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  • 1. Blomqvist, M.
    et al.
    Ahadi, S.
    Fernell, E.
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Dahllöf, G.
    Dental caries in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a population-based follow-up study2011Ingår i: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 119, nr 5, s. 381-385Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tested the hypothesis that adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit a higher prevalence of caries than adolescents in a control group. Thirty-two adolescents with ADHD and a control group of 55 adolescents from a population-based sample, all 17 yr of age, underwent a clinical and radiographic dental examination. The mean +/- SD number of decayed surfaces (DS) was 2.0 +/- 2.2 in adolescents with ADHD and 0.9 +/- 1.4 in adolescents of the control group. Thirty-one per cent of the adolescents in the ADHD group had no new caries lesions (DS = 0) compared with 62% in the control group. Six per cent of the adolescents in the ADHD group were caries free [decayed, missing or filled surfaces (DMFS) = 0] compared with 29% in the control group. Adolescents with ADHD also had a higher percentage of gingival sites that exhibited bleeding on probing compared with the control group: 35 +/- 39% vs. 16 +/- 24% (mean +/- SD), respectively. At 17 yr of age, adolescents with ADHD exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of caries compared with an age-matched control group. Adolescents with ADHD need more support regarding oral hygiene and dietary habits. They should be followed up with shorter intervals between dental examinations to prevent caries progression during adulthood.

  • 2. Blomqvist, My
    et al.
    Augustsson, Mikael
    Bertlin, Christine
    Holmberg, Kirsten
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Dahllöf, Göran
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    How do children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder interact in a clinical dental examination?: A video analysis.2005Ingår i: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, Vol. 113, nr 3, s. 203-209Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently the most common behavioural disorder in school-age children. The aim of this study was to perform a detailed analysis of behavioural interactions between the dentist and the child patient with ADHD. All children born in 1991(n=555) in one Swedish municipality were screened for attention and learning problems and assessed for ADHD: Twenty-two children with ADHD and a control group of 47 children without attention and learning problems were included in the study. The dental recall visit was recorded on video. The interaction between the dentist and the child was analyzed in detail and scored as verbal and nonverbal initiatives and responses. Compared to the children in the control group, the children with ADHD made significantly more initiatives, especially initiatives that did not focus on the eaxmination or the dentist. The children with ADHD had fewer verbal responses and more missing responses. In conclusion, the problems in communication resulted in less two-way communication between the dentist and the children with ADHD than the interaction between the dentist and the children in the control group. The children with ADHD had particular difficulties staying focused on the examination.

  • 3. Blomqvist, My
    et al.
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Holmberg, Kirsten
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Dahlloö, Göran
    Cognitive ability and dental fear and anxiety2013Ingår i: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 121, nr 2, s. 117-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental fear and anxiety (DFA), as well as dental behavior management problems, are common in children and adolescents. Several psychological factors in the child, and parental DFA, have been studied and found to correlate to the child's DFA. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive ability and DFA in a population-based group of children with identified behavior and learning problems. In conjunction with a dental examination at 11yr of age, 70 children were assessed with regard to DFA using the Children's Fear Survey Schedule Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS), and their cognitive ability was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. In addition, parental DFA was measured using the Corah Dental Anxiety Scale. The results revealed that DFA was significantly correlated to verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) but not to any other cognitive index. A significant correlation was found between parental DFA and child DFA. The results indicate that the child's verbal capacity may be one factor of importance in explaining dental fear in children.

