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  • 1.
    Carlson, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Eriksson, Björn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Olsson, Joel
    Lund University.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Jannasch, Patric
    Lund University.
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Fuel cell evaluation of anion exchange membranes based on PPO with different cation placementManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Carlson, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Shapturenka, Pavel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Eriksson, Björn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Electrode parameters and operating conditions influencing the performance of anion exchange membrane fuel cells2018In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 277, p. 151-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A deeper understanding of porous electrode preparation and performance losses is necessary to advance the anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) technology. This study has investigated the performance losses at 50 °C for varied: Tokuyama AS-4 ionomer content in the catalyst layer, Pt/C loading and catalyst layer thickness at the anode and cathode, relative humidity, and anode catalyst. The prepared gas diffusion electrodes in the interval of ionomer-to-Pt/C weight ratio of 0.4–0.8 or 29–44 wt% ionomer content show the highest performance. Varying the loading and catalyst layer thickness simultaneously shows that both the cathode and the anode influence the cell performance. The effects of the two electrodes are shown to vary with current density and this is assumed to be due to non-uniform current distribution throughout the electrodes. Further, lowering the relative humidity at the anode and cathode separately shows small performance losses for both electrodes that could be related to lowered ionomer conductivity. Continued studies are needed to optimize, and understand limitations of, each of the two electrodes to obtain improved cell performance.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Björn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Electrochemical evaluation of new materials in polymer electrolyte fuel cells2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) convert the chemical energy in hydrogen to electrical energy and heat, with the only exhaust being water. Fuel cells are considered key in achieving a sustainable energy sector. The main obstacles to wide scale commercialization are cost and durability. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate new materials for PEFC to potentially lower cost and increase durability. To lower the amount of expensive platinum catalyst in the fuel cell, the activities of Pt-rare earth metal (REM) alloy catalysts have been tested. To improve the lifetime of the carbon support, the carbon corrosion properties of multi walled carbon nanotubes have been evaluated. To reduce the overall cost of fuel cell stacks, carbon coated and metal coated bipolar plates have been tested. To increase the performance and lifetime of anion exchange membranes, the water transport has been studied.

    The results show that the Pt-REM catalysts had at least two times higher specific activity than pure platinum, and even higher activities should be obtainable if the surface structures are further refined.

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes had lower carbon corrosion than conventional carbon Vulcan XC-72. However, once severely corroded their porous structure collapsed, causing major performance losses.

    The carbon coated metallic bipolar plates showed no significant increase of internal contact resistance (ICR) by cycling, suggesting that these coatings are stable in fuel cells. The NiMo- and NiMoP coated bipolar plates showed low ICR, however, presence of the coated bipolar plates caused secondary harmful effects on the polymer membrane and ionomer.

    Considering the water transport through anion exchange membranes it was found that most membranes showed very similar water transport properties, with more water detected at both the anode and cathode when a current was applied. The most significant factor governing the water transport properties was the membrane thickness, with thicker membranes reducing the backflow of water from anode to cathode.

