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  • 1. Abdel Hai, R
    et al.
    Yassin, A
    Ahmad, MF
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Comparing an e-Learning Reproductive Health Module with Traditional Lectures at a Medical School in Egypt2010Ingår i:  , 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2. Abdel Hai, R
    et al.
    Yassin, A
    Ahmad, MF
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors of Medical Students Towards Using Computer Technology in Learning2010Ingår i:  , 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3. Abdelhai, Rehab
    et al.
    Yassin, Sahar
    Ahmad, Mohamad F.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    An e-learning reproductive health module to support improved student learning and interaction: a prospective interventional study at a medical school in Egypt2012Ingår i: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 12, s. 11-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Public Health (PH) course at the medical college of Cairo University is based on traditional lectures. Large enrollment limits students' discussions and interactions with instructors. Aim: Evaluate students' learning outcomes as measured by improved knowledge acquisition and opinions of redesigning the Reproductive Health (RH) section of the PH course into e-learning and assessing e-course utilization. Methods: This prospective interventional study started with development of an e-learning course covering the RH section, with visual and interactive emphasis, to satisfy students' diverse learning styles. Two student groups participated in this study. The first group received traditional lecturing, while the second volunteered to enroll in the e-learning course, taking online course quizzes. Both groups answered knowledge and course evaluation questionnaires and were invited to group discussions. Additionally, the first group answered another questionnaire about reasons for non-participation. Results: Students participating in the e-learning course showed significantly better results, than those receiving traditional tutoring. Students who originally shunned the e-course expressed eagerness to access the course before the end of the academic year. Overall, students using the redesigned e-course reported better learning experiences. Conclusions: An online course with interactivities and interaction, can overcome many educational drawbacks of large enrolment classes, enhance student's learning and complement pit-falls of large enrollment traditional tutoring.

  • 4. Ahmad, Fouad
    et al.
    Ibrahim, Maha
    El-Esnawy, N
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    An e-Learning Faculty Development Course with Formative Assessment2010Ingår i: 16th Annual Sloan Consortium International Conference on Online Learning, 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An e-Learning faculty development course has been developed and taught in Egypt for the past five years. The course adopts Formative Assessment (FA) techniques to enhance participants' learning. The additional FA effort for collecting and analyzing data as well as adjusting teaching is worth investing to accommodate gaps in learning.

  • 5. Arborelius, Lotta
    et al.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Svensson, Anna-Karin
    Sygel, Kristina
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    A new interactive computer simulation system for violence risk assessment of mentally disordered violent offenders2013Ingår i: CBMH. Criminal behaviour and mental health, ISSN 0957-9664, E-ISSN 1471-2857, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 30-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Assessment of risk of future violence has developed from reliance on static indicators towards a more dynamic approach. In the latter context, however, the offender is seldom confronted with real life situations. Aims The aim of this study is to evaluate a computer-based system Reactions on Display, which presents human interactions based on real-life situations for its effectiveness in distinguishing between potentially violent offenders with mental disorder and a healthy comparison group. Methods Male offenders with autism spectrum disorders or psychosis were recruited from specialist forensic psychiatric units in Sweden and healthy participants from the local communities. Each consenting participant was presented with film clips of a man in neutral and violent situations, which at critical moments stopped the story to ask him to predict the thoughts, feelings and actions of the actor. Results Offender patients, irrespective of diagnosis, detected fewer emotional reactions in the actor in the non-violent sequence compared with controls. When asked to choose one of four violent actions, the offender patients chose more violent actions than did the controls. They also reported fewer physical reactions in the actors when actors were being violent. There were also some examples of incongruent or deviant responses by some individual patients. Conclusions and implications for practice The use of interactive computer simulation techniques is not only generally acceptable to offender patients, but it also helps to differentiate their current response style to particular circumstances from that of healthy controls in a way that does not rely on their verbal abilities and may tap more effectively into their emotional reactions than standard verbal questions and answer approaches. This may pave the way for Reactions on Display providing a useful complement to traditional risk assessment, and a training route with respect to learning more empathic responding, thus having a role in aiding risk management.

  • 6.
    Bahati, Bernard
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hansen, Preben
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Using student-generated questions and peer-responses as a formative e-assessment strategy: Students acting as more knowledgeable others2017Ingår i: Proceedings of E-Learn: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education / [ed] Jon Dron, Sanjaya Mishra, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 2017, s. 108-117Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Student-generated questions and peer-responses can support formative assessment practices through student self-questioning and peer scaffolding. So far, the studies on student-generated questions and peer-responses have focused on reading comprehension. This study focused on student-generated questions used in the context of the student-based formative e-assessment through peer scaffolding. This study's aim was two-fold: Firstly, we wanted to examine whether there was a relationship between the thinking levels exhibited in student-generated questions and the thinking levels exhibited in their corresponding peer-responses. Secondly, we wanted to analyse the level of students’ satisfaction with their peers’ responses. Using a Bloom’s Taxonomy-based assessment rubric, the student generated-questions and peer-responses were rated following three thinking levels: basic, medium, and high. The results show that the thinking levels exhibited in the student-generated questions are not the same as the thinking levels exhibited in their corresponding peer-responses. In addition, all students were not immediately satisfied with their peer-responses. In the end, we realised that through this exercise, the student-questioners and the student-respondents were respectively engaged in a “meaning-seeking” and “meaning-making” exercise and the longer the time for reaching the consensus, the more this exercise grew stronger and became much more significant.

  • 7.
    Bahati, Bernard
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hansen, Preben
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Benegusenga, Alphonse
    Using structured learning e-journals as a formative e-assessment strategy: Guiding student-teachers to reflect on their learning through the mirror, microscope, and binoculars2018Ingår i: Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference / [ed] Elizabeth Langran, Jered Borup, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 2018, s. 1124-1133Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on the use of electronic journals to promote reflective learning among student-teachers have mainly focused on the students’ reflection and their learning experience in the context of the teaching practicum. Using e-journal guiding questions and an analytical reflection rubric, this study examined the extent to which the student-teachers reflected on their learning and how their reflective skills evolved through e-journal keeping in the context of the teaching and learning process of a blended course. The results showed that most of the students’ responses to e-journal guiding questions were in non-reflection and reflection levels while few responses were in critical-reflection reflection level. The study also indicated that the longer the time for using e-journals, the more the student-teachers’ reflective skills improved. In the end, the study recommends continued efforts in designing, developing and implementing instructional events whereby student-teachers can have opportunities to exercise and sustain their reflective skills over an extended period of time.