  • 4.
    Blomqvist, My
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Holmberg, Kirsten
    Karolinska Sjukhuset.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Karolinska Sjukhuset.
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Dahllöf, Göran
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Dental caries and oral health behavior in children with attention deficir hyperactivity disorder2007Ingår i: European Journal of Oral ScienceArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 5. Blomqvist, My
    et al.
    Holmberg, Kirsten
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Dahllöf, Göran
    Oral health, dental anxiety, and behavior management problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.2006Ingår i: European Journal of Oral Science, ISSN 0909-8836, Vol. 114, nr 5, s. 385-390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with ADHD have a higher caries prevalence, a higher degree of dental anxiety, or more dental behavior management problems (BMP) than children of a control group. Twenty-five children with ADHD and a control group of 58 children, all aged 11 yr, were included in the study. The children underwent a clinical dental examination, and bitewing radiographs were taken. The parents completed the Dental Subscale of Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS). Dental records from the subjects were obtained, and data regarding notes on behavior management problems (BMP) of the children when between 3 and 10 yr of age were compiled. Compared with controls, children with ADHD had significantly higher decayed, missing or filled surfaces (DMFS) (2.0 +/- 3.0 vs. 1.0 +/- 1.5) and significantly higher decayed surfaces (DS) (1.7 +/- 3.6 vs. 0.5 +/- 0.9). Differences between the groups regarding CFSS-DS scores were non-significant. In the ADHD group, the prevalence of BMP increased when the children were between 7 and 9 yr of age. In conclusion, children with ADHD exhibited a higher caries prevalence, did not exhibit a higher degree of dental anxiety, and had more BMP than children of a control group.

  • 6.
    Blomqvist, My
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Holmberg, Kirsten
    Karolinska Sjukhuset.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Karolinska Sjukhuset.
    Dahllöf, Göran
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Salivary cortisol levels and dental anxiety in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder2007Ingår i: European Journal of Oral ScienceArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 7. Ceynowa, Dylan J.
    et al.
    Wickström, Ronny
    Olsson, Monica
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Kristoffersen Wiberg, Maria
    Tear Fahnehjelm, Kristina
    Morning Glory Disc Anomaly in childhood - a population-based study2015Ingår i: Acta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-375X, E-ISSN 1755-3768, Vol. 93, nr 7, s. 626-634Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To report prevalence, ocular characteristics and coexisting neurological, behavioural, somatic and neuroradiological abnormalities in children and adolescents with morning glory disc anomaly (MGDA).

    Methods: In a cross-sectional population-based study, 12 patients with MGDA, aged 2-20years, were identified. All 12 agreed to ophthalmological assessments including visual functions, refraction, fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and ocular motor score (OMS). Neurological examinations and behavioural/developmental screening were carried out. Data from previous or new neuroradiological investigations were collected.

    Results: The prevalence of MGDA was 2.6/100000. MGDA was unilateral in 11/12 patients with a best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the MGDA eye ranging from hand motion to 0.65 (median 0.06). Severe microphthalmus prevented unilaterality to be determined in one adolescent. All patients had a binocular BCVA of 0.5. OMS showed abnormalities in pupil response, vestibulo-ocular reflex, stereo visual acuity, strabismus and convergence. OCT revealed peripapillary or macular oedema in 5/8 patients and foveal aplasia in 3/8 patients. Three patients had extensive capillary hemangiomas, of which one had PHACES syndrome and one had additional cerebrovascular anomalies and corpus callosum agenesis. Neuroradiology showed craniovascular anomalies in two patients. Neurology was mostly normal. Behavioural/developmental screening showed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in one patient.

    Conclusions: The prevalence data, previously not reported, of morning glory disc anomaly was 2.6/100 000. Coexisting retinal peripapillary or macular oedema was common, as were cerebral abnormalities and/or cutaneous vascular malformations. The associated findings may not be discovered through routine ophthalmological examination why OCT and neuroimaging are called for.

  • 8. Dahl, Sara
    et al.
    Wickström, Ronny
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Fahnehjelm, Kristina Tear
    Children with optic nerve hypoplasia face a high risk of neurodevelopmental disorders2018Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, nr 3, s. 484-489Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a congenital ocular malformation that has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, but the prevalence in unilateral disease and less severe visual impairment is unknown. We studied intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in patients with ONH.

    Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional cohort study of 65 patients (33 female) with ONH below 20 years of age, living in Stockholm in December 2009, with data analysed in January 2016. Of these 35 were bilateral and 30 were unilateral. Neurodevelopmental disorders were diagnosed or confirmed by neurological assessments, the Five to Fifteen parent questionnaire and reviewing previous neuropsychological investigations or conducting neuropsychological tests.

    Results: Bilateral ONH patients had lower mean full scale intelligence quotient scores than unilateral patients (84.4 and 99.4, respectively, p = 0.049). We assessed intellectual disability in 55 eligible patients, and it was more common in patients with bilateral ONH (18 of 32, 56%) than unilateral ONH (two of 23, 9%, p < 0.001). ASDs were diagnosed in seven of 42 (17%) patients.

