Strategic Planning at a Local Government2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses two research gaps: the gap of how to operationalize resilience in an urban context, and the gap on empirical studies of the relationship between resilience and sustainable development. I have approached these gaps by entering the emerging field of interdisciplinary research linking planning and resilience in a study of the process of preparing a resilience assessment for the semi-urban municipality of Eskilstuna in Sweden (2012–13). In order to capture in-depth data, I have conducted participant observation of the resilience assessment process, semi-structured interviews with the organizers at the municipality, as well as key participants from other departments, a review of the official municipal documents and a survey to the workshop participants. My findings show that resilience thinking helped frame the previously overlooked threats of a future triple crises, and bridge the short-term crisis management and the longer-term planning for sustainable development at the municipality. The idea of complex adaptive systems introduced a new perspective for sustainable development in the municipality, which practitioners thought was useful for providing new arguments to hinder slowly degrading trends, as well as clarifying the picture of a sustainable society.

  • 65.
    Siegel, Philipp
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Structural and Functional Changes in a Lake Bacterial Community Exposed to Multiple Stress Regimes2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial community resilience and resistance may play an important role in a world affected by climate change and increasing environmental disturbances. In this study we examined the resilience of a bacterial lake community from Lake Ekoln, Sweden, under increased environmental stress. The community was exposed to various stress regimes of altered temperature and salinity to answer the questions if and how higher amounts of stress influence the bacterial community in terms of its community structure and functionality. We measured bacterial productivity, ecto-enzyme activities and changes of fluorescent dissolved organic matter to evaluate the community's functional responses under stress and used terminal-restriction length polymorphism (TRFLP) to assess the community's structural characteristics over time. Although bacterial community composition (BCC) changed constantly under changing environmental conditions, community functionality remained high and the community performed well under the various stress regimes. Our results suggest that the Lake Ekoln bacterial community is highly resilient considering the investigated stresses, and its adaptive capacity is high due to the community's inherent adaptability and redundancy.

  • 66.
    Skyllerstedt, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Can NGOs make a difference? - The role of NGOs in agricultural water development policy processes in Tanzania2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural water management (AWM) has been identified as a mean for small-scale farmers to increase productivity and to overcome challenges posed by occurring climate changes, holding them in a poverty trap. Stakeholder participation has been included in national plans since the development of the Agenda 21, from the Rio Conference in 1992. In this context, the participation of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) is recognised to play a key role in ensuring sustainability and reduction of poverty, for example through approaches of integrated water resources management (IWRM) and ‘good governance’. This study focuses on the participation of NGOs in decision making around agricultural water development in Tanzania. The research takes a systematic approach to address both the ‘perceived’ and ‘expected’ engagement of NGOs in different policy processes.

    The findings of this study demonstrate that although NGOs are formally included in decision making, their participation has become narrowed down to service provision and implementation of policies, as opposed to NGOs having a more meaningful influence over the setting of policy priorities.

    The study further demonstrates that unequal power relations between different NGOs as well as between collectives of NGOs and other stakeholders in government and business may pose added challenges for their participation in policy development. However, the organisation of NGOs in networks may provide a fundamental (yet not formally articulated) support towards NGO efforts to overcome unequal power relations. It is therefore important to better understand how well-coordinated NGO networks with good connections to decision-makers can help individual NGOs to increase their influence in policy processes.

  • 67.
    Smith, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Nestlé and the Global Water Governance Arena2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The future of global water supply and availability is one of the most important questions facing life on earth today, and experts agree that the most pressing angle to approach the question from is its governance. However, water represents one of the worlds broadest and most complex fields of governance due to its cross thematic and cross-boundary reach, as well as an increase in new actors through privatisation and transnational corporate influence.  In order to actively implement new governance approaches the current system, its actors, connections and influence strategies must be identified. This study combines three theoretical and methodological approaches to study our current global water governance structure: Neo-Gramscian, Network analysis and Policy Entrepreneurship. The Neo-Gramscian influence theory is used to identify 3 types of connections between actors. The resulting data is then used for network analysis to identify the key actors within the field. Once these key actors have been identified, all Nestlé (as a case study for transnational corporations) connections to said actors and the field of water governance have been highlighted under the combined theoretical lenses of Neo-Gramscian influence and Policy Entrepreneurial strategies. These three theories are used in conjunction for several reasons: All three theories represent a different perspective of analysing the decentralised, large scale governance of a complex system. While network analysis allows for the visual representation of the governance “space” and for the identification of key actors and their connections, the Neo-Gramscian and policy entrepreneur approaches give insight into how these connections might be used and created in order to lead to a position of influence within the system. The results show a list of 42 key actors to whom Nestlé has a large number of self-reported connections across all 3 influence types. It further shows that Nestle actively uses at least 3 of the 4 entrepreneurial strategies on some of these connections. This suggests that Nestlé may have some significant influence in global water governance. The study is also a proof of concept for the synthesis of the three complementary theories.