  • 8.
    Bahati, Bernard
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Tedre, Matti
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Can Student Engagement in Online Courses Predict Performance on Online Knowledge Surveys?2017Ingår i: International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, ISSN 1694-2493, E-ISSN 1694-2116, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 73-87Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The link between student engagement and academic performance has been widely examined. However, most of these studies have focused on ascertaining the existence of such a relationship on the summative assessment level. By comparing students’ experience points in an online course and students’ scores on online knowledge surveys (KS), this study examined the relationship between student engagement and performance on online KS on the formative assessment level. Knowledge surveys were developed and formatively administered in four sections of an online Integration of ICT in Education course. Using Moodle Feedback Module, knowledge surveys were designed based on three key elements: learning objectives, the course content, and the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy of learning objectives. Using rated multiple choice KS questions, the correlation between students’ scores on KSs and students’ experience points was calculated using SPSS. The results show that students’ confidence levels in ability to answer KS questions increased in some of the course sections and decreased in others.  The student engagement in online course was positively—but weakly—related to student performance on online KS and the strength of this relationship increased as the course unfolded. Our conclusion is that student engagement in online courses would not be an accurate predictor of student performance on online Knowledge surveys right at the beginning of an instructional process.

  • 9.
    Bahati, Bernard
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Tedre, Matti
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Evode, Mukama
    Exploring feedback practices in formative assessment in Rwandan higher education: a multifaceted approach is needed2016Ingår i: International Journal of Teaching and Education, ISSN 1993-3916, Vol. IV, nr 2, s. 1-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspired by the current scholarship that indicates that, if used well, formative assessment and feedback can advance student’s learning, this paper explores the practices of feedback in formative assessment in Rwandan higher education, specifically at the University of Rwanda. The study used aqualitative approach with the aim of gaining lecturers’ and students’ perspectives on formative assessment and feedback; and exploring different ways formative assessment and feedback were practiced. Using data collected through interviews, student focus group discussions, and document analysis; the paper shows that formative assessment and feedback were understood in the context of binding prescription within the boundaries of limited description in academic regulations. Feedback was in most cases reduced to marks, and lecturers – who portrayed themselves as information providers, mastery checkers, and performance appraisers - were in full charge of all formative assessment efforts. The paper also shows that lack of clarity and feed forward instructionsin too-much-delayed lecturers’ written feedback led students to just receive feedback and not use it to enhance their performance. Building on this study’s findings and on the existing literature, the paper suggests three important moves whereby a collaborative research-based approach that will bring together different stakeholders will help to move away from a single-sided approach to a multifaceted approach in both perception and practice of formative assessment and feedback at the University of Rwanda.

  • 10.
    Bergdahl, Nina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hernvall, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Knutsson, Ola
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    The Use of Learning Technologies and Student Engagement in Learning Activities2018Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, ISSN 1891-943X, E-ISSN 1891-943X, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 113-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As digitalisation spreads in education, it is vital to understand its relation to student engagement. We used student diaries and observation data to approach student engagement and explore the use of learning technologies on a lesson-to-lesson basis. Results show that a less thought-through use of technologies might lead to unconsidered effects. Positive indicators of the facilitation of student engagement included making the learning process accessible and visible to teachers.

  • 11.
    Bergdahl, Nina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Knutsson, Ola
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    ‘So, You Think It’s Good’ - Reasons Students Engage When Learning with Technologies – a Student Perspective2018Ingår i: EDULEARN18: Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2018, s. 9556-9563Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Student engagement is significantly related to school success. With the increasing digitalisation of education, it is essential to explore if student engagement is affected by the uptake of learning technologies (LTs). The aim of this study was to approach what factors students perceive to influence their engagement when learning with technologies. This was done by asking students to report their level of engagement and fill in a questionnaire to evaluate a classroom intervention designed to facilitate engagement. The intervention included a learner assessment application, a virtual learning environment (VLE) And a separate tablet the teacher used to access the shared workspace. These LTs facilitated instant feedback between the teacher and the students and enabled multiple simultaneous dialogues which allowed all students to engage with both content and peers. Results show that students’ invested effort in learning activities were related to their reported levels of engagement. Surprisingly, in this intervention, control and stress showed no correlation with engagement. Some aspects of peer modelling and feedback showed weak correlations, albeit these were non-significant. Instead, students reported that feeling ‘content with one’s outcomes’ and ‘engaging in learner-centred dialogues’ were their main reasons to engage. Moreover, students’ reasons to engage in short tasks were not the same as their reasons to engage with long-term goals, such as completing their assignment. The results show that conditions for learning changed when implementing LTs. As conditions for learning changed, so did students’ reasons to engage. Moreover, insights into students’ reasons to engage and reported levels of engagement to suggest that obtaining this information can be useful to identify students in at-risk zones and offer them the support needed. Orchestration of inclusive engagement and implications for future designs are discussed.

  • 12.
    Bergman, Maria Elena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Lärplattor och appar i förskolan har kommit för att stanna men för vadå?: En studie om appar med inriktning på matematik och språk i Upplandsbro och Vaxholms kommuner2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13. Botezatu, Mihaela
    et al.
    Hult, Håkan
    Kassaye Tessma, Mesfin
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Virtual patient simulation for learning and assessment: superior results in comparison with regular course exams2010Ingår i: Medical Teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, Vol. 32, nr 10, s. 845-850Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    

    Background: Our study aimed to observe the differences in assessment results between virtual patient simulation (VPS) and regular course exams in an Internal Medicine course for undergraduate medical students.

    Methods: Four cohorts of students (n = 216) used: a VPS or lectures for learning (terms 1 and 2); VPS and lectures or only lectures (term 3); and a paired set-up with both VPS and lectures (term 4). The assessment results, measured with both a VPS-based exam and a paper-based exam, were compared. A scoring rubric (0–6), developed and validated for the purpose of the trial, was applied to both types of assessment. Mean score differences of the results were compared for the four cohorts.

    Results: Both VPS and regular examination results were significantly higher in the VPS group compared to regular exam group (p < 0.001) in terms 1, 2 and 3. The paired mean difference in term 4 was 0.66 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50, 0.83; p < 0.001) for haematology and 0.57 (95% CI 0.45, 0.69; p < 0.001) for cardiology.

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that using VPS both for learning and for assessment supports learning. VPS are better than traditional assessment methods when the virtual application is used for both learning and evaluation.

  • 14. Botezatu, Mihaela
    et al.
    Hult, Håkan
    Kassaye Tessma, Mesfin
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Virtual patient simulation: knowledge gain or knowledge loss?2010Ingår i: Medical Teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, Vol. 32, nr 7, s. 562-568Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Virtual patients (VPs), high-fidelity simulators and standardized patients are powerful educational interventions leading to effective learning and supporting knowledge retention.

    Aim: This study explored the variations in retention with VP versus regular learning activities.

    Method: We conducted a randomized controlled study on early and delayed assessment results of 49 students using VP for learning and examination of haematology and cardiology topics in an Internal Medicine course, by means of a 0–10 scoring rubric.

    Results: The mean difference for early assessment with VP (study – control mean score) was 1.43 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96, 1.91; p < 0.001) for haematology and 1.34 (95% CI 0.93, 1.76; p < 0.001) for cardiology. In regular exams, the mean score difference was 2.21 (95% CI 1.3, 3.1; p < 0.001) and 1.52 (95% CI 0.76, 2.28; p < 0.001), respectively. With delayed assessments, the difference in mean score for Web-SP was 1.48 (95% CI 1.09, 1.86; p < 0.001), haematology and 1.16 (95% CI 0.74, 1.58; p < 0.001), cardiology; for regular exams the figures were 1.96 (95% CI 0.93, 2.98; p < 0.001) and 1.74 (95% CI 0.89, 2.58; p < 0.001). The effect size ranged from 0.5 to 0.8.