    Conclusion: Children with bilateral ONH had a high risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, especially intellectual disability. The risk was lower in unilateral ONH, but the levels of neurodevelopmental disorders warrant screening of both groups.

  • 9.
    de Verdier, Kim
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    A Longitudinal Study of Reading Development, Academic Achievement, and Support in Swedish Inclusive Education for Students with Blindness or Severe Visual Impairment2014Ingår i: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, ISSN 0145-482X, E-ISSN 1559-1476, Vol. 108, nr 6, s. 461-472Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: This longitudinal study examined reading development, academic achievement and support in school for six students with blindness or severe visual impairments in inclusive educational settings. Methods: School grades and results from reading observations and decoding skills tests were collected, and interviews were conducted with students, parents, and teachers. Results: The results show that the outcome of these students' schooling varied a great deal regarding both levels of academic achievement and reading development, as well as in the support needed and received. Students with additional disabilities had less positive experiences in school, and the parents of these students were more critical of the support provided by the schools. Discussion: Important aspects of the outcomes concerned the attitudes held by school management and teachers and the competence of teachers. In some cases, teachers lacked sufficient knowledge about braille and teaching methods for students with visual impairments. Implications for practitioners: The findings imply that the support system for students with visual impairments in Sweden needs to be more systematized in order to secure equal educational opportunities for all students.

  • 10.
    de Verdier, Kim
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen. Swedish National Agency for Special Needs Education and Schools, Sweden.
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Children with blindness – major causes, developmental outcomes and implications for habilitation and educational support: a two‐decade, Swedish population‐based study2018Ingår i: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 96, nr 3, s. 295-300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim was to describe the population of children with congenital or early infancy blindness in Sweden, with regard to causes of blindness and prevalence of neurodevelopmental impairments.

    Methods

    Medical, psychological and pedagogical records of Swedish children with congenital or early infancy blindness (total blindness or light perception at the most) born in 1988–2008 were analysed regarding year of birth, gender, cause of blindness, gestational age, associated neurological disorders/syndromes, associated neurodevelopmental impairments, cognitive level and type of school placement.

    Results

    A total of 150 individuals, 80 girls and 70 boys, were identified, corresponding to a prevalence of 7/100 000. Five causes of blindness dominated, constituting 76% of all represented aetiologies: retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH), Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), optic nerve atrophy (ONA) and microphthalmia/anophthalmia. Nearly three of four children in the study population had at least one additional disability besides blindness; the most common being intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). More than half of the population had more than one additional disability. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was most common in children with ONH, ROP, LCA and microphthalmia/anophthalmia.

    Conclusion

    In children born within the last decades, isolated blindness is uncommon and the rate of multidisabilities is high. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) seems to be more strongly associated with specific aetiological subgroups. Further development of the support to families and schools should be based on knowledge about the considerable heterogeneity of the population of children with blindness, and the common occurrence of coexisting neurodevelopmental disorders, especially ID and ASD.

  • 11.
    de Verdier, Kim
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen. National Agency for Special Needs Education and Schools, Sweden.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Blindness and Autism: Parents’ Perspectives on Diagnostic Challenges, Support Needs and Support Provision2019Ingår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with or without intellectual disability (ID), is common in children with congenital blindness. This complex combination of disabilities often involves many challenges for the family. This study explored parents’ experiences of having a child with blindness and ASD (with or without ID), their support needs and experiences of the support provided. Interviews with eight parents, representing six families, were performed. The parents emphasized that assessment and diagnostic procedures must be performed by professionals with expertise in blind children’s development, and ASD. The support was often perceived as fragmented and did not correspond to the families’ needs. The results suggest that national guidelines should be produced, to ensure a more coordinated and tailored support to these families.

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  • 12.
    de Verdier, Kim
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen. National Agency for Special Needs Education and Schools, Sweden.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Challenges and Successful Pedagogical Strategies: Experiences from Six Swedish Students with Blindness and Autism in Different School Settings2018Ingår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 520-532Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of autism in children with blindness is much higher than in the general population. There are many challenges regarding the school situation for children with this complex dual disability. This study explored challenges and successful strategies in school for a sample of six Swedish children with blindness and autism, with and without intellectual disability, through qualitative interviews with students, teachers and parents. All students displayed executive functioning deficits, and the teaching situation entailed several challenges. Our research points to the importance of adopting evidence-based practices for ASD, but adapted according to the students lack of vision. For this to be possible, close collaboration between teachers, parents and specialists in the field of visual impairment and autism is necessary.

