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  • 1.
    Bretzner, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Multi-scale feature tracking and motion estimation1999Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the problems of feature tracking and motion estimation and

    presents an application of these concepts to human-computer interaction. The

    presentation is divided into three parts.

    The first part addresses feature tracking in a multi-scale context. Features

    in an image appear at different scales, and these scales can be expected to

    change over time due to the size variations that occur when objects move relative

    to the camera. A scheme for feature tracking is presented, which incorporates

    a mechanism for automatic scale selection and it is argued that

    such a mechanism is necessary to handle size variations over time. Experiments

    demonstrate how the proposed scheme is robust to size variations in

    situations where a traditional fixed scale tracker fails. This leads to extended

    feature trajectories, which are valuable for motion and structure estimation.

    It is also shown how an object representation suitable for tracking can be

    built in a conceptually simple way as a multi-scale feature hierarchy with

    qualitative relations between features at different scales. Experiments illustrate

    the capability of the proposed hierarchy to handle occlusions and semirigid

    objects.

    The second part of the thesis develops a geometric framework for computing

    estimates of 3D structure and motion from sparse feature correspondences

    in monocular sequences. A tool is presented, called the centered affine trifocal

    tensor, for motion estimation from three affine views. Moreover, a factorization

    approach is developed which simultaneously handles point and line

    correspondences in multiple affine views. Experiments show the influence of

    several factors on the accuracy of the structure and motion estimates, including

    noise in the feature localization, perspective effects and the number of feature

    correspondences. This motion estimation framework is also applied to

    feature correspondences obtained from the abovementioned feature tracker.

    The last part integrates the functionalities from the first two parts into a

    pre-prototype system which explores new principles for human-computer interaction.

    The idea is to transfer 3D orientation to a computer using no other

    equipment than the operator’s hand.

  • 2.
    Bretzner, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Laptev, Ivan
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Lindeberg, Tony
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Hand-gesture recognition using multi-scale colour features, hierarchical features and particle filtering2002Inngår i: Fifth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, 2002. Proceedings, IEEE conference proceedings, 2002, s. 63-74Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents algorithms and a prototype systemfor hand tracking and hand posture recognition. Hand posturesare represented in terms of hierarchies of multi-scalecolour image features at different scales, with qualitativeinter-relations in terms of scale, position and orientation. Ineach image, detection of multi-scale colour features is performed.Hand states are then simultaneously detected andtracked using particle filtering, with an extension of layeredsampling referred to as hierarchical layered sampling. Experimentsare presented showing that the performance ofthe system is substantially improved by performing featuredetection in colour space and including a prior with respectto skin colour. These components have been integrated intoa real-time prototype system, applied to a test problem ofcontrolling consumer electronics using hand gestures. In asimplified demo scenario, this system has been successfullytested by participants at two fairs during 2001.

  • 3.
    Bretzner, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Laptev, Ivan
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Lindeberg, Tony
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsbiologi, CB.
    Lenman, S.
    Sundblad, Y.
    A Prototype System for Computer Vision Based Human Computer Interaction2001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Bretzner, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP.
    Lindeberg, Tony
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Feature Tracking with Automatic Selection of Spatial Scales1998Inngår i: Computer Vision and Image Understanding, ISSN 1077-3142, E-ISSN 1090-235X, Vol. 71, nr 3, s. 385-393Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When observing a dynamic world, the size of image structures may vary over time. This article emphasizes the need for including explicit mechanisms for automatic scale selection in feature tracking algorithms in order to: (i) adapt the local scale of processing to the local image structure, and (ii) adapt to the size variations that may occur over time. The problems of corner detection and blob detection are treated in detail, and a combined framework for feature tracking is presented. The integrated tracking algorithm overcomes some of the inherent limitations of exposing fixed-scale tracking methods to image sequences in which the size variations are large. It is also shown how the stability over time of scale descriptors can be used as a part of a multi-cue similarity measure for matching. Experiments on real-world sequences are presented showing the performance of the algorithm when applied to (individual) tracking of corners and blobs.

