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  • 1.
    Glazunov, Andrés Alayón
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Bäckström, Mats
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. Saab Aeronautics, Sweden.
    Oakes, Benjamin Donald
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Probability Distribution Function of the Electric Field Strength From a CW IEMI Source2014In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 1550-1558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A statistical method for predicting the vulnerability of a target, i.e., critical equipment, located inside a building subject to a radiated Intentional Electromagnetic Interference (IEMI) source outside a building, has been devised. Combining probability density functions of small-and large-scale fluctuations of the electric field strength results in a Suzuki distributed electric field strength impinging at the equipment. Specifying the susceptibility level or the critical electric field strength of the target, the vulnerability of a target is evaluated as a function of the distance between source and target, taking into account losses from in and outside the building. Vulnerability isocontours defined as lines of constant probability of exceeding the susceptibility level are presented for a generic, continuous wave power source in a scenario emulating a dense urban microcell propagation environment. A comparison of the vulnerabilities predicted based on the Suzuki and the Log-normal distributions are also been provided for the same scenario. The proposed method provides estimates of critical distances of radiated IEMI attacks and may have use when deciding on the perimeter defense of a facility.

  • 2.
    Montaño, Raul
    et al.
    High Voltage Valley.
    Bäckström, Mats
    Saab Communication.
    Månsson, Daniel
    Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University.
    Thottappillil, Rajeev
    Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University.
    On the Response and Immunity of Electric Power Infrastructures Against IEMI – Current Swedish Initiatives2008In: 2008 ASIA-PACIFIC SYMPOSIUM ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY AND 19TH INTERNATIONAL ZURICH SYMPOSIUM ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOLS 1 AND 2, New York: IEEE , 2008, p. 510-513Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IEMI is not a new research topic especially for military applications. However, not much attention has been paid in the past to the possibility that this type of threat could be used against civilian critical infrastructure by terrorist groups or other rough elements. Moreover, just a few research programs, mainly conducted in the U.S., have been reported combining power systems and high altitude nuclear high-altitude electromagnetic (HEMP) pulse. The present manuscript is aimed to present various Swedish research activities planned to provide the necessary knowledge to improve the electromagnetic requirements/susceptibility level against IEMI threats of future digital and electronic components used on different critical infrastructures system.

  • 3.
    Månsson, Daniel
    et al.
    High Voltage Valley.
    Thottappillil, Rajeev
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Bäckström, Mats
    Combitech AB.
    IEMI Classification of Facilities2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determination of shielding efficiency in combination with knowledge of the susceptibility of the equipment located inside the shield is not sufficient for estimating the threat from intentional electromagnetic interference towards a facility or distributed system. In addition, shielding efficiency is a concept more suitable for enclosures. The physical distribution, the complexity of the system and the intent behind the disturbance call for alternative methods of classification for distributed systems. One such method, based on three key terms; Accessibility, Susceptibility and Consequence, is proposed here.

  • 4.
    Oakes, Benjamin Donald
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Näsman, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Bäckström, Mats
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. Saab Aeronautics, Sweden.
    A Dynamic Operational Model for Improving the Resilience of Wireless Networks Against JammingArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 5. Ragulis, Paulius
    et al.
    Ängskog, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Simniškis, Rimantas
    Vallhagen, Bengt
    Bäckström, Mats
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. Saab Aeronautics, Sweden.
    Kancleris, Žilvinas
    Shielding Effectiveness of Modern Energy-Saving Glasses and Windows2017In: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 0018-926X, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 4250-4258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin metal coatings on glass are widely used in modern windows to improve their thermal properties. However, while there are some available papers on the properties of microwave propagation through commercial metallized windows glass below 6 GHz there seems to be a lack of papers regarding metallized multi-glazed windows at higher frequencies. Such data are of the great importance when designing modern microwave communication systems working in urban environments. In this paper, the shielding effectiveness of modern energy-saving glasses and windows were investigated at microwave frequencies from 1 GHz to 20 GHz. Wide measurement range together with proposed fast calculation procedure based on the matrix multiplication method, allowed us to elucidate the reasons responsible for the extremes in dependencies of shielding effectiveness on frequency. It was also shown that by comparing measured and calculated results, the conductivity of the thin metallic layer used in modern energy-saving windows can be determined. During the study, we found that attenuation of microwave radiation passing through modern windows can be as high as 60 dB.