  • 13.
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Children with visual disorders: Cognitive development, developmental disorders and consequences for treatment and counselling2008Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The causes of visual impairment and blindness has changed over the years, in industrialised countries, giving rise to a new population of visually impaired children. Damages to the posteriorvisual pathway and the brain are now common causes of visual impairment. In this thesis this changed panorama was explored and cognitive and behavioural outcome in children with ocular vs. cerebral visual impairment was examined in various studies. More cognitive deficits and developmental disorders, such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders and complex visual perceptual and visual cognitive disorders were found in children with cerebral visual impairment or combinations of ocular and cerebral causes of visual impairment. Children born preterm, now form a considerable part of the population of visually impaired children and are at risk for such disorders. Children born at term with visual impairment due to causes in the anterior parts of the visual system have an entirely different developmental outcome. Psychological assessment methods, early intervention and counselling should be adapted to correspond with this changing population of visually impaired children.

  • 14.
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    "Om någon ändå märkt hur jag hade det..."2009Ingår i: Psykisk Hälsa, ISSN 0033-3212, nr 3-4, s. 65-78Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska föreningen för psykisk hälsa ägnar nr 3-4 åt barns villkor i Sverige. Det är 20 år sedan FN antog barnkonventionen. Ett antal personer har inbjudits att ge sin syn på: att som barn växa upp i Sverige idag, begreppet barnperspektivet och vilka förslag som finns för att förbättra den rådande situationen.

  • 15.
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Psykologiska bedömningar2012Ingår i: Barn med funktionsnedsättning / [ed] Bengt Lagerkvist, Carl Lindgren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2012, s. 319-325Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16.
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Specialpedagogik – en framtidsvy2012Ingår i: Barn med funktionshinder / [ed] Bengt Lagerkvist, Carl Lindgren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2012, s. 327-333Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    Ek, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Svag begåvning - otillräckligt uppmärksammade svårigheter2011Ingår i: Elevhälsa, ISSN 2000-5296, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 18.
    Ek, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Jacobson, Lena
    Cognitive and behavioural characteristics in blind children with bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia.2005Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 94, nr 10, s. 1421-1426Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe cognitive and behavioural characteristics in a group of blind children with bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH). Methods: Data from records, parents, teachers, and repeated developmental assessments of 13 blind children with ONH born in 1988–1998 were analysed. All children had neuroimaging and/or hormonal evidence of midline malformations. They were all blind and able to communicate with speech. Results: Severe mood swings and temper tantrums were common, especially during the first years of life. Later in life, sluggish tempo, low frustration tolerance and a narrow range of interests were common. Autism had been diagnosed in 6/13 children, autistic-like condition (ALC) was found in another three. The behaviour of the remaining four children was not within the autism spectrum. Eight children had cognitive capacities within the normal or near-normal range; five had mental retardation. Autism/ALC was found in all cognitive subgroups. All children exhibited fluent speech and, of these, 12 had started to talk at the expected age, but had clear deficiencies in communicative ability. Conclusion: These children had a common pattern of behavioural characteristics including autism spectrum disorders independent of intellectual capacities.

  • 19.
    Ek, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Holmberg, K
    Olsson, P O
    Gillberg, C
    Cognitive strengths and deficits in schoolchildren with ADHD.2007Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, Vol. 96, nr 5, s. 756-761Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Few studies provide detailed analyses of the various aspects of the entire cognitive profile of children with ADHD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cognitive test data were analysed for 10- to 11-year-old children with (1) ADHD, (2) subthreshold ADHD and (3) milder attention and/or learning problems, and compared with normative data. RESULTS: Thirty-two had ADHD and 10 met the criteria for subthreshold ADHD, prevalence rates of 5.4% and 1.6%, respectively. On a group level, children with ADHD/subthreshold ADHD, and those with milder attention and/or learning problems had almost identical cognitive profiles for the 13 subtests comprising the WISC III, with particularly low results on the arithmetic, coding, information and digit span subtests (ACID profile). When analyzed individually, a complete or incomplete ACID profile (three of four subtests) was equally common in children with ADHD/subthreshold ADHD and in children with milder problems, found in about 1/5. The relative strengths of both groups were in areas demanding logical thinking, reasoning and common sense. CONCLUSION: The specific ACID profile is as common in children with ADHD as in those with minor attention and/or learning problems. The cognitive weaknesses reflected in the ACID profile might play a role as an underlying factor in various developmental disorders.