  • 5.
    Bretzner, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Lindeberg, Tony
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Feature tracking with automatic selection of spatial scales1998Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    When observing a dynamic world, the size of image structures may vary over nada. This article emphasizes the need for including explicit mechanisms for automatic scale selection in feature tracking algorithms in order to: (i) adapt the local scale of processing to the local image structure, and (ii) adapt to the size variations that may occur over time.

    The problems of corner detection and blob detection are treated in detail, and a combined framework for feature tracking is presented in which the image features at every time moment are detected at locally determined and automatically selected nadaes. A useful property of the scale selection method is that the scale levels selected in the feature detection step reflect the spatial extent of the image structures. Thereby, the integrated tracking algorithm has the ability to adapt to spatial as well as temporal size variations, and can in this way overcome some of the inherent limitations of exposing fixed-scale tracking methods to image sequences in which the size variations are large.

    In the composed tracking procedure, the scale information is used for two additional major purposes: (i) for defining local regions of interest for searching for matching candidates as well as setting the window size for correlation when evaluating matching candidates, and (ii) stability over time of the scale and significance descriptors produced by the scale selection procedure are used for formulating a multi-cue similarity measure for matching.

    Experiments on real-world sequences are presented showing the performance of the algorithm when applied to (individual) tracking of corners and blobs. Specifically, comparisons with fixed-scale tracking methods are included as well as illustrations of the increase in performance obtained by using multiple cues in the feature matching step.

  • 6.
    Bretzner, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP.
    Lindeberg, Tony
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    On the handling of spatial and temporal scales in feature tracking1997Inngår i: Scale-Space Theory in Computer Vision: First International Conference, Scale-Space'97 Utrecht, The Netherlands, July 2–4, 1997 Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 1997, s. 128-139Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Bretzner, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Lindeberg, Tony
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Qualitative Multi-Scale Feature Hierarchies for Object Tracking2000Inngår i: Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, ISSN 1047-3203, E-ISSN 1095-9076, Vol. 11, s. 115-129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows how the performance of feature trackers can be improved by building a view-based object representation consisting of qualitative relations between image structures at different scales. The idea is to track all image features individually, and to use the qualitative feature relations for resolving ambiguous matches and for introducing feature hypotheses whenever image features are mismatched or lost. Compared to more traditional work on view-based object tracking, this methodology has the ability to handle semi-rigid objects and partial occlusions. Compared to trackers based on three-dimensional object models, this approach is much simpler and of a more generic nature. A hands-on example is presented showing how an integrated application system can be constructed from conceptually very simple operations.

  • 8.
    Bretzner, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Lindeberg, Tony
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsbiologi, CB.
    Qualitative multiscale feature hierarchies for object tracking2000Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows how the performance of feature trackers can be improved by building a hierarchical view-based object representation consisting of qualitative relations between image structures at different scales. The idea is to track all image features individually and to use the qualitative feature relations for avoiding mismatches, for resolving ambiguous matches, and for introducing feature hypotheses whenever image features are lost. Compared to more traditional work on view-based object tracking, this methodology has the ability to handle semirigid objects and partial occlusions. Compared to trackers based on three-dimensional object models, this approach is much simpler and of a more generic nature. A hands-on example is presented showing how an integrated application system can be constructed from conceptually very simple operations.

  • 9.
    Bretzner, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Lindeberg, Tony
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Qualitative multi-scale feature hierarchies for object tracking1999Inngår i: Proc Scale-Space Theories in Computer Vision Med, Elsevier, 1999, s. 117-128Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows how the performance of feature trackers can be improved by building a view-based object representation consisting of qualitative relations between image structures at different scales. The idea is to track all image features individually, and to use the qualitative feature relations for resolving ambiguous matches and for introducing feature hypotheses whenever image features are mismatched or lost. Compared to more traditional work on view-based object tracking, this methodology has the ability to handle semi-rigid objects and partial occlusions. Compared to trackers based on three-dimensional object models, this approach is much simpler and of a more generic nature. A hands-on example is presented showing how an integrated application system can be constructed from conceptually very simple operations.