    Conclusion: Our results indicate better retention with VP than with traditional learning methods.

  • 15. Botezatu, Mihaela
    et al.
    Hult, Håkan
    Tessma, Mesfin
    Dahlgren, Lars Owe
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Virtual Patient Simulation: what do students make of it?: A focus group study2010Ingår i: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 10, nr 91Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The learners' perspectives on Virtual Patient Simulation systems (VPS) are quintessential to their successful development and implementation. Focus group interviews were conducted in order to explore the opinions of medical students on the educational use of a VPS, the Web-based Simulation of Patients application (Web-SP).

    Methods

    Two focus group interviews-each with 8 undergraduate students who had used Web-SP cases for learning and/or assessment as part of their Internal Medicine curriculum in 2007-were performed at the Faculty of Medicine of Universidad el Bosque (Bogota), in January 2008. The interviews were conducted in Spanish, transcribed by the main researcher and translated into English. The resulting transcripts were independently coded by two authors, who also performed the content analysis. Each coder analyzed the data separately, arriving to categories and themes, whose final form was reached after a consensus discussion.

    Results

    Eighteen categories were identified and clustered into five main themes: learning, teaching, assessment, authenticity and implementation. In agreement with the literature, clinical reasoning development is envisaged by students to be the main scope of VPS use; transferable skills, retention enhancement and the importance of making mistakes are other categories circumscribed to this theme. VPS should enjoy a broad use across clinical specialties and support learning of topics not seen during clinical rotations; they are thought to have a regulatory effect at individual level, helping the students to plan their learning. The participants believe that assessment with VPS should be relevant for their future clinical practice; it is deemed to be qualitatively different from regular exams and to increase student motivation. The VPS design and content, the localization of the socio-cultural context, the realism of the cases, as well as the presence and quality of feedback are intrinsic features contributing to VPS authenticity.

    Conclusions

    Five main themes were found to be associated with successful VPS use in medical curriculum: Learning, Teaching, Assessment, Authenticity and Implementation. Medical students perceive Virtual Patients as important learning and assessment tools, fostering clinical reasoning, in preparation for the future clinical practice as young doctors. However, a number of issues regarding VPS design, authenticity and implementation need to be fulfilled, in order to reach the potential educational goals of such applications.

  • 16. Botezatu, Mihaela
    et al.
    Hult, Håkan
    Tessma, Mesfin
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    As time goes by: stakeholder opinions on the implementation and use of a virtual patient simulation system2010Ingår i: Medical Teacher, ISSN 0142-159X (print), 1466-187X (electronic), Vol. 32, nr 11, s. e509-516Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Stakeholder opinions on the implementation of a particular virtual patient application might prove important for decision-making and implementation efforts in general. This study aimed to capitalize on experiences originated from two postimplementation settings of Web-based Simulation of Patients (Web-SP). Method: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of stakeholder opinions (39 students, teachers, course directors, and university leaders) on the implementation and use of Web-SP in Colombia and Sweden, using a mixed method approach. Results: The respondents did not show equal preference in rating the ranking of the order of importance included in the variables (Friedman’s Chi square: 26.5 to 115.1, df=6, p <0.001, Kendall’s coefficient of concordance ranging from 0.11 to 0.50). The answers provided as free comments supported the statistical findings on the importance of end-user customization, need for authenticity in software design, and use of virtual patient simulations in a curricular context, for clinical reasoning development. Conclusions: Virtual Patient design should allow extensive editing, support case authenticity and enhance clinical reasoning abilities, in an effort for ensuring accountability and sustainable development of the field.

  • 17. Courteille, O
    et al.
    Ekblad, S
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Mollica, R
    Pantziaras, I
    Virtual Patients for training Patient Encounter in transcultural psychiatry: Enhancing learning outcomes in the affective domai2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18. Courteille, Olivier
    et al.
    Fahlstedt, Madelen
    Ho, Johnson
    Hedman, Leif
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Von Holst, Hans
    Felländer-Tsai, Li
    Möller, Hans
    Learning through a virtual patient vs. recorded lecture: a comparison of knowledge retention in a trauma case2018Ingår i: International Journal of Medical Education, ISSN 2042-6372, E-ISSN 2042-6372, Vol. 9, s. 86-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To compare medical students' and residents' knowledge retention of assessment, diagnosis and treatment procedures, as well as a learning experience, of patients with spinal trauma after training with either a Virtual Patient case or a video-recorded traditional lecture. Methods: A total of 170 volunteers (85 medical students and 85 residents in orthopedic surgery) were randomly allocated (stratified for student/resident and gender) to either a video-recorded standard lecture or a Virtual Patient-based training session where they interactively assessed a clinical case portraying a motorcycle accident. The knowledge retention was assessed by a test immediately following the educational intervention and repeated after a minimum of 2 months. Participants' learning experiences were evaluated with exit questionnaires. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was applied on knowledge scores. A total of 81% (n = 138) of the participants completed both tests. Results: There was a small but significant decline in first and second test results for both groups (F-(1,F-135) = 18.154, p = 0.00). However, no significant differences in short-term and long-term knowledge retention were observed between the two teaching methods. The Virtual Patient group reported higher learning experience levels in engagement, stimulation, general perception, and expectations. Conclusions: Participants' levels engagement were reported in favor of the VP format. Similar knowledge retention was achieved through either a Virtual Patient or a recorded lecture.

  • 19. Courteille, Olivier
    et al.
    Felländer-Tsai, Li
    Hedman, Leif
    Kjellin, Ann
    Enochsson, Lars
    Lindgren, G
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Mixed Virtual Reality Simulation - Taking endoscopic simulation one step further2011Ingår i: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, E-ISSN 1879-8365, Vol. 163, s. 144-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 20. Edelbring, S
    et al.
    Zary, N
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Dahlgren, Lars Owe
    The influence of case follow-up intensity on how students perceive virtual patient methodology2010Ingår i: eLearning Symposium Final Programme & Abstract Book.pdf:  , 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A need for a structured approach for student guidance has been identified in using media presented patient cases (de Leng et al., 2007). Furthermore integration aspects seem to influence what importance and value students find in virtual patients (VPs) in relation to course content and their study situation (Hege et al., 2007). One important course integration aspect is how students’ VP case work is followed up.

    Summary of work: We investigated students’ perceptions of VPs in a clinical course using a questionnaire (n=161, response rate: 65%). The course was delivered with variations in case follow-up strategy: none, medium and high intensity of follow-ups. Intensity was defined after degree of processing requirements of students at a follow-up seminar. Differences in students’ perceptions of VPs was analysed regarding this variation.

    Summary of results: Students’ questionnaire responses will be presented regarding their perceptions of the value of VPs in the course. Items include relation to the examination, future professional practice, understanding of subject matter, learning facts about symptom and diagnosis and training of diagnosing skills.

    Conclusions: Preliminary analysis shows that level of intensity of follow-up activities in the course influence the value that students ascribe to VPs.

    Take-home message: Careful planning of case follow-up increase the value of using VPs in courses.