    The results indicate that all of the new tested materials have the capability to improve the lifetime and reduce cost and thereby improve the overall performance of PEFC.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Grimler, Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Carlson, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Ekström, Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Quantifying water transport in anion exchange membrane fuel cells2019In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 44, no 10, p. 4930-4939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sufficient water transport through the membrane is necessary for a well-performing anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC). In this study, the water flux through a membrane electrode assembly (MEA), using a Tokuyama A201 membrane, is quantified using humidity sensors at the in- and outlet on both sides of the MEA. Experiments performed in humidified inert gas at both sides of the MEA or with liquid water at one side shows that the aggregation state of water has a large impact on the transport properties. The water fluxes are shown to be approximately three times larger for a membrane in contact with liquid water compared to vaporous. Further, the flux during fuel cell operation is investigated and shows that the transport rate of water in the membrane is affected by an applied current. The water vapor content increases on both the anode and cathode side of the AEMFC for all investigated current densities. Through modeling, an apparent water drag coefficient is determined to −0.64, indicating that the current-induced transport of water occurs in the opposite direction to the transport of hydroxide ions. These results implicate that flooding, on one or both electrodes, is a larger concern than dry-out in an AEMFC.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Jaouen, F.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Degradation and lifetime evaluation of Fe-N-C based catalyst in PEMFC2015In: Proceedings of the 6th European Fuel Cell - Piero Lunghi Conference, EFC 2015, ENEA , 2015, p. 223-224Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The restricted lifetime of Fe-N-C based catalysts is often assumed to be connected to the operating temperature. This study will investigate how the cell performance, electrode structure and composition vary over time, at different cell temperatures. At lower temperature, one may expect an increase in radical's stability, but a decrease in reactivity. Results show that the electrode degenerates over time, and that the electrochemical performance decay is similar for 40, 60, and 80° C. However, the loss of active sites is higher at higher temperature. This suggests that indirect production of radicals via H2O2 production during ORR is higher at higher temperatures and is a key degradation mechanism for this Fe-N-C catalyst.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Montserrat-Sisó, Gerard
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Brown, Rosemary
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lindström, Rakel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Wickman, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Evaluation of rare earth metal alloy catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in proton exchange membrane fuel cellsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Kanninen, Petri
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Eriksson, Björn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Davodi, F.
    Buan, M. E. M.
    Sorsa, O.
    Kallio, T.
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Carbon corrosion properties and performance of multi-walled carbon nanotube support with and without nitrogen-functionalization in fuel cell electrodes2020In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 332, article id 135384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pt-supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and N-modified MWCNT (N-MWCNT) catalysts are synthesized by pyrolysis from emeraldine solution and microemulsion. Their electrochemical properties and carbon corrosion resistance in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) are compared with a commercial Pt/Vulcan catalyst through I–V curves, cyclic voltammetry and CO stripping. The initial fuel cell performances of the Pt/(N-)MWCNT catalysts are superior to Pt/Vulcan. The corrosion of the catalysts is quantified by the continuous measure of the CO2 release by online-mass spectrometry during potentiodynamic cycling between 0.1 and 1.6 V at 80 °C. The results show that Pt/MWCNT (with the lowest double-layer capacity) is the most stable catalyst followed by Pt/N-MWCNT and Pt/Vulcan, initially losing carbon at a rate of 1.1, 3.4 and 4.7 μgC (mg Ctot)−1 cycle−1, respectively. After about 30% carbon loss (50–70 cycles) all catalysts corrode at an approximate rate of 5.5 μgC mg−1 cycle−1. At this stage, all show similar electrochemical surface area and double-layer capacity. However, the substantial diminution of the initially very thick and porous Pt/(N-)MWCNT catalyst layers after corrosion consequences in lower fuel cell performance compared to the structurally less affected Pt/Vulcan electrode. The results clearly reveal that CNT-based catalyst supports are more corrosion resistant compared to state-of-the-art Vulcan. Moreover, the performance of the corroded electrodes envisages the importance of electrode porosity.

  • 8.
    Kanninen, Petri
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Eriksson, Björn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Davodi, Fatemeh
    Aalto University.
    Buan, Marthe
    Aalto University.
    Sorsa, Olli
    Aalto University.
    Kallio, Tanja
    Aalto University.
    Lindström, Rakel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Carbon corrosion properties and performance of multi-walled carbon nanotube support with and without nitrogen-functionalization in fuel cell electrodesIn: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

  • 9.
    Lindahl, Niklas
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Phys, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Björn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Groenbeck, Henrik
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Phys, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Wickman, Bjoern
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Phys, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Fuel Cell Measurements with Cathode Catalysts of Sputtered Pt3Y Thin Films2018In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 1438-1445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel cells are foreseen to have an important role in sustainable energy systems, provided that catalysts with higher activity and stability are developed. In this study, highly active sputtered thin films of platinum alloyed with yttrium (Pt3Y) are deposited on commercial gas diffusion layers and their performance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is measured. After acid pretreatment, the alloy is found to have up to 2.5 times higher specific activity than pure platinum. The performance of Pt3Y is much higher than that of pure Pt, even if all of the alloying element was leached out from parts of the thin metal film on the porous support. This indicates that an even higher performance is expected if the structure of the Pt3Y catalyst or the support could be further improved. The results show that platinum alloyed with rare earth metals can be used as highly active cathode catalyst materials, and significantly reduce the amount of platinum needed, in real fuel cells.

  • 10.
    Rashtchi, Hamed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Acevedo Gomez, Yasna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Raeissi, Keyvan
    Shamanian, Morteza
    Eriksson, Björn
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Zhiani, Mohammad
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Performance of a PEM fuel cell using electroplated Ni–Mo and Ni–Mo–P stainless steel bipolar plates2017In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 13, p. F1427-F1436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance and durability of 316L stainless steel bipolar plates (BPP) electroplated with Ni–Mo and Ni–Mo–P coatings are investigated in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), using a commercial Pt/C Nafion membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The effect of the BPP coatings on the electrochemical performance up to 115 h is evaluated from polarization curves, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy together with interfacial contact resistance (ICR) measurements between the coatings and the gas diffusion layer. The results show that all the coatings decrease the ICR in comparison to that of uncoated 316L BPP. The Ni-Mo coated BPP shows a low and stable ICR and the smallest effects on MEA performance, including catalyst activity/usability, cathode double layer capacitance, and membrane and ionomer resistance build up with time. After electrochemical evaluation, the BPPs as well as the water effluents from the cell are examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive and Inductively Coupled Plasma spectroscopies. No significant degradation of the coated surface or enhancement in metal release is observed. However, phosphorus addition to the coating does not show to improve its properties, as deterioration of the MEA and consequently fuel cell performance losses is observed.

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