  • 10.
    Bretzner, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Lindeberg, Tony
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Structure and Motion Estimation using Sparse Point and Line Correspondences in Multiple Affine Views1999Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of computing three-dimen\-sional structure and motion from an unknown rigid configuration of points and lines viewed by an affine projection model. An algebraic structure, analogous to the trilinear tensor for three perspective cameras, is defined for configurations of three centered affine cameras. This centered affine trifocal tensor contains 12 non-zero coefficients and involves linear relations between point correspondences and trilinear relations between line correspondences. It is shown how the affine trifocal tensor relates to the perspective trilinear tensor, and how three-dimensional motion can be computed from this tensor in a straightforward manner. A factorization approach is developed to handle point features and line features simultaneously in image sequences, and degenerate feature configurations are analysed. This theory is applied to a specific problem in human-computer interaction of capturing three-dimensional rotations from gestures of a human hand. This application to quantitative gesture analyses illustrates the usefulness of the affine trifocal tensor in a situation where sufficient information is not available to compute the perspective trilinear tensor, while the geometry requires point correspondences as well as line correspondences over at least three views.

  • 11.
    Bretzner, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Lindeberg, Tony
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsbiologi, CB.
    Use your hand as a 3-D mouse or relative orientation from extended sequences of sparse point and line correspondances using the affine trifocal tensor1998Inngår i: Computer Vision — ECCV'98: 5th European Conference on Computer Vision Freiburg, Germany, June, 2–6, 1998 Proceedings, Volume I, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 1998, Vol. 1406, s. 141-157Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of computing three-dimensional structure and motion from an unknown rigid configuration of point and lines viewed by an affine projection model. An algebraic structure, analogous to the trilinear tensor for three perspective cameras, is defined for configurations of three centered affine cameras. This centered affine trifocal tensor contains 12 coefficients and involves linear relations between point correspondences and trilinear relations between line correspondences It is shown how the affine trifocal tensor relates to the perspective trilinear tensor, and how three-dimensional motion can be computed from this tensor in a straightforward manner. A factorization approach is also developed to handle point features and line features simultaneously in image sequences.

    This theory is applied to a specific problem of human-computer interaction of capturing three-dimensional rotations from gestures of a human hand. A qualitative model is presented, in which three fingers are represented by their position and orientation, and it is shown how three point correspondences (blobs at the finger tips) and three line correspondences (ridge features at the fingers) allow the affine trifocal tensor to be determined, from which the rotation is computed. Besides the obvious application, this test problem illustrates the usefulness of the affine trifocal tensor in a situation where sufficient information is not available to compute the perspective trilinear tensor, while the geometry requires point correspondences as well as line correspondences over at least three views.

  • 12. Demirci, M. Fatih
    et al.
    Shokoufandeh, Ali
    Keselman, Yakov
    Bretzner, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Numerisk Analys och Datalogi, NADA.
    Dickinson, Sven
    Object recognition as many-to-many feature matching2006Inngår i: International Journal of Computer Vision, ISSN 0920-5691, E-ISSN 1573-1405, Vol. 69, nr 2, s. 203-222Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Object recognition can be formulated as matching image features to model features. When recognition is exemplar-based, feature correspondence is one-to-one. However, segmentation errors, articulation, scale difference, and within-class deformation can yield image and model features which don't match one-to-one but rather many-to-many. Adopting a graph-based representation of a set of features, we present a matching algorithm that establishes many-to-many correspondences between the nodes of two noisy, vertex-labeled weighted graphs. Our approach reduces the problem of many-to-many matching of weighted graphs to that of many-to-many matching of weighted point sets in a normed vector space. This is accomplished by embedding the initial weighted graphs into a normed vector space with low distortion using a novel embedding technique based on a spherical encoding of graph structure. Many-to-many vector correspondences established by the Earth Mover's Distance framework are mapped back into many-to-many correspondences between graph nodes. Empirical evaluation of the algorithm on an extensive set of recognition trials, including a comparison with two competing graph matching approaches, demonstrates both the robustness and efficacy of the overall approach.