  • 20.
    Ek, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Linder, S
    Etik och juridik2009Ingår i: Psykolog i skolan / [ed] Elinor Schad, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, s. 35-82Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet handlar om etiska och juridiska aspekter avseende skolpsykologer.

  • 21.
    Ek, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Linder, Susanne
    Etik och juridik med fokus på handledning i psykoterapi2012Ingår i: Möjligheter och utmaningar i grupphandledning: teori och verklighet / [ed] Siv Boalt Boëthius, Marie-Louise Ögren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2012, s. 111-125Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Ek, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    LInder, Susanne
    Wetter, Ilse
    Rätt & Vett2007Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Ek, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Linder, Susanne
    Wetter, Ilse
    Rätt & Vett: om juridik och etik i psykologiskt arbete2011 (uppl. 2:1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 24.
    Ek, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Norrelgen, Fritjof
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Dahlman, Andrea
    Elizabeth, Hultby
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Teenage outcomes after speech and language impairment at preschool age2012Ingår i: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, ISSN 1176-6328, E-ISSN 1178-2021, Vol. 8, s. 221-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Ten years ago, we published developmental data on a representative group of children (n = 25) with moderate or severe speech and language impairment, who were attending special preschools for children. The aim of this study was to perform a follow-up of these children as teenagers. Methods: Parents of 23 teenagers participated in a clinical interview that requested information on the child's current academic achievement, type of school, previous clinical assessments, and developmental diagnoses. Fifteen children participated in a speech and language evaluation, and 13 participated in a psychological evaluation. Results: Seven of the 23 teenagers had a mild intellectual disability, and another three had borderline intellectual functioning. Nine had symptoms of disorders on the autism spectrum; five of these had an autism spectrum disorder, and four had clear autistic traits. Six met criteria for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/subthreshold ADHD. Thirteen of 15 teenagers had a moderate or severe language impairment, and 13 of 15 had a moderate or severe reading impairment. Overlapping disorders were frequent. None of the individuals who underwent the clinical evaluation were free from developmental problems. Conclusion: A large number of children with speech and language impairment at preschool age had persistent language problems and/or met the criteria for developmental diagnoses other than speech and language impairment at their follow-up as teenagers. Language impairment in young children is a marker for several developmental disorders, particularly intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.

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    Teenage outcomes after speech and language impairment at preschool age
  • 25.
    Ek, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    General versus executive cognitive ability in pupils with ADHD and with milder attention problems2013Ingår i: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, ISSN 1176-6328, E-ISSN 1178-2021, Vol. 9, s. 163-168Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to analyze two main types of cognitive domains in school children with different types and severities of attention-related problems. The cognitive domains examined were general cognitive ability and executive abilities. Methods: Three different clinical samples of pupils with school problems were analyzed to assess their cognitive Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children profiles. In particular, the general cognitive ability index and the executive markers (ie, verbal memory index and processing speed index) were of interest. Of the total sample (n = 198), two main groups were contrasted; one met the full criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/subthreshold ADHD, and one was comprised of those with milder attention problems, insufficient to meet the criteria for ADHD/subthreshold ADHD. Results: It could be demonstrated that both groups had a significantly higher score on the general cognitive ability index than on measures of working memory and processing speed. This difference was more pronounced for boys. Conclusion: These types of cognitive differences need to be considered in children with different kinds of learning, behavior, and attention problems; this is also true for children presenting with an average general intelligence quotient and with milder attention problems. Current educational expectations are demanding for children with mild difficulties, and such cognitive information will add to the understanding of the child's learning problems, hopefully leading to a better adapted education than that conventionally available.