  • 21. Edelbring, Samuel
    et al.
    Broström, Olle
    Henriksson, Peter
    Vassiliou, Daphne
    Spaak, Jonas
    Dahlgren, Lars Owe
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Zary, Nabil
    Integrating virtual patients into courses: follow-up seminars and perceived benefit2012Ingår i: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 417-425Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT The use of virtual patients (VPs) suggests promising effects on student learning. However, currently empirical data on how best to use VPs in practice are scarce. More knowledge is needed regarding aspects of integrating VPs into a course, of which student acceptance is one key issue. Several authors call for looking beyond technology to see VPs in relation to the course context. The follow-up seminar is proposed as an important aspect of integration that warrants investigation. METHODS A cross-sectional explanatory study was performed in a clinical clerkship introduction course at four teaching hospitals affiliated to the same medical faculty. The VP-related activities were planned collaboratively by teachers from all four settings. However, each setting employed a different strategy to follow up the activity in the course. Sixteen questionnaire items were grouped into three scales pertaining to: perceived benefit of VPs; wish for more guidance on using VPs, and wish for assessment and feedback on VPs. Scale scores were compared across the four settings, which were ranked according to the level of intensity of students' processing of cases during VP follow- up activities. RESULTS The perceived benefit of VPs and their usage were higher in the two intense-use settings compared with the moderate-and lowintensity settings. The wish for more guidance was high in the low-and one of the highintensity settings. Students in all settings displayed little interest in more assessment and feedback regarding VPs. CONCLUSIONS High case processing intensity was related to positive perceptions of the benefit of VPs. However, the low interest in more assessment and feedback on the use of VPs indicates the need to clearly communicate the added value of the follow-up seminar. The findings suggest that a more intense follow-up pays off in terms of the benefit perceived by students. This study illustrates the need to consider VPs from the perspective of a holistic

  • 22.
    Ekanayake, Hiran B.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. University of Skövde, Sweden; University of Colombo School of Computing, Sri Lanka.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Backlund, Per
    Ziemke, Tom
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hewagamage, Kamalanath P.
    Affective Realism of Animated Films in the Development of Simulation-Based Tutoring Systems2013Ingår i: International Journal of Distance Education Technologies, ISSN 1539-3100, E-ISSN 1539-3119, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 96-109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study focused on comparing real actors based scenarios and animated characters based scenarios with respect to their similarity in evoking psychophysiological activity for certain events by measuring galvanic skin response (GSR). In the experiment, one group (n=11) watched the real actors’ film whereas another group (n=7) watched the animated film, which had the same story and dialogue as the real actors’ film. The results have shown that there is no significant difference in the skin conductance response (SCR) scores between the two groups; however, responses significantly differ when SCR amplitudes are taken into account. Moreover, Pearson’s correlation reported as high as over 80% correlation between the two groups’ SCRs for certain time intervals. The authors believe that this finding is of general importance for the domain of simulation-based tutoring systems in development of and decisions regarding use of animated characters based scenarios.

  • 23. Ekblad, Solvig
    et al.
    Mollica, Richard F.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Pantziaras, Ioannis
    Lavelle, James
    Educational potential of a virtual patient system for caring for traumatized patients in primary care2013Ingår i: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 13, s. 110-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Virtual Patients (VPs) have been used in undergraduate healthcare education for many years. This project is focused on using VPs for training professionals to care for highly vulnerable patient populations. The aim of the study was to evaluate if Refugee Trauma VPs was perceived as an effective and engaging learning tool by primary care professionals (PCPs) in a Primary Health Care Centre (PHC). Methods: A VP system was designed to create realistic and engaging VP cases for Refugee Trauma for training refugee patient interview, use of established trauma and mental health instruments as well as to give feedback to the learners. The patient interview section was based on video clips with a Bosnian actor with a trauma story and mental health problems. The video clips were recorded in Bosnian language to further increase the realism, but also subtitled in English. The system was evaluated by 11 volunteering primary health clinicians at the Lynn Community Health Centre, Lynn, Massachusetts, USA. The participants were invited to provide insights/feedback about the system's usefulness and educational value. A mixed methodological approach was used, generating both quantitative and qualitative data. Results: Self-reported dimensions of clinical care, pre and post questionnaire questions on the PCPs clinical worldview, motivation to use the VP, and IT Proficiency. Construct items used in these questionnaires had previously demonstrated high face and construct validity. The participants ranked the mental status examination more positively after the simulation exercise compared to before the simulation. Follow up interviews supported the results. Conclusions: Even though virtual clinical encounters are quite a new paradigm in PHC, the participants in the present study considered our VP case to be a relevant and promising educational tool. Next phase of our project will be a RCT study including comparison with specially prepared paper-cases and determinative input on improving clinical diagnosis and treatment of the traumatized refugee patient.

  • 24.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    A historical view of case simulation methods for healthcare education and its significance for Psychiatry - what will the next step be?2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 25.
    Fors, Uno
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Courteille, O
    Learner Acceptance of Using Virtual Patient Encounters to Train Foreign Healthcare Professionals in Swedish2014Ingår i: International Journal of Virtual and Personal Learning Environments, ISSN 1947-8518, E-ISSN 1947-8526, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 18-32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Fors, Uno
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Forsberg, E.
    Gunning, W. T.
    Can virtual patients be used to assess clinical reasoning? The effect of different grading metrics2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27.
    Fors, Uno G. H.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Gunning, William T.
    The Impact of Different Scoring Rubrics for Grading Virtual Patient-based Exams2014Ingår i: Journal of educational computing research (Print), ISSN 0735-6331, E-ISSN 1541-4140, Vol. 50, nr 1, s. 97-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual patient cases (VPs) are used for healthcare education and assessment. Most VP systems track user interactions to be used for assessment. Few studies have investigated how virtual exam cases should be scored and graded. We have applied eight different scoring models on a data set from 154 students. Issues studied included the impact of penalizing guessing, requiring a correct diagnose, different grading levels, and the effect of using weighted diagnose metrics. Controlling the random-guessing approach is necessary and can be accomplished by a rubric that measures a relative efficiency of the learner's inquiries and the total number of inquiries. Using a straight percentage score versus a curved exam score had a major impact on grades. Significant differences were found when using different metrics as only one of the eight rubric models resulted in a Gaussian distribution. Course directors need to analyze expected learning outcomes from a course to determine a scoring metric to assess those particular needs; the grading rubric must also control for guessing.

  • 28.
    Fors, Uno G. H.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Skoglund, Åsa
    A pilot study of virtual cases in law education2013Ingår i: European Journal of Law and Technology, ISSN 2042-115X, E-ISSN 2042-115X, Vol. 4, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate the possibility to create and use virtual law cases/virtual clients for training Contract Law for undergraduate students. The study also investigated the attitudes of the learners of using such cases.

    A previously wide-spread case system for healthcare education, Web-SP, was adapted to be used for legal cases. One case was developed by a senior legal expert and teacher, which was subsequently used by 52 students in a course on contract law during a seminar. A questionnaire was used to gather students' opinions on the use of the virtual cases.