  • 13. Demirci, M.F.
    et al.
    Shokoufandeh, A.
    Dickinson, S.
    Keselman, Y.
    Bretzner, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Many-to-many feature matching using spherical coding of directed graphs2004Inngår i: COMPUTER VISION - ECCV 2004, PT 1 / [ed] Pajdla, T; Matas, J, 2004, Vol. 3021, s. 322-335Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent work, we presented a framework for many-to-many matching of multi-scale feature hierarchies, in which features and their relations were captured in a vertex-labeled, edge-weighted directed graph. The algorithm was based on a metric-tree representation of labeled graphs and their metric embedding into normed vector spaces, using the embedding algorithm of Matousek [13]. However, the method was limited by the fact that two graphs to be matched were typically embedded into vector spaces with different dimensionality. Before the embeddings could be matched, a dimensionality reduction technique (PCA) was required, which was both costly and prone to error. In this paper, we introduce a more efficient embedding procedure based on a spherical coding of directed graphs. The advantage of this novel embedding technique is that it prescribes a single vector space into which both graphs are embedded. This reduces the problem of directed graph matching to the problem of geometric point matching, for which efficient many-to-many matching algorithms exist, such as the Earth Mover's Distance. We apply the approach to the problem of multi-scale, view-based object recognition, in which an image is decomposed into a set of blobs and ridges with automatic scale selection.

  • 14.
    Linde, Oskar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP.
    Bretzner, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP.
    Local histogram based descriptors for recognition2009Inngår i: VISAPP 2009: PROCEEDINGS OF THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION THEORY AND APPLICATIONS, VOL 2, SETUBAL: INSTICC-INST SYST TECHNOLOGIES INFORMATION CONTROL & COMMUNICATION , 2009, s. 332-339Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a set of new image descriptors based on local histograms of basic operators. These descriptors are intended to serve in a first-level stage of an hierarcical representation of image structures. For reasons of efficiency and scalability, we argue that descriptors suitable for this purpose should be able to capture and separate invariant and variant properties. Unsupervised clustering of the image descriptors from training data gives a visual vocabulary, which allow for compact representations. We demonstrate the representational power of the proposed descriptors and vocabularies on image categorization tasks using well-known datasets. We use image representations via statistics in form of global histograms of the underlying visual words, and compare our results to earlier reported work.

  • 15.
    Lindeberg, Tony
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Bretzner, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Förfarande och anordning för överföring av information genom rörelsedetektering, samt användning av anordningen: [Method and arrangement for controlling means for three-dimensional transfer of information by motion detection]1998Patent (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The invention concerns a method and an arrangement for controlling means (24, 26), themselves controlled by processors, for three-dimensional transfer of information by motion detection using an image capturing device (20). Features of an object (10) are detected and transferred to line and point correspondences, which are used for controlling means (22, 26) to perform rotational and translational motion.

  • 16.
    Lindeberg, Tony
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsbiologi, CB.
    Bretzner, Lars
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    Real-time scale selection in hybrid multi-scale representations2003Inngår i: Proc. Scale-Space’03, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2003, Vol. 2695, s. 148-163Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Local scale information extracted from visual data in a bottom-up manner constitutes an important cue for a large number of visual tasks. This article presents a framework for how the computation of such scale descriptors can be performed in real time on a standard computer.

    The proposed scale selection framework is expressed within a novel type of multi-scale representation, referred to as hybrid multi-scale representation, which aims at integrating and providing variable trade-offs between the relative advantages of pyramids and scale-space representation, in terms of computational efficiency and computational accuracy. Starting from binomial scale-space kernels of different widths, we describe a family pyramid representations, in which the regular pyramid concept and the regular scale-space representation constitute limiting cases. In particular, the steepness of the pyramid as well as the sampling density in the scale direction can be varied.