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    fulltext
  • 26.
    Ek, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Furmark, Catarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Sahlgrenska Akademien, Göteborgs universitet.
    An audit of teenagers who had not succeeded in elementary school: a retrospective case review2012Ingår i: Clinical Audit, ISSN 1179-2760, Vol. 4, s. 1-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim was to perform a retrospective case review of pupils who had not succeeded in elementary school, in order to analyze barriers at individual and system levels. Methods: Forty-five pupils, aged 16–20 years, who had not qualified for senior high school, were consecutively assessed within the school health unit to determine their cognitive function, school history, measures taken, previous assessments, and diagnoses given. Results: School health records revealed early problems with learning, reading, mathematics, and attention, but very few students had received an appropriate diagnosis. Our review and assessment when all the data had been compiled demonstrated that the vast majority (96%) of participants had clear developmental problems. Attention problems or full attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder dominated. About half of the students reported extensive truancy. Mean intelligence quotient in the study group was 83.9, about 1 standard deviation below the mean. Fluid intelligence was significantly superior to crystallized intelligence. Conclusion: Screening and identification are needed throughout the school years of children who present symptoms that could interfere with their academic achievement. Intervention needs to be based on skilled assessment, with consideration given to each individual's broad panorama of cognitive deficits and assets, as well as concomitant social adversities that may underlie their school failure. Since there can be a significant negative impact of limited educational opportunities on future socioeconomic outcomes, the question of who is at risk is important both for affected individuals and more generally for public health. Limitations: The study group was small and may not have been fully representative. In spite of limited confidence about generalizing from the results, the findings call for reflection.

  • 27.
    Ek, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Holmberg, K.
    Fernell, E.
    Academic performance of adolescents with ADHD and other behavioural and learning problems: a population-based longitudinal study2011Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, nr 3, s. 402-406Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To study academic performance (final grades at the age of 16 years) in individuals with i) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ii) other learning and/or behavioural problems. Methods: Of a total population of 591 children, originally assessed at the age of 10-11 years, it was possible to obtain final grades for 536 16-year-olds (in grade 9). Those fulfilling the criteria for ADHD/sub-threshold ADHD (n=39) and those with 'Behaviour and Learning Problems' (BLP group), (n=80) and a comparison group (n=417) were contrasted. Results: The ADHD and BLP groups had a significantly lower total mean grade at the age of 16 years than the comparison group. In addition, the ADHD and BLP groups also qualified for further studies in the upper secondary school to a significantly lesser extent than the controls (72%, 68% and 92%, respectively). All IQ measures (at the age of 10-11 years) were positively correlated with the overall grade after grade 9, with especially strong correlations for verbal capacity. Conclusion: ADHD and similar problems entail a risk of underachievement at school. The results indicate that pupils with ADHD underachieve in the school situation in relation to their optimal cognitive capacity. The contextual situation and the particular requirements should be considered in order for adequate educational measures to be undertaken.

  • 28.
    Ek, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Holmberg, Kirsten
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Self-esteem in children with attention and/or learning deficits: the importance of gender2008Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 97, nr 8, s. 1125-1130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Our objective was to analyze self-esteem in children within a spectrum of attention disorders, that is, besides attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), also children with subthreshold ADHD and even milder attention deficits and/or learning problems.

    Methods: From a population-based group of 10–11-year-old children in a Swedish municipality those with ADHD/subthreshold ADHD (n = 30) and those with milder attention and/or learning problems (n = 64) were targeted for the study. The children completed the 'I think I am' scale, reflecting physical appearance, scholastic competence, mental well-being, relationships to parents and to others and global self-esteem. Data from boys and girls were compared and related to the parents' and teachers' ratings on the two dimensions of the Conners' 10-item questionnaire (impulsive-restless behaviour and emotional lability) and to the children's cognitive levels.

    Results: Significant gender differences were found, girls reporting lower self-esteem concerning mental well-being and poorer relationships with parents and peers. However, children with ADHD/subthreshold ADHD did not report significantly lower global self-esteem when compared to a reference population.

    Conclusion: Self-esteem in children with attention, behaviour and/or learning problems has to be carefully evaluated, especially in girls, and measures are needed to prevent a trajectory towards adolescent psychopathology.