    Most students were positive to the use of virtual law cases to practice their legal decision making. Almost all learners believed that the virtual cases were realistic and engaging and that they also found the interactive Web-SP cases to be good for their learning.

    Future studies need to look into concrete learning outcomes as well as the potential of using virtual law cases for exams.

  • 29. Forsberg, Elenita
    et al.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Educational impacts of changed action of using VPs in postgraduate nurse education2015Ingår i: Journal of Nursing & Care, ISSN 2167-1168, Vol. 4, nr 5, s. 150-150Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A meta-analysis of a thesis project entitled Virtual Patients (VPs) for Assessment of Clinical Reasoning has been performed. VPs are interactive computer simulations of real-life clinical scenarios for the purpose of healthcare education and assessment. To teach and learn clinical reasoning (CR) can be hard because its complexity and difficulty to make it visible for students. VPs have been found to improve learning and be superior to traditional teaching methods for training CR. Most VP systems have the potential to track all interactions of the user and therefore recommended for assessment. The aim of the metaanalysis, which is based on the research project’s four studies, was to reach a deeper understanding of the educational impact of using VPs in postgraduate pediatric nurse education. Data was collected during 2008-2013.The first study evaluated the applicability and students’ acceptance of VP-based exams. Through thinking aloud the second study identified how clinically experienced nurses solved complex VP cases which was a base for the third study; evaluating a new scoring model for VP-based exams. Finally the last study explored if formative VP-based assessments in connection with self-evaluations had an impact on student’s development of CR and if they could detect their progression. For the meta-analysis, concepts of challenge, skills, novice and expert have been applied. The findings shows that VP-based assessments have high educational impacts: for example even if the students were novices in the domain of Child health care, the early exposure for formative VP-based assessments gave them an insight about what is required to work at such a unit as well as a stimulation to develop CR in this field. They became aware of what to focus on in literature and clinical practice. The students reported a perceived progression of CR ability from uncertainty about the competence, to self-efficacy.

  • 30.
    Forsberg, Elenita
    et al.
    Halmstad Univ, Sch Social & Hlth Sci, Halmstad, Sweden .
    Georg, Carina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc NVS, Div Nursing, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ziegert, Kristina
    Halmstad Univ, Sch Social & Hlth Sci, Halmstad, Sweden .
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Virtual patients for assessment of clinical reasoning in nursing – a pilot study2011Ingår i: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 31, nr 8, s. 757-762Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In different nursing programmes, one important learning outcome is clinical reasoning (CR) skills. However, to date, there is limited number of methods available for assessment of CR skills; especially for distance-based courses. This study investigates students' opinions about the feasibility of using Virtual Patients (VPs) for assessing CR in nursing education. VPs were introduced as an assessment tool in three different nursing courses at two universities, comprising 77 students in total. Students' overall acceptance of this assessment tool, including its applicability to the practise of nursing and the potential of VP-based assessment as a learning experience, were investigated using questionnaires. Course directors used the Web-SP system to assess students' interactions with VPs and their answers regarding diagnoses, caring procedures and their justifications. Students' found the VP cases to be realistic and engaging, and indicate a high level of acceptance for this assessment method. In addition, the students' indicated that VPs were good for practising their clinical skills, although some would prefer that the VP system be less "medical" and asked for more focus on nursing. Although most students supplied correct diagnoses and made adequate clinical decisions, there was a wide range in their ability to explain their clinical reasoning processes.

  • 31. Forsberg, Elenita
    et al.
    Ziegert, Kristina
    Hult, Håkan
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Assessing progression of clinical reasoning through virtual patients: An exploratory study2016Ingår i: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 97-103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To avoid test-driven learning, there have been discussions regarding the use of more formative assessments in health care education to promote students' deep learning. Feedback is important in formative assessment, but many students ignore it; therefore, interventions should be introduced which stimulate them to reflect on the new knowledge. The aim for this study was to explore if Virtual Patient (VP)-based formative assessments, in connection with self-evaluations, had an impact on postgraduate pediatric nursing students' development of clinical reasoning abilities. Students' self-evaluations served as the basis for measuring progress. Data was analysed using deductive content analysis. The findings showed a clear progression of the clinical reasoning ability of the students. After the first assessment, the students described feelings of uncertainty and that their knowledge gaps were exposed. At the mid-course assessment the awareness of improved clinical reasoning was obvious and the students were more certain of knowing how to solve the VP cases. In the final assessment, self-efficacy was expressed. VP -based assessments, in connection with self-evaluations, early in the education resulted in a gain of students' own identification of the concept of clinical reasoning, awareness of what to focus on during clinical practice and visualised expected clinical competence.

  • 32. Forsberg, Elenita
    et al.
    Ziegert, Kristina
    Hult, Håkan
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Clinical reasoning in nursing, a think-aloud study using virtual patients - A base for an innovative assessment2014Ingår i: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 538-542Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In health-care education, it is important to assess the competencies that are essential for the professional role. To develop clinical reasoning skills is crucial for nursing practice and therefore an important learning outcome in nursing education programmes. Virtual patients (VPs) are interactive computer simulations of real-life clinical scenarios and have been suggested for use not only for learning, but also for assessment of clinical reasoning. The aim of this study was to investigate how experienced paediatric nurses reason regarding complex VP cases and how they make clinical decisions. The study was also aimed to give information about possible issues that should be assessed in clinical reasoning exams for post-graduate students in diploma specialist paediatric nursing education.

    The information from this study is believed to be of high value when developing scoring and grading models for a VP-based examination for the specialist diploma in paediatric nursing education.

    Using the think-aloud method, data were collected from 30 RNs working in Swedish paediatric departments, and child or school health-care centres. Content analysis was used to analyse the data.

    The results indicate that experienced nurses try to consolidate their hypotheses by seeing a pattern and judging the value of signs, symptoms, physical examinations, laboratory tests and radiology. They show high specific competence but earlier experience of similar cases was also of importance for the decision making. The nurses thought it was an innovative assessment focusing on clinical reasoning and clinical decision making. They thought it was an enjoyable way to be assessed and that all three main issues could be assessed using VPs.

    In conclusion, VPs seem to be a possible model for assessing the clinical reasoning process and clinical decision making, but how to score and grade such exams needs further research.

  • 33. Forsberg, Elenita
    et al.
    Ziegert, Kristina
    Hult, Håkan
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Evaluation of a novel scoring and grading model for vp-based exams in postgraduate nurse education2015Ingår i: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 35, nr 12, s. 1246-1251Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For Virtual Patient-based exams, several scoring and grading methods have been proposed, but none have yet been validated. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new scoring and grading model for VP-based exams in postgraduate paediatric nurse education. The same student group of 19 students performed a VP-based exam in three consecutive courses. When using the scoring and grading assessment model, which contains a deduction system for unnecessary or unwanted actions, a progression was found in the three courses: 53% of the students passed the first exam, 63% the second and 84% passed the final exam. The most common reason for deduction of points was due to students asking too many interview questions or ordering too many laboratory tests. The results showed that the new scoring model made it possible to judge the students' clinical reasoning process as well as their progress.