    It is shown how the definition of gamma-normalized derivative operators underlying the automatic scale selection mechanism can be transferred from a regular scale-space to a hybrid pyramid, and two alternative definitions are studied in detail, referred to as variance normalization and l(p)-normalization. The computational accuracy of these two schemes is evaluated, and it is shown how the choice of sub-sampling rate provides a trade-off between the computational efficiency and the accuracy of the scale descriptors. Experimental evaluations are presented for both synthetic and real data. In a simplified form, this scale selection mechanism has been running for two years, in a real-time computer vision system.

  • 17. Novatnack, J
    et al.
    Denton, T
    Shokoufandeh, A
    Bretzner, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP.
    Stable bounded canonical sets and image matching2005Inngår i: ENERGY MINIMIZATION METHODS IN COMPUTER VISION AND PATTERN RECOGNITION, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Rangarajan, A; Vemuri, B; Yuille, AL, BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2005, Vol. 3757, s. 316-331Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A common approach to the image matching problem is representing images as sets of features in some feature space followed by establishing correspondences among the features. Previous work by Huttenlocher and Ullman [1] shows how a similarity transformation - rotation, translation, and scaling - between two images may be determined assuming that three corresponding image points are known. While robust, such methods suffer from computational inefficiencies for general feature sets. We describe a method whereby the feature sets may be summarized using the stable bounded canonical set (SBCS), thus allowing the efficient computation of point correspondences between large feature sets. We use a notion of stability to influence the set summarization such that stable image features are preferred.

  • 18. Shokoufandeh, Ali
    et al.
    Dickinson, Sven
    Jönsson, Clas
    Bretzner, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP.
    Lindeberg, Tony
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Numerisk analys och datalogi, NADA.
    On the Representation and Matching of Qualitative Shape at Multiple Scales2002Inngår i: Computer Vision — ECCV 2002: 7th European Conference on Computer Vision Copenhagen, Denmark, May 28–31, 2002 Proceedings, Part III, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2002, s. 759-775Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a framework for representing and matching multi-scale, qualitative feature hierarchies. The coarse shape of an object is captured by a set of blobs and ridges, representing compact and elongated parts of an object. These parts, in turn, map to nodes in a directed acyclic graph, in which parent/child edges represent feature overlap, sibling edges join nodes with shared parents, and all edges encode geometric relations between the features. Given two feature hierarchies, represented as directed acyclic graphs, we present an algorithm for computing both similarity and node correspondence in the presence of noise and occlusion. Similarity, in turn, is a function of structural similarity, contextual similarity (geometric relations among neighboring nodes), and node contents similarity. Moreover, the weights of these components can be varied on a node by node basis, allowing a graph-based model to effectively parameterize the saliency of its constraints. We demonstrate the approach on two domains: gesture recognition and face detection.

  • 19. Shokoufandeh, All
    et al.
    Bretzner, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Datorseende och robotik, CVAP.
    Macrini, Diego
    Demirci, M. Fatih
    Jonsson, Clas
    Dickinson, Sven
    The representation and matching of categorical shape2006Inngår i: Computer Vision and Image Understanding, ISSN 1077-3142, E-ISSN 1090-235X, Vol. 103, nr 2, s. 139-154Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a framework for categorical shape recognition. The coarse shape of an object is captured by a multiscale blob decomposition, representing the compact and elongated parts of an object at appropriate scales. These parts, in turn, map to nodes in a directed acyclic graph, in which edges encode both semantic relations (parent/child) as well as geometric relations. Given two image descriptions, each represented as a directed acyclic graph, we draw on spectral graph theory to derive a new algorithm for computing node correspondence in the presence of noise and occlusion. In computing correspondence, the similarity of two nodes is a function of their topological (graph) contexts.. their geometric (relational) contexts, and their node contents. We demonstrate the approach on the domain of view-based 3-D object recognition.

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