  • 29. Fernell, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Borderline intellectual functioning in children and adolescents - insufficiently recognized difficulties2010Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 99, nr 5, s. 748-753Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To draw attention to groups of children and adolescents with borderline intellectual functioning, especially with respect to their school-situation. Methods: In one study, population-based, children with borderline intellectual functioning at age 10 years were followed until they finished compulsory school when their final certificates could be analysed. In a second study parents of 20 individuals in the upper secondary school for pupils with mild mental retardation were interviewed according to the Vineland adaptive scales and school health records were reviewed. In a third study pupils attending an individual programme in upper secondary school were assessed and we report one representative case. Results: (1) Pupils with borderline intellectual functioning, assessed in grade 4, received significantly lower grades when finishing the compulsory school. (2) In the group of pupils in the upper secondary school for the mildly mentally retarded, compiled data indicated that a considerable number did not fulfil the combined IQ and adaptive criteria for mild mental retardation. (3) The subtle nature of borderline intellectual functioning may delay appropriate measures at school, which our case illustrates. Conclusion: Borderline intellectual functioning seldom attracts attention. Our studies indicate that school and also society at large must be prepared to adapt educational and working conditions for the large minority of individuals with borderline intellectual functioning.

  • 30.
    Roll-Pettersson, Lise
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Ramnerö, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Benefits of BACB Certification for Universities in Europe: A Case Study from Sweden2010Ingår i: Association of professional behavior analysts, nr 17Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The endorsement of the Behaviour Analyst Certification Board (BACB) program by the European Association for Behaviour Analysis and the BACB’s accreditation by the National Council for Certifying Agencies of the Institute for Credentialing Excellence are important factors for professional development and identity from the perspective of European behaviour analysts. Countries within Europe have different ideological and philosophical assumptions concerning important conceptual and practical knowledge for professionals like licensed psychologists and special educators. The conceptual knowledge base in one country might differ from that of another country. Certification in behaviour analysis, however, would clearly indicate that an individual has knowledge and skills in applied behaviour analysis and can apply them in an ethical and accountable manner in practical settings, regardless of the country in which the individual was trained and the academic discipline in which the individual obtained degree or coursework. Thus BACB certification may promote collaboration among countries, and may come to serve as a tie that binds theory and practice across countries as well as disciplines.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 31. Skriapa Manta, Athanasia
    et al.
    Olsson, Monica
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Wickström, Ronny
    Teär Fahnehjelm, Kristina
    Optic Disc Coloboma in children - prevalence, clinical characteristics and associated morbidity2019Ingår i: Acta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-375X, E-ISSN 1755-3768, Vol. 97, nr 5, s. 478-485Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to report prevalence, ocular outcome, neurological characteristics, cognitive and behavioural problems in children with optic disc coloboma (ODC).

    Methods: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study of 31 children between 2 and 18 years of age diagnosed with ODC. The children were part of a larger cohort of 184 children with congenital optic disc malformations. Clinical ophthalmological examinations, neurological assessments, behavioural and developmental screening were performed.

    Results: The prevalence of ODC was 8.9/100 000 children. Of the 31 patients, 18 had unilateral ODC (p = 0.21). The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the ODC eye ranged from blindness to 1.3 (median 0.3). BCVA was 0.82 in eyes with an isolated ODC (range 0.4-1.3) and 0.15 (range 0-0.5) in eyes with concurrent macular involvement (p < 0.0001). Nystagmus was observed more often in patients with bilateral ODC (9/13 versus 3/17, p = 0.004). Two patients had retinal detachment. Behavioural/psychological screening was performed in 21 patients with severe deficits identified in six cases. Intellectual disability was present in seven patients. Neurological dysfunction was diagnosed in 8/22 cases. All of the above children had already systemic diagnoses before the ODC diagnosis was made.

    Conclusions: ODC was the second most common optic disc malformation in this cohort after optic nerve hypoplasia. The children had a wide range of ocular comorbidity. An isolated ODC without macular involvement was not associated with profound vision loss. The ability of screening in the regular child care centres to diagnose extraocular comorbidities was very good and referral to a paediatrician appears redundant in cases of normal development.