  • 68.
    Spijkers, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Exploring Misfit: A case study of the northeast Atlantic mackerel2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The pressure of a growing and developing global human society creates environmental stresses that require collaborative management. Sudden and dramatic ecological changes can, however, impede such management by making social arrangements out of alignment with the ecosystem they were designed to manage. In sustainability science that failure is often referred to as a ‘misfit’. This thesis aims to add to our understanding of misfit by investigating what sparks misfits, and which causal mechanisms cause them to persist. To do that, a case study is used in which the geographical distribution shift of a marine species has produced a misfit, and a long-standing international conflict between stakeholders: the mackerel case. Since 2007 the northeast Atlantic mackerel stock started migrating and spawning towards more northern and western regions of the Nordic Seas, progressively going as far as Icelandic and south Greenlandic waters in the west. A misfit developed and endured because Iceland has not been included in the de facto management of the stock until this day. ‘Process-tracing’ is used to explain this outcome, i.e. to uncover the causal mechanisms behind the endurance of the misfit. The results show that the misfit persisted despite stakeholders recognizing its existence and making efforts to resolve it. The case study shows that an interaction of barriers to re-fitting, such as ‘absence of authority’, ‘politicization of scientific results’, ‘lack of trust’ etc., came into play at different points in time. Moreover, the results also demonstrate that misfit is dynamical, as it can enlarge or reduce through time. Some of the causal mechanisms that this study uncovered resonate with the literature on social-ecological misfit focusing on local and regional scales. Other causal mechanisms that were identified so far remained under-theorized in the literature. These mechanisms contributing to its endurance seem to be typical for misfits on international scales, i.e. absence of authority, interstate politics and influence of power imbalances (where powerful (coalitions of) actors are able to resist changes).

  • 69.
    Sternäng, Märta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Rights of Nature through the eyes of indigenous peoples: A power analysis in Ecuador2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Governance approaches that foster more nurturing nature-human relationships are needed to reconnect humanity and societal development to the limits of the biosphere. Ecuador has been portrayed as a source of inspiration in its move to grant constitutional rights to nature. This unique constitution builds on the indigenous concept Sumak Kawsay that couples nature and humanity. However, Ecuador’s economy is based on extraction of natural resources, leading to land use conflicts between the indigenous peoples and large energy companies. Building on indepth interviews in Ecuador, this study explores the Rights of Nature (RoN) through the perceptions of indigenous peoples and analyses power relations within its practice. Limited access to knowledge, a source of power that is mobilised by the Ecuadorian state, limits the application of the RoN by indigenous and non-indigenous peoples and hinders the implementation of the RoN by the justice system. For the indigenous peoples, sources of power building on human capital, spiritual beliefs and fundamental human rights were central and identified as means to circumvent barriers to the Ecuadorian justice system. This study argues that (a) as opposed to how the international community depicts the RoN in Ecuador, the RoN are not central to the indigenous peoples’ agenda (b) a deep mistrust towards the Ecuadorian government decreases the legitimacy of the RoN in practice; (c) in a different political setting and future, the RoN could have the potential to serve as a bottom-up and polycentric approach to environmental governance and operate as a boundary object, enabling a co-existence of worldviews in Ecuador; and (d) the example of Ecuador plays an important role in the advancement of RoN globally, but this study shows that it is crucial to contextualise the RoN and include all relevant actors in the process, to ensure a long-term implementation.

  • 70.
    Stikvoort, Britt
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    THOU SHALLT NOT SELL NATURE: A STUDY ON HOW TABOO TRADE-OFFS AFFECT OUR PRO-ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOUR2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Humans are part of social-ecological systems, and preferably these systems are resilient, as this increases security of societal benefits derived from them. However, ecosystem-resilience is often threatened by loss/degradation of natural areas. Ideally, nature is only developed after careful cost/benefit analyses, but non-marketable ecosystem-services are often left unaccounted in land-development plans, resulting in loss of these systems and services. One solution is incorporating ecosystem-services into cost/benefit analyses by putting a price-tag on these services. However, people do not accept the ensuing trade-offs, which pit sacred values (nature) against secular values (money). Such (taboo) trade-offs are morally offensive, yet they are necessary if we want to preserve ecosystems from ongoing degradation. 