  • 34. Forsberg, Elenita
    et al.
    Ziegert, Kristina
    Hult, Håkan
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Using VPs for assessment of clinical competence in postgraduate Paediatric Nurse Education2012Ingår i:  , 2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35. Gunning, William T.
    et al.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    A Comparison of Facilitator and Second Year Medical Student Attitudes and Perceptions of a Virtual Patient Environment and Student Case Approaches, Development of Learning Issues and Development2013Ingår i: Colouring Outside the Lines: Conference Abstracts 2013, Dundee, UK: MedEdWorld , 2013, s. 549-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 36. Gunning, William T.
    et al.
    Fors, Uno G. H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Virtual Patients for assessment of medical student ability to integrate clinical and laboratory data to develop differential diagnoses: Comparison of results of exams with/without time constraints2012Ingår i: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. E222-E228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: We have evaluated medical student ability in a problem-based learning course using a Virtual Patient (VP)-based exam with variable parameters for assessment purposes. Methods: A class of 155 second year medical students was assessed using a VP exam with unlimited access during a 1-week period; 2 years later, the identical exam was administered to 175 students with a 3-h time limit. Results: Students taking the exam without time constraints utilized approximately twice as much time than students with the time limit. Without the pressure of a time-limit, students utilized half as many inquiries of the patient history, physical, and lab/imaging tests than were used by students having a time constraint, indicating that the time limited students used a "shotgun approach'' to try to collect as many "required'' inquiries as possible. Most students (91%) taking the untimed exam were able to correctly diagnose the exam case but only 31% of the time limited students correctly diagnosed the VP exam case, despite their higher number of inquiries. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that an identical VP exam, administered with variables to compare untimed versus time-limited conditions, resulted in an unraveling of student's ability to integrate the data discovered during the process of progressive disclosure.

  • 37.
    Holmberg, Jörgen
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Teachers' pedagogical reasoning and reframing of practice in digital contexts2018Ingår i: The international journal of information and learning technology, ISSN 2056-4880, E-ISSN 2056-4899, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 130-142Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to advance the understanding of teachers' reframing of practice in digital contexts by analysing teachers' pedagogical reasoning processes as they explore ways of using information and communication technologies (ICT) to create added pedagogical value.

    Design/methodology/approach - A design-based research (DBR) approach is employed, in which the on-site researcher collaborates with eight teachers of English as a foreign language in four Swedish schools over a period of two years. Multiple data sources are included for thematic coding and analysis. The technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) framework is used as a conceptual construct in the analysis.

    Findings - The findings show that teachers' pedagogical reasoning is a complex and multidimensional process and is closely integrated with teachers' reframing of practice. Common characteristics in the teachers' reframing of practice are identified. The results highlight the reciprocal relationship between developments in teachers' pedagogical reasoning and TPACK development and the need for a distinction between general and specific, theoretical and practical TPACK.

    Research limitations/implications - An increased focus on TPACK research on teachers' pedagogical reasoning is required. DBR is a relevant approach for this.

    Practical implications - The pedagogical uses of ICT identified as adding value could benefit teachers in other contexts.

    Originality/value - Rich data from multiple design contexts are collected and analysed over time through DBR. The paper contributes new knowledge about the process of pedagogical reasoning and its relation to teachers' reframing of practice. The paper also contributes to TPACK theory development.

  • 38. Jepsen, Rikke Malene H. G.
    et al.
    Grønnebæk Tolsgaard, Martin
    Birkvad Rasmussen, Maria
    Kayser, Lars
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ringsted, Charlotte
    Preparing for practice using a self-directed approach to learning from virtual patients: A randomised trial of the effect on clinical performance2013Ingår i: Colouring Outside the Lines: Conference Abstracts 2013, Dundee, UK: MedEdWorld , 2013, s. 358-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 39. Kamwesiga, Julius T.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Gunilla M.
    Tham, Kerstin
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ndiwalana, Ali
    von Koch, Lena
    Guidetti, Susanne
    A feasibility study of a mobile phone supported family-centred ADL intervention, F@ce (TM), after stroke in Uganda2018Ingår i: Globalization and Health, ISSN 1744-8603, E-ISSN 1744-8603, Vol. 14, artikel-id 82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a lack of evidence-based health services to reduce the impact of stroke in low-income countries at a personal, family or community level. The aim was to evaluate the feasibility of: i) a mobile phone supported family-centred intervention (F@ce (TM)), and ii) the study design for evaluating the effects of the intervention on the perceived impact of stroke; perceived participation in everyday life; and self-efficacy in everyday activities amongst persons with stroke and their families in Uganda. Methods: The study comprised a pre-post design with an intervention group (IG) receiving the F@ce (TM) and a control group (CG). The inclusion criteria's were: a) confirmed stroke diagnosis, b) access to and ability to use a mobile phone, c) ability to communicate in English and/or Luganda, d) > 18 years, e) residents in Kampala, and f) a Modified Rankin Scale level 2 to 4. The aimof the F@ce (TM) was to increase functioning in daily activities for persons living with the consequences of stroke, and participation in everyday life for persons with stroke and their families. The F@ce (TM) was an eight-week family-centred intervention, which entailed goal setting and problem-solving strategies, daily reminders and self-rated follow-ups of performance by short message service (SMS). Data were collected in the participants' home environment at baseline and after eight weeks. Data on acceptability of the F@ce (TM) and study procedures were collected by log-books and the responses of the SMS follow ups on the server. The primary outcomes were performance and satisfaction of valued daily activities in everyday life using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), self-efficacy in performance of activities in daily life. Results: The IG comprised n = 13 and the CG n = 15. There were differences between the IG and CG in changes between baseline and follow-up in the primary outcomes COPM (performance component) and self-efficacy in favour of F@ce (TM). Overall with minor modifications the intervention and the study design were feasible for all participants involved. Conclusion: The results support the need for further research to rigorously evaluate the effects of F@ceT (TM) since the intervention appears to be feasible for persons with stroke and their family members.

  • 40.
    Kanter, Theo
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rahmani, Rahim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Immersive Networking — A Framework for Virtual Environments with Augmented Reality in Human Decision-Making2016Ingår i: International Journal of Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering, ISSN 1975-0080, Vol. 11, nr 6, s. 43-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this publication we present Immersive Networking as a novel framework for connecting people and places and things in virtual environments with augmented reality to be used in eg. Virtual training environments. The research is mandated by technology advances in internetworking underpinned by 5G networks and Internet-of-Things. These advances present new possibilities and challenges to integrate people, places and things in virtual environments. Existing frameworks such as MPEG-V possess representational capabilities but have insufficient support for integrating entities from the real world via heterogeneous infrastructure. MPEG-V for instance makes no statements about distributed control. Seamless experiences in virtual environment require self-organization of connectivity between people, places and things via heterogeneous 5G and Internet-of-Things infrastructures. A second important aspect of the quality of our experience is the immediacy of responses. Both aspects of seamless and self-organizing connections between entities require that we push control to the end-devices co-located with the entities themselves. These end-devices may incorporate sensing gateways and interaction devices, which include both local and non-local information from the virtual environment in the interaction. Thus delegation of control to end-devices requires means for the organizing or relations and clustering by relevance. This capability is particularly important as the projected number of devices and sensors to be connected via the Internet-of-Things is projected to be in the order of 50 billion by 2020. Immersive Networking supported by MediaSense constitutes a scalable self-organizing means for connecting people and places and things in virtual environments with augmented reality. MediaSense moves control to the edge enabling immediacy in experiences based on seamless self-organization through clustering of entities in relations organized by relevance. We conclude by validating our approach in several scenarios evaluating the relevance and application in human decision-making..