  • 6.
    Thottappillil, Rajeev
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Månsson, Daniel
    Uppsala University.
    Bäckström, Mats
    Saab Combitech, Sweden.
    Response of civilian facilities to intentional electromagnetic interference (electromagnetic terrorism), with emphasis on the Swedish railway network: Final report of project 0667/2004 submitted to Swedish Emergency Management Agency2008Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Thottappillil, Rajeev
    et al.
    Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University.
    Månsson, Daniel
    Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University.
    Bäckström, Mats
    Combitech AB.
    Response of electrified railway facilities to intentional electromagnetic interference: Review of research at Uppsala University2008In: 2008 ASIA-PACIFIC SYMPOSIUM ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY AND 19TH INTERNATIONAL ZURICH SYMPOSIUM ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOLS 1 AND 2, 2008, p. 291-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A research program is being conducted at Uppsala University, Sweden, to investigate the possible susceptibility of civilian systems and networks to intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI), with emphasis on the Swedish railway network. This paper reviews the details of the research program and some of the results.

  • 8.
    Thottappillil, Rajeev
    et al.
    Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University.
    Månsson, Daniel
    Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University.
    Bäckström, Mats
    Combitech AB.
    Susceptibility of electrified railway facilities to intentional elextromagnetic interference2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A research program is being conducted atUppsala University,Sweden, to investigate the possible susceptibility of civilian systems and networks to intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI), with emphasis on the Swedish railway network.  This paper reviews the details of the research program and some of the results obtained so far.

       The main objective of the research was to generate knowledge on the likely response of civilian facilities and systems when subjected to IEMI. The research contributed to developing a methodology for investigating and protecting sensitive civilian facilities against IEMI and to recommend ways in which protection of civilian systems could be improved.

  • 9.
    Thottappillil, Rajeev
    et al.
    Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University.
    Månsson, Daniel
    Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University.
    Theethayi, Nelson
    Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University.
    Bäckström, Mats
    Division of Sensor Technology, Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI).
    Nilsson, Tony
    Division of Sensor Technology, Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI).
    Undén, Göran
    Swedish Defence Material Administration (FMV).
    Nordström, Barbro
    Swedish Defence Material Administration (FMV).
    Bohlin, Per
    Swedish Defence Material Administration (FMV).
    Lindeberg, Per-Anders
    Swedish National Rail Administration (Banverket).
    Hellström, Ulf
    Swedish National Rail Administration (Banverket).
    Lindeberg, Peter
    Swedish National Rail Administration (Banverket).
    Bohlin, Georg
    Bombardier Transportation.
    Zitnik, Mihael
    Bombardier Transportation.
    Response of Civilian Facilities to Intentional Electromagnetic Interference (IEMI), with Emphasis on the Swedish Railway Network2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently a research program was initiated in Sweden to investigate the possible susceptibility of IEMI to civilian networks, with emphasis on the Swedish railway network.  The objective is to develop a methodology for investigating and protecting sensitive railway facilities against IEMI and to recommend ways in which EMI control in the railways could be improved for better defense against IEMI.    Details of the research program and some preliminary results are presented in this paper.

  • 10.
    Ängskog, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Bäckström, Mats
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Samuelsson, Carl
    Saab Aeronaut, SE-58188 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Vallhagen, Bengt Kangashaka
    Saab Aeronaut, SE-58188 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Shielding Effectiveness and HPM Vulnerability of Energy-Saving Windows and Window Panes2019In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 870-877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report results from shielding effectiveness measurements on energy-saving windows and individual, coated window panes of different generations, as well as results from high-power microwave irradiation on single panes. Shielding effectiveness was measured with two complementary methods: first, with near isotropic irradiation in nested reverberation chambers, and the other with irradiation at normal incidence in a semianechoic chamber. The measurements show that the construction of the energy conserving windows has a clear impact on how well they attenuate radio frequency signals. The more modern the window or pane, the higher is the shielding effectiveness. The high-power irradiation on coated panes showed that depending on the type of coating, hotspots can build up causing the coating to crack and, hence, deteriorate the shielding effectiveness. These results may serve as guidance when reviewing high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (EMP), high-power microwave, or intentional electromagnetic interference protection of critical infrastructures, and provide assistance in the work with reduction of compromising emanations.