    Moral cleansing – attempts to reaffirm one’s own moral position - is a reaction towards taboo trade-offs (i.e. in the shape of donations to charities) However, little is known about people’s behavioural response to assaults on sacred values related to the environment. 

    Aim: This study focuses on how trade-offs between environmental ‘sacred’ values and monetary values affect expressions of moral cleansing, namely pro-environmental behaviour in the shape of donations to an environmental charity. It investigates whether taboo trade-offs have effects on people’s environmental donations, and consequently the relative importance of trade-offs in such behaviour compared to other behaviour-influencing factors. Laboratory experiments (N=139) were conducted followed by regression analyses, and Multimodel-Inference techniques for data-analysis. 

    Conclusion: Participants’ decision-to-donate to an environmental charity is affected by social consciousness and taboo trade-offs. Thus taboos are a factor influencing donation behaviour. 

    Discussion: Results suggest that people with a non-anthropocentric worldview believe that they ought to donate more, but in reality, other factors influence the real decision-to-donate. In this study it is exposure to a taboo trade-off and social consciousness that affects the real decision-to-donate. This supports prior evidence for moral cleansing effects and expands it to environmental fields. It also shows the added use of the explorative MMI-approach in social science-topics. Societal applicability is found in improvement of CBAs, and potential usage as behaviour-change technique. However, such usage deserves more attention on practicalities, feasibility and ethics.

  • 71.
    Sundin, Anneli
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The role of agricultural interventions for the Sahelian re-greening2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Sahel region has over the past three decades experienced a greening trend, in terms of increased vegetation, and studies show that land management might have contributed to this trend. After periods of droughts in the 1970s and early 1980s development agencies have invested considerably in agricultural projects in the Sahel, promoting the use of improved farming techniques. Using GIS mapping, this study explores the potential impact of these interventions on the re-greening in the northern parts of Burkina Faso and south-western parts of Niger. By bridging research made on a micro-scale (local case studies) with macro-scale studies (remote sensing analysis) new perspectives are added to the discussion on the on-going landscape changes in the Sahel. 

    The results do not indicate any correlation between spread of agricultural interventions and re-greening over the study area as a whole. However, some interesting differences were found between different sub-regions. In the northern parts of Burkina Faso the spatial extent of agricultural intervention programs seems to correlate fairly well with increases in NDVI, which is consistent with local-scale research from that area. In the far east of the study area, in Niger, on the other hand, the results instead point in the opposite direction. 

    The thesis concludes that while the effectiveness of some types of agricultural intervention programs might be questioned, the re-greening is also a very complex process in which scale considerations are of key importance for understanding manifestations and effects of current landscape changes. More in situ research is needed to further our understanding of what role agricultural interventions may have in increasing resilience in the Sahel.

  • 72.
    Telemo, Vera
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Discarding the Landing Obligation?: Swedish Fishers' Commitment to the EU Discard Ban2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread practice of discarding dead fish is believed to negatively affect the sustainability of fish stocks. Between 2015-2019 a landing obligation, aiming to gradually eliminate this practice, is introduced in all EU fisheries. The Landing Obligation (LO) forces fishers to land all catch and requires monitoring at sea rather than on land, it is therefore anticipated to be particularly difficult to enforce. Based on this, the perceived legitimacy of the policy among fishers is believed to be of greatest importance to ensure successful implementation. 

     

    To create an understanding of fishers’ commitment to uphold the LO, this study examines Swedish demersal West Coast fishers’ perceived legitimacy of the LO through qualitative interviews. In the interviews Swedish fishers expressed a dual commitment towards upholding the LO. On the one hand, the fishers are overall highly committed to avoiding unwanted catch, which is shown by a positive attitude towards the use and development of selective gear. On the other hand, many are sceptical to the practical formation of the LO, which is at times perceived as incoherent with the fishers’ ecological understanding, as well as with individual fishing practices and policy aims. Finally there are indications of a lack of trust from fishers in the knowledge and intentions of fishery managers, which creates a barrier for commitment to any fishery policy.

     

    For the LO to succeed it is important that fishers develop their practices to avoid unwanted catch. Therefore, it is important to facilitate fishers’ commitment to the policy’s aim rather than merely focusing on compliance with the policy rules.