  • 32. Tear Fahnehjelm, Kristina
    et al.
    Dahl, Sara
    Martin, Lene
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Optic nerve hypoplasia in children and adolescents; prevalence, ocular characteristics and behavioural problems2014Ingår i: Acta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-375X, E-ISSN 1755-3768, Vol. 92, nr 6, s. 563-570Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To report prevalence, ocular characteristics and coexisting behavioural problems in children and adolescents with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH), which is a common cause of visual impairment in children in western countries, often associated with neurological or endocrinological problems and where autism has been reported in severe cases with blindness. Methods: This is a population-based cross-sectional study of patients <20 years of age who had been diagnosed with NH and lived in the county of Stockholm in December 2009. Ophthalmological assessments including fundus photographs with optic disc analyses were made. A questionnaire was used to screen for behaviour and development. Results: The prevalence of ONH in all living children <18 years of age in Stockholm was 17.3/100 000 with a prevalence of visual impairment (<0.3) of 3.9/100 000. In total, 66 patients, median age 9.3 years (0.6-19.4), 36 with bilateral and 30 with unilateral ONH, were included in the current study; 53 were re-examined clinically, group A, and 13 agreed to retrospective analyses of existing medical records, group B. Analyses of the optic discs were made in fundus photographs from 53 patients comparing a semi-automated (Retinal Size Tool) and a manual method (Zeki). There was a strong curvilinear correlation (r(S) = 0.91 p < 0.0001 for both eyes). Behavioural problems were more common (p < 0.05) in bilateral ONII. Conclusion: Optic nerve hypoplasia is a common ocular malformation with a prevalence of 17.3/100 000 children and adolescents <18 years of age in Stockholm. Unilateral ONH seems as common as bilateral.

  • 33. Teär Fahnehjelm, Kristina
    et al.
    Törnquist, Alba Lucia
    Olsson, Monica
    Winiarski, Jacek
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Visual perceptual skills and visual motor integration in children and adolescents after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation2018Ingår i: Pediatric Transplantation, ISSN 1397-3142, E-ISSN 1399-3046, Vol. 22, nr 2, artikel-id e13117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to study visual acuity, visual perceptual, and VMI skills in patients after HSCT in childhood. Tests of visual perceptual skills, VMI, and visual acuity were performed in 102 children/adolescents (age range 4.3-20.9years). Mean time from HSCT to testing was 6.0years (0.9-17.5years). Visual acuity was median 1.0 decimal (range 0.16-1.6). Visual perceptual skills (memory, form constancy, visual sequential memory) and VMI were low compared to age-equivalent normative data with, respectively, 36%, 45%, 60%, and 46% of all patients performing below the 25 percentile. All patients performed significantly lower than the 50 percentile in the reference material in visual sequential memory, P<.001 (boys P<.001 and girls P<.05). All patients also performed significantly lower than the 50 percentile in VMI (P<.01) (boys P<.05). Pretransplant conditioning regimen did not affect outcome if the results were corrected for age at HSCT. Visual perceptual skill problems and VMI problems frequently occur in patients after HSCT in childhood. Age at HSCT and original diagnosis influence the outcome. Neuropsychological assessment including visual perception is recommended in children after HSCT.

  • 34.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ek, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Holmberg, Kirsten
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Karolinska Sjukhuset.
    The Conners' 10-item scale: findings in a total population of Swedish 10–11-year-old children2009Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 98, nr 5, s. 828-833Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To present normative data for the Swedish version of the Conners' 10-item scale, to validate the scale by comparing children with and without attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), to explore the factor structure of this scale and to investigate behavioural characteristics and gender differences among 10- to 11-year-old children, as rated by parents and teachers respectively.

    Methods: Parents and teachers rated 509 10- to 11-year-old children (261 boys and 248 girls) from a population-based cohort in a Swedish municipality.

    Results: The Conners' 10-item scale discriminated very well between children with and without ADHD. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed a two-dimensional structure of the scale with items measuring restless/impulsive behaviour in one factor and items measuring emotional lability in another. An ANOVA revealed that parents and teachers reported different behavioural characteristics in boys as compared to girls.

    Conclusion: The Conners' 10-item scale is a valid screening instrument for identification of ADHD. The two subscales can be used separately, in addition to the total score, to get a more detailed picture of the child's behaviour. Parents and teachers pay attention to different aspects of problem behaviour in boys and girls. The less disruptive behaviour of girls needs to be highlighted.

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