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  • 1.
    Borjesson, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Rubensson, Isak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Satisfaction with crowding and other attributes in public transport2019In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 79, p. 213-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse customer satisfaction surveys conducted among public transport passengers over 15 years in Stockholm. We analyze satisfaction and importance of many attributes and their temporal trends, focusing on attributes that stand out from the rest in some way, which is primarily crowding. Crowding is the attribute with the lowest satisfaction and the only attribute for which satisfaction declines over time. However, in spite of the low satisfaction, crowding is still less important for the total satisfaction than the cognitive attributes reliability and frequency (the most important attributes). Only when crowding levels reach high levels, like that of the most crowded bus services in central Stockholm, does crowding become as important as the cognitive attributes. Also the attribute reliability stands out it is the most important attribute. For the attributes reliability and crowding, data allow us to compare satisfaction and importance with performance. We find that that satisfaction and importance are influenced by the performance level for both attributes.

  • 2.
    Rubensson, Isak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics. Trafikförvaltningen, Region Stockholm.
    Making Equity in Public Transport Count2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Political and public focus on equity and justice outcomes of public policies is on the rise all over the world. Equity is both philosophically motivated and often decreed by law and in planning directives to be monitored when policies are changed, however oftentimes these equity assessments are vague, qualitative and carries low weight in policy decision processes. For the public transport administrator, all decisions on operations, fare management and subsidies have distributional consequences forming the equity outcomes of public transport provision. In this thesis distributional outcomes of public transport subsidies, fare schemes, transport quality provision and public transport accessibility are studied quantitatively. New methodology is developed with regard to assignment of subsidy level per individual trip, graphics on geographical fare distribution and a measure of vertical distribution. Some findings are that public transport subsidies have low horizontal but high vertical equity, that flat fares – contrary to much of the literature- have high vertical equity when cities have high income residents living centrally. Women place higher weight on crowding as a quality issue, older passengers put both higher weight and higher satisfaction on low time variability while young passengers are less satisfied with and places lower weight on personnel attitude. And that accessibility, controlled for how densely populated and central the residence-area is, has a vertically equitable distribution.

  • 3.
    Rubensson, Isak
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics. Trafikförvaltningen, Region Stockholm.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Distribution of Subsidies In Public Transport – Case of StockholmManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in fare schemes or service provision as well as changes in travelers’ behavior affect the distribution of public transport subsidies. This study proposes a method where service operation costs are distributed on individual trips to determine each origin-destination pairs service operation cost. In combination with travel survey data on socioeconomic composition and fare scheme data, it is then possible to assess the distribution of subsidies and their dynamics. In the case of Stockholm public transport, we present socioeconomic distribution of subsidies with regard to age, income, sex, and occupation. We find that the existing subsidies are mildly regressive, that a change to distance dependent fares would yield a more regressive distribution and that targeted reductions in fares for students, children and elderly increase progressivity. The presented methodology provides policymakers with a tool to accurately analyze distributional effects in subsidies of policy changes concerning both fare policy and service supply policy.

  • 4.
    Rubensson, Isak
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics. Trafikförvaltningen, Region Stockholm.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Fair accessibility – operationalizing the distributional effects of policy interventionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A fair distribution of public transport benefits is a commonly stated goal of agencies and operators of public transport. However, it is less complicated and costly to provide accessibility in some parts of cities and their surroundings than in other parts. Densely populated areas, and areas close to city- and regional centers, therefore often have higher public transport accessibility than remote or sparsely populated areas. However, in traditional studies of public transport equity, these economic realities are seldom considered, making the statements on system equity vague and difficult to operationalize. In this study, we propose a definition of accessibility equity where the system goal is to provide residents with equal accessibility for equally dense and central home areas.  For the Stockholm County, we show that accessibility may seem to be distributed horizontally inequitable and vertically regressive. However, once controlling for how dense and close to the city center residents live, while still being horizontally inequitable the distribution of accessibility in Stockholm County is found progressive, i.e. benefiting those with lower incomes. In our case scenario, the introduction of skip-stop train operations shifts our constructed accessibility measure towards a more horizontally inequitable and vertically progressive state. We conclude that our proposed method can serve as a potent way for public transport agencies to measure and concretize equity goals and evaluate policy changes.

  • 5.
    Rubensson, Isak
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics. Trafikförvaltningen, Region Stockholm.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Is Flat Fare Fair? Equity Impact of Fare Scheme ChangeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When Public Transport Administrations propose changes in fare schemes or increased fares, they are often met with concerns regarding the proposed fare schemes fairness. Implicit in these concerns is an understanding of relations governing land use and public transport, impacting equity. In this paper, we use socio-economic statistics of census areas in conjunction with public transport travel data from a transport forecast model to assess the geographical and distributional fairness of alternative fare schemes: flat, zone-based and distance-based. We discuss our result in relation to both the scientific literature and the known “truths” in the public debate. The method is applied to the Case study of Stockholm public transport. We find that high-income travelers benefit from all three fare schemes considered but, in contrast to much of the literature, least by flat fares. A strong distance-dependent fare could be horizontally equitable but has poor vertical equity.

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