  • 73.
    Torrents, Pau
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Farmers' participation in conservation of rural landscapes: A case study of the Menorca Biosphere Reserve (Spain)2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In an European context of agricultural land abandonment, the role of the farming community as landscape stewards is crucial for maintaining the rural landscape as well as the ecosystem services provided by this landscape. Such stewardship is studied here by assessing the participation of the farming community in the management of Menorca Biosphere Reserve, a small Mediterranean island with very well conserved and rich rural landscape which is not escaping this tendency of land abandonment. A survey of 41 farms and interviews with 15 stakeholders were performed in order to assess the role of the farming community in participatory management processes and the effectiveness of the Menorca Biosphere Reserve Agency (MBRA) in facilitating their participation.The results show that the participatory activities of the MBRA are effective and highly valued by participating stakeholders but could be improved by: 1) engaging non-associated farmers and traditional farmers in the MBRA activities 2) finding a consensual and long-term solution on issues related to the access to private rural land 3) providing rapid feedback to participants after meetings and 4) transforming the MBRA structure in order to deal with changes and an uncertain future. Failing to do this could illegitimate further participatory activities, erode trust among stakeholders and alienate the farming community and the society, thereby affecting the maintenance of the rural landscape.This case study highlights the importance of appropriate management structure for adaptive co-management to benefit from the participation of stakeholders in general and farmers in particular. The findings should be of interest to managers, scholars and practitioners using adaptive co-management approaches to manage complex social-ecological systems such as rural, cultural landscapes.

  • 74.
    Vikström, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Motivations behind gardening in a rapidly urbanizing landscape - a case study of urban gardening in Bangalore, India2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    India’s IT-capital Bangalore is experiencing rapid urbanization causing diminishing greenery and biodiversity. Urbanization contributes to disconnecting humans from nature, further contributing to environmental degradation, since connecting with nature is crucial for fostering pro-environmental behaviour and stewardship which is required for urban resilience. The city’s long legacy of home gardening has been threatened by the city growth, however, Bangaloreans are finding new ways of engaging in gardening. This study gives an inside perspective of how and why middle class Bangaloreans choose to engage in gardening, building on interviews with 24 terrace and community gardeners, and identification of 6 community garden initiatives. The terrace gardening movement emerged during the 1990s, and have now spread to engage several thousands of citizens, growing on their rooftops across the city, however, community gardening is a ‘new’ phenomenon. The motivations expressed by gardeners are, in this study, categorised in motivational drivers and direct benefits. Motivational drivers affect the gardener’s desire to engage and these drivers are identified as memories, cultural values and beliefs, experiences of urbanization, perception of risk and external influence. Direct benefits are the benefits they get from gardening, identified as material, psychological and social benefits. The main motivations stated were the benefits of healthy food and connecting with nature. Terrace gardeners have a strong network and the main platform for interaction is social media, and many community gardeners are also part of that forum, where experiences and knowledge are shared. Gardeners use natural and organic practices and many have a desire to preserve traditional species and methods. This indicates that urban gardening is a way of stewardship of urban (agro)biodiversity and thus requires increased attention, for overcoming challenges related to management and lack of perseverance, and for contributing to city resilience through human and nature connections through gardening.

  • 75.
    Villarrubia Gómez, Patricia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Marine plastic pollution as a novel entity within the Planetary Boundaries Framework2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Could marine plastic pollution be integrated as a novel entity within the planetary boundary framework? We know that human activities are capable of changing the normal function of Earth-systems processes. One of the most evident contemporary anthropogenic activities is the use and disposal of plastic. Overall, plastics represent 10% of the solid waste weight. Furthermore, plastic items represent 95% of marine litter on a global scale. The magnitude of the effects of marine plastic pollution remains uncertain. 

    In this thesis, I analyse the perspectives of key experts on the social-ecological processes involved in marine plastic pollution. I use a driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework for the analysis of the interviews, to show how these experts see marine plastic pollution affecting Earth-system processes. I conclude that, from a qualitative perspective, marine plastic pollution does fulfil the criteria for chemical pollution to pose a planetary boundary threat, therefore it could be considered for inclusion in the planetary boundary framework.