  • 11.
    Ängskog, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Bäckström, Mats
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. SAAB Aeronautics, SAAB AB.
    Vallhagen, Bengt
    SAAB Aeronautics, SAAB AB.
    High Power Microwave Effects on Coated Window Panes2015In: Asia Electromagnetics Conference (ASIAEM) 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today window panes are usually coated with at least one metal or metal oxide layer to prevent heat energy of the light spectrum from propagating to the other side. This has given problems regarding radio propagation through windows, which might be utilized as a part of a buildings IEMI protection. This paper reports the results from measurements of the shielding effectiveness of a selection of modern window panes before and after irradiation with high power electromagnetic waves. The shielding effectiveness measurements are made in a nested reverberation chamber covering the range 1 – 18 GHz; both before and after high power irradiation at 1.3 GHz. The results show that the shielding effectiveness of window panes may be severely impaired due to thermal stress effects on the coatings during the irradiation, depending of the type of coating.

  • 12.
    Ängskog, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Bäckström, Mats
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. SAAB Aeronautics, SAAB AB.
    Vallhagen, Bengt
    SAAB Aeronautics, SAAB AB.
    Measurement of Radio Signal Propagation through Window Panes and Energy Saving Windows2015In: Proceedings of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), 2015 IEEE International Symposium on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 74-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass windows have undergone an energy saving evolution over the past three, four decades, from single panes till today’s ultralow-emission windows. While the earliest energy saving windows were constructed as a sandwich of clear glass panes using the vacuum-flask principle, modern low-emission windows includes panes with coatings of metal and/or metal oxides. This coating has caused radio propagation problems for communication systems; something that may be utilized to protect a building from intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) attacks and to help protecting against information leakage. In this paper measurements of the shielding performance of different generations of windows and qualities of window panes are presented. The intention is to include the results in a guide-line for IEMI protection of critical infrastructures. Measurements are made using two complementary methods; in a nested reverberation chamber and in a semi-anechoic chamber, both over the range 1 – 18 GHz. The results show a clear generation dependency where the energy saving windows largely do not attenuate RF signals at all and low-emission windows offer shielding effectiveness values between 10 and 45 dB with potentially as much as around 60 dB in the upper half of the spectrum.

  • 13.
    Ängskog, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Bäckström, Mats
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Vallhagen, Bengt
    Samuelsson, Carl
    Shielding Effectiveness of Energy Saving Windows and HPM Effects on Coated Window Panes Measurements Conducted 2014-2016-Results and Lessons Learned2016In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY - EMC EUROPE, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, p. 461-466Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The past few decades have shown a veritable explosion of new versions of energy-saving windows and coated window panes. In the wake of this, problems with radio communications into and from within buildings has arisen. However, this unexpected attenuation of radio signals may also be used to shield a facility from incoming intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI). With the intention to investigate the shielding effectiveness (SE) of modern windows and window panes a two-year measurement campaign was launched mid-2014. Another, little investigated area is what happens to coated glass when irradiated by a high-power microwave (HPM) source. Shielding effectiveness has been measured for different types of energy saving windows and coated window panes both in a semi-anechoic chamber and in a reverberation chamber over the frequency range 1-18 GHz. The effects of HPM irradiation were studied by comparing SE measured before and after the pulsed 28 kV/m L-band irradiation. The main conclusion is that with the right choice of window the shielding effectiveness of a building can reach up 40-50 dB. In this paper we summarize these measurements and lessons learned from the measurement campaign.

  • 14.
    Ängskog, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Ödman, Torbjörn
    SAAB Electronic Defence Systems, SAAB AB.
    Bäckström, Mats
    SAAB Aeronautics, SAAB AB.
    Vallhagen, Bengt
    SAAB Aeronautics, SAAB AB.
    Shielding Effectiveness Study of Two Fabrics with Microwave Properties Before and After High Power Irradiation2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA)ICEAA '15 - 17th Edition, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 930-933Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade several applications forfabrics with electromagnetic properties have emerged, most ofthem relating to garments, including jackets with built-inantennas and workwear with increased radar visibility. Besidethese have surfaced two protective applications, namely toprotect transports of confidential equipment from discoveryand identification; and to protect sensitive apparatus fromdamage by high power electromagnetic irradiation e.g. in fieldoperations. In this paper results are presented frommeasurement of shielding effectiveness before and after highpower radiation for two types of fabrics under considerationfor the latter applications. Shielding effectivenessmeasurements have been conducted between 1 and 18 GHzwhile the high power irradiation

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