  • 41.
    Käck, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Männikkö Barbutiu, Sirkku
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Migrant teachers’ experiences with the use of digital technology and media during their placement period in Swedish schools2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the ATEE Winter Conference 2018: Technology and Innovative Learning / [ed] Michiel Heijnen, Miranda de Hei, Stan van Ginkel, ATEE - Association for Teacher Education in Europe, 2018, s. 64-72Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Professional development directed towards migrant teachers is provided at six Swedish Universities. These teachers study 1-2 years to become eligible to teach in Swedish schools. Part of this training is the placement period, where they become familiar with the Swedish school environment while guided by a placement supervisor. In this study, we examine migrant teachers’ experiences with digital technology and media during their placement period, using the theoretical concept of “unfamiliar ways of thinking and practising”. Data in this qualitative study was collected from a total of 34 migrant teachers through five focus groups and nine individual interviews. The migrant teachers’ former teacher education was completed in twenty different countries. A qualitative content analysis was conducted. The results indicate that the placement supervisor is of great importance for the improvement of migrant teachers’ digital competence, as it is defined in the Swedish context. As a role model, the placement supervisor can be a motivator and an inspirational force for migrant teachers. Findings also show that migrant teachers express unfamiliar ways of thinking and practising concerning the curricula, pedagogical methods and in their role as teachers, which has implications for how digital technology and media isused pedagogically.

  • 42.
    Käck, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Männikkö Barbutiu, Sirkku
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Unfamiliar ways of thinking and practising in teacher education - Experiences by migrant teachers2018Ingår i: Changing perspectives and approaches in contemporary teaching: Conference proceedings / [ed] Marija Sablić, Alma Škugor, Ivana Đurđević Babić, ATEE - Association for Teacher Education in Europe, 2018, s. 219-235Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, a growing number of students in teacher education have a migrant background. A specific group consists of those with a foreign teaching degree who wish to complement their studies to become eligible to teach in Swedish schools. Within Swedish teacher education, there is a lack of studies examining how migrant teachers perceive the Swedish educational system, how teaching and learning are understood and practised, and how these experiences can be related to migrant teachers’ previous experiences. In the present study, migrant teachers’ encounters with Swedish teacher education at four Swedish Universities were examined in relation to the notions of “unfamiliar ways of thinking and practising” to highlight ways of teaching and learning that are perceived as unfamiliar. Data in this study was drawn from a web survey completed by 228 respondents with a foreign teaching degree coming from 54 countries. Additionally, five focus groups and nine individual interviews were conducted. Furthermore, 30 reflective texts written by 15 participants were analysed. The results highlight the cultural embeddedness of Swedish teacher education and demonstrate how migrant students struggle with unfamiliar teaching and learning methods, epistemological understanding, examination practices and the roles and expectations from society or between teachers and students. To conclude, this research underscores the importance of situated reflexivity and awareness with intercultural experiences in mind, when designing teaching and learning, and supporting inclusion and equality. These findings and the way of identifying the unfamiliarity in teaching and practising may be applicable in other countries as well.

  • 43.
    Käck, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Roll-Pettersson, Lise
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Alai-Rosales, Shahla S.
    Høium, Kari
    Männikkö Barbutiu, Sirkku
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Fors, Uno G. H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Intercultural Blended Design Considerations: a Case Study of a Nordic-Baltic Course in Autism Intervention2014Ingår i: European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, ISSN 1027-5207, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 93-107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Specialized educational programs previously unavailable to many students are now accessible to students spread throughout the world. In particular, this globalization presents new opportunities and challenges for universities educating professionals in the field of autism treatment. The aim of the present case study is to analyse the experiences of students who participated in an intercultural graduate level blended learning course in applied behaviour analysis with an autism focus. Students were enrolled in universities in four Nordic-Baltic countries. Country based focus group interviews and surveys were used to explore student’s experiences and perceptions. Results indicate that access to expertise and interacting with other cultures were noted to positively affect learning experience. Risk for cultural divide due to discrepancies in technology, differing pedagogical traditions, and understanding of English were also reported. Implications regarding the potential risks and benefits inherent in intercultural blended learning courses are discussed and suggestions are offered for enhancing the success of such courses.

  • 44.
    Linikko, Jari
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Simulation of working with an individual education plan for a virtual pupil2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 45. Lund, Bodil
    et al.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Sejersen, Ronny
    Sällnäs, EvaLotta
    Rosén, Annika
    Student perception of two different simulation techniques in oral and maxillofacial surgery undergraduate training2011Ingår i: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 11, s. 82-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Yearly surveys among the undergraduate students in oral and maxillofacial surgery at Karolinska Institutet have conveyed a wish for increased clinical training, and in particular, in surgical removal of mandibular third molars. Due to lack of resources, this kind of clinical supervision has so far not been possible to implement. One possible solution to this problem might be to introduce simulation into the curriculum. The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate students' perception of two different simulation methods for practicing clinical reasoning skills and technical skills in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Methods: Forty-seven students participating in the oral and maxillofacial surgery course at Karolinska Institutet during their final year were included. Three different oral surgery patient cases were created in a Virtual Patient (VP) Simulation system (Web-SP) and used for training clinical reasoning. A mandibular third molar surgery simulator with tactile feedback, providing hands on training in the bone removal and tooth sectioning in third molar surgery, was also tested. A seminar was performed using the combination of these two simulators where students' perception of the two different simulation methods was assessed by means of a questionnaire. Results: The response rate was 91.5% (43/47). The students were positive to the VP cases, although they rated their possible improvement of clinical reasoning skills as moderate. The students' perception of improved technical skills after training in the mandibular third molar surgery simulator was rated high. The majority of the students agreed that both simulation techniques should be included in the curriculum and strongly agreed that it was a good idea to use the two simulators in concert. The importance of feedback from the senior experts during simulator training was emphasised. Conclusions: The two tested simulation methods were well accepted and most students agreed that the future curriculum would benefit from permanent inclusion of these exercises, especially when used in combination. The results also stress the importance of teaching technical skills and clinical reasoning in concert.

  • 46. Mollica, Richard
    et al.
    Lavelle, James
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Solvig, Ekblad
    Wadler, Brianna
    Using the Virtual Patient to Improve the Primary Care of Traumatized Refugees2017Ingår i: Journal of Medical Education and Research, ISSN 0972-1177, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 2-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Refugees who have experienced traumatic life experiences have entered into the United States’ primary health care system. Primary care providers (PCPs) have limited training in their diagnoses and treatment. Assessing and caring for the health and mental health of refugees in a culturally effective way in a time limited health care environment is challenging. We conducted a study on the role of the Virtual Patient (VP) as a training instrument for improving the diagnoses and treatment of refugee patients.