  • 76.
    Wahl, Darin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Exploring pathways to transformations in post-disaster-event communities:  A case study on the Mad River Valley, Vermont, USA2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is already having a powerful effect on many areas through superstorms and flooding events. The flooding from tropical storm Irene in 2011 took Vermont by surprise, sparking momentum for change. While adaptive capacity as a response to climate change is vital, in many cases it may not be enough. This thesis developed an analytical framework for assessing transformative capacities from a linked social-ecological system perspective. By combining the literatures of transition management and resilience transformations, a cohesive framework emerged, with a scope incorporating multiple interacting scales and phases of transformation. 

    The findings suggest a multiplicity of capacities are activated in a post-disaster setting, with networks, bridging organizations, and leaders as primary for restorative, adaptive, and transformative capacity activation, while innovation and obstacle negotiating as primary foci for informal networks and experimentation. Broadly, the framework when applied spatially (multi-scale) and temporally (multi-phase) was effective in uncovering dynamics of change processes. Additionally, a foundation of social, economic, and cultural aspects was shown to be influential in the development and mobilization of capacities, including community resilience, place attachment, and the long-term viability of the economic sector. This study makes a theoretical contribution by linking transitions and transformations literatures in a single framework, which can be tested in further studies.

  • 77.
    Wassénius, Emmy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    A spatiotemporal analysis of coral reef regimes and fish herbivory across the Hawaiian Archipelago2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Coral reefs can undergo shifts to alternative ecological regimes (or states) when exposed to stress. Acquiring a deeper understanding of when coral reefs become increasingly vulnerable to such shifts (i.e. regime shifts), and the stability of alternative regimes once unfolded, has important societal consequences as associated ecosystem services may change or be lost. Herbivory has been advocated as a key process that determines reef regimes. Here I show the co-occurrence of three distinct reef regimes across the Hawaiian archipelago from 2010-2015, providing empirical evidence for the existence of alternate regimes on a large spatiotemporal scale. I investigate the linkages between benthic regimes and the herbivory function, breaking down the taxonomic and functional diversity of the herbivore community through a trait-based functional space approach. This approach highlights a pattern of varying functional redundancy within herbivore communities across the regimes. A better understanding of these types of regime differences is integral for fully grasping where, when and how these shifts occur.

  • 78.
    Williman, Kate
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Soybean trade telecouplings and land use change in Uruguay: connecting the provincial to the global2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving sustainable agriculture requires identifying the links between key actors’ behaviour and remote impacts (i.e. the “who”, the “what” and the “where”). However, efforts at assessment are constrained by a lack of connection between international trade flows, empirical outcomes within local systems, and the role of facilitating actors. A combination of the novel telecoupling framework with the newly-developed Spatially Explicit Information on Production Consumption Systems (SEI-PCS) model has potential to address these constraints. This study therefore used SEI-PCS to assess whether the emergence of soybean trade telecouplings drove land use change outcomes in Uruguayan provinces between 2000 and 2011, and identify which soybean traders facilitated any telecoupling. There was evidence that the emergence of a soybean trade telecoupling between the central Litoral provinces and China, via the soybean trading companies ADM, Dreyfus and Cargill, drove livestock and cropland conversion to soybean production in these provinces. Conversely, this telecoupling may have created a spillover system in the North due to displacement of beef production. This shows that there can be important subnational spatial heterogeneity in agricultural land use change outcomes driven by remote consumption. Further work is proposed to clarify the key factors responsible for these differences in outcome, and their implications for future sustainability for agricultural production in Uruguay.

  • 79.
    Woroniecki, Stephen
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Challenging and Defending the Status Quo - The role of power relations for social-ecological systems transformation in MACEMP Zanzibar2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is critique that Resilience theory does not adequately address issues of power in socialecological systems (SES). Yet this critique has yet to systematically review approaches used to address power in resilience studies, or outline which types of power concepts can be used to understand powers contribution to processes of social-ecological change (SES). Power is a significant factor facilitating or constraining change; but the balance may depend upon contextual circumstances. The aim of this thesis is to study how power can be usefully addressed in the practical context of achieving transformative change. The first part of the thesis considers potential gaps in resilience theory’s understanding of power; and then identifies several other relevant conceptualisations of power that can help to broaden the appreciation of the role of power in SES contexts. In the second part a power framework is applied to analyse the World Bank’s MACEMP Project, Zanzibar, which is framed as a case of non-transformation. The findings from the case-study show that in order to explain power’s effects on transformation processes, it is necessary to take account of power emanating from dominant actors, but also groups of people perceived as having little power, and even the unexpected effects of the power struggle between these two groups.

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