    Methods: This was a descriptive and quantitative study of PCPs at a local neighborhood health care center in Massachusetts. A sample of PCPs initially reviewed an alpha Virtual Patient refugee prototype. An improved β-VP prototype was offered in training. The PCPs performance on pre- and post-diagnosis and treatment planning was assessed after studying the β-VP. 10 PCPs studied the alpha VP prototype; an additional 14 PCPs studied the β-VP prototype (N=24). The Karolinska Institutet Virtual Patient Learning Experience Questionnaire (KI-VP-LEQ) assessed feasibility, and motivation to use the VP. A Trauma-BPPS (Trauma -Bio-Psycho-Social- Spiritual scale) scale measured the PCP’s perception of the patient’s trauma history, and medical, psycho-social and spiritual domains. Pre- and post-VP training using refugee paper clinical cases was performed. Concluding telephone interviews were conducted. Analysis included qualitative methods and significance testing.

    Results: PCPs were receptive and motivated to use the VP in training. Prior to VP training, respondents scored highly on medical diagnosis and treatment planning (Medical domain); followed by the psychological domain. Respondents scored lower on the social domain and lowest on the trauma and spiritual domains. All five domain scores significantly improved for those PCPs who devoted ≥90 minutes studying the VP. Telephone interviews conducted after training revealed PCPs felt they did not have enough time and/or clinical training to properly diagnose or treat refugee patients in the primary health care setting.

    Conclusions: The PCPs in this pilot study demonstrated the ability to improve their treatment plan for traumatized refugee patients in the medical and psychological domains after VP training. Devotion of time with the VP training instrument was significantly associated with improvement in all domains.

  • 47. Muntean, Valentin
    et al.
    Calinici, Tudor
    Tigan, Stefan
    Fors, Uno G. H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Language, culture and international exchange of virtual patients2013Ingår i: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 13, s. 21-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Language and cultural differences could be a limiting factor for the international exchange of Virtual Patients (VPs), especially for small countries and languages of limited circulation. Our research evaluated whether it would be feasible to develop a VP based educational program in our Romanian institution, with cases in English and developed in a non-Romanian setting. Method: The participants in the research comprised 4th year Romanian medical students from the Faculty of Medicine in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, with previous training exclusively in Romanian, good English proficiency and no experience with VPs. The students worked on eight VPs in two identical versions, Romanian and English. The first group (2010) of 136 students worked with four VPs developed in Cluj and the second group (2011) of 144 students with four VPs originally developed at an US University. Every student was randomly assigned two different VPs, one in Romanian and another in English. Student activity throughout the case, the diagnosis, therapeutic plan and diagnosis justification were recorded. We also compared student performance on the two VPs versions, Romanian and English and the student performance on the two sets of cases, originally developed in Romania, respectively USA. Results: We found no significant differences between the students' performance on the Romanian vs. English version of VPs. Regarding the students' performance on the two sets of cases, in those originally developed in Romania, respectively in the USA, we found a number of statistically significant differences in the students' activity through the cases. There were no statistically significant differences in the students' ability to reach the correct diagnosis and therapeutic plan. Conclusion: The development of our program with VPs in English would be feasible, cost-effective and in accordance with the globalization of medical education.

  • 48. Mårtensson, Pär
    et al.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Wallin, Sven-Bertil
    Zander, Udo
    Nilsson, Gunnar H.
    Evaluating research: A multidisciplinary approach to assessing research practice and quality2016Ingår i: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 45, nr 3, s. 593-603Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are few widely acknowledged quality standards for research practice, and few definitions of what constitutes good research. The overall aim was therefore to describe what constitutes research, and then to use this description to develop a model of research practice and to define concepts related to its quality. The primary objective was to explore such a model and to create a multidisciplinary understanding of the generic dimensions of the quality of research practice. Eight concept modelling working seminars were conducted. A graphic representation of concepts and their relationships was developed to bridge the gap between different disciplines. A concept model of research as a phenomenon was created, which included a total of 18 defined concepts and their relationships. In a second phase four main areas were distilled, describing research practice in a multidisciplinary context: Credible, Contributory, Communicable, and Conforming. Each of these was further specified in a concept hierarchy together with a defined terminology. A comprehensive quality model including 32 concepts, based on the four main areas, was developed for describing quality issues of research practice, where the model of research as a phenomenon was used to define the quality concepts. The quality model may be used for further development of elements, weights and operationalizations related to the quality of research practice in different academic fields. (C) 2015 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  • 49. Mårtensson, Pär
    et al.
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Zander, Udo
    Nilsson, Gunnar H.
    Managing Research Out of the Dark? Exploring Implications and Applications of an Objective Model for the Evaluation of Research Practice and Quality2017Ingår i: Rutgers Business Review, ISSN 1937-0571, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 377-385Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of research is central to scientific organizations. But how to evaluate research practice and quality when managing research? There is not one standard for what “good research” is. In a recent study, we developed a model for evaluating research practice and quality and in this model, there are four core concepts: Credible, Contributory, Communicable, and Conforming. Based on these concepts a model including 32 sub-concepts was developed. The aim of this article is to explore implications and applications of the model using three fundamental perspectives of research management; the process, the organization, and the governance.

  • 50. Nilsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Östergren, Jan
    Fors, Uno
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rickenlund, Anette
    Jorfeldt, Lennart
    Caidahl, Kenneth
    Bolinder, Gunilla
    Does individual learning styles influence the choice to use a web-based ECG learning programme in a blended learning setting?2012Ingår i: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 12, s. 5-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The compressed curriculum in modern knowledge-intensive medicine demands useful tools to achieve approved learning aims in a limited space of time. Web-based learning can be used in different ways to enhance learning. Little is however known regarding its optimal utilisation. Our aim was to investigate if the individual learning styles of medical students influence the choice to use a web-based ECG learning programme in a blended learning setting. Methods: The programme, with three types of modules (learning content, self-assessment questions and interactive ECG interpretation training), was offered on a voluntary basis during a face to face ECG learning course for undergraduate medical students. The Index of Learning Styles (ILS) and a general questionnaire including questions about computer and Internet usage, preferred future speciality and prior experience of E-learning were used to explore different factors related to the choice of using the programme or not. Results: 93 (76%) out of 123 students answered the ILS instrument and 91 the general questionnaire. 55 students (59%) were defined as users of the web-based ECG-interpretation programme. Cronbach's alpha was analysed with coefficients above 0.7 in all of the four dimensions of ILS. There were no significant differences with regard to learning styles, as assessed by ILS, between the user and non-user groups; Active/Reflective; Visual/Verbal; Sensing/Intuitive; and Sequential/Global (p = 0.56-0.96). Neither did gender, prior experience of E-learning or preference for future speciality differ between groups. Conclusion: Among medical students, neither learning styles according to ILS, nor a number of other characteristics seem to influence the choice to use a web-based ECG programme. This finding was consistent also when the usage of the different modules in the programme were considered. Thus, the findings suggest that web-based learning may attract a broad variety of medical students.

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