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  • 1.
    Fonseca, Joana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control). KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Aguiar, M.
    Borges De Sousa, Joao
    Univ Porto, Underwater Syst & Technol Lab LSTS, Porto, Portugal.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control). KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Algal Bloom Front Tracking Using an Unmanned Surface Vehicle: Numerical Experiments Based on Baltic Sea Data2021In: Oceans Conference Record (IEEE), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the problem of tracking moving algal bloom fronts using an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) equipped with a sensor that measures the concentration of chlorophyll a. Chlorophyll a is a green pigment found in plants, and its concentration is an indicator of phytoplankton abundance. Our algal bloom front tracking mission consists of three stages: deployment, data collection, and front tracking. At the deployment stage, a satellite collects an image of the sea from which the location of the front, the reference value for the concentration at this front and, consequently, the appropriate initial position for the USV are determined. At the data collection stage, the USV collects data points to estimate the local algal gradient as it crosses the front. Finally, at the front tracking stage, an adaptive algorithm based on recursive least squares fitting using recent past sensor measures is executed. We evaluate the performance of the algorithm and its sensitivity to measurement noise through MATLAB simulations. We also present an implementation of the algorithm on the DUNE onboard software platform for marine robots and validate it using simulations with satellite model forecasts from Baltic sea data.

  • 2.
    Fonseca, Joana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control). KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Bhat, Sriharsha
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Lättkonstruktioner, marina system, flyg- och rymdteknik, rörelsemekanik.
    Lock, Matthew William
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Embedded systems.
    Stenius, Ivan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Lättkonstruktioner, marina system, flyg- och rymdteknik, rörelsemekanik.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control). KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Adaptive Sampling of Algal Blooms Using Autonomous Underwater Vehicle and Satellite Imagery: Experimental Validation in the Baltic SeaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates using satellite data to improve adaptive sampling missions, particularly for front tracking scenarios such as with algal blooms. Our proposed solution to find and track algal bloom fronts uses an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) equipped with a sensor that measures the concentration of chlorophyll a and satellite data. The proposed method learns the kernel parameters for a Gaussian process (GP) model using satellite images of chlorophyll a from the previous days. Then, using the data collected by the AUV, it models chlorophyll a concentration online. We take the gradient of this model to obtain the direction of the algal bloom front and feed it to our control algorithm. The performance of this method is evaluated through realistic simulations for an algal bloom front in the Baltic sea, using the models of the AUV and the chlorophyll a sensor. We compare the performance of different estimation methods, from GP to curve interpolation using least squares. Sensitivity analysis is performed to evaluate the impact of sensor noise on the methods’ performance. We implement our method on an AUV and run experiments in the Stockholm archipelago in the summer of 2022. 

  • 3.
    Fonseca, Joana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control). KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. Digital Futures.
    Rocha, Alexandre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control). Digital Futures.
    Aguiar, Miguel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control). Digital Futures.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control). Digital Futures.
    Adaptive Sampling of Algal Blooms Using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle and Satellite Imagery2023In: 2023 IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications, CCTA 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2023, p. 638-644Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a method that uses satellite data to improve adaptive sampling missions. We find and track algal bloom fronts using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) equipped with a sensor that measures the concentration of chlorophyll a. Chlorophyll a concentration indicates the presence of algal blooms. The proposed method learns the kernel parameters of a Gaussian process model using satellite images of chlorophyll a from previous days. The AUV estimates the chlorophyll a concentration online using locally collected data. The algal bloom front estimate is fed to the motion control algorithm. The performance of this method is evaluated through simulations using a real dataset of an algal bloom front in the Baltic. We consider a real-world scenario with sensor and localization noise and with a detailed AUV model.

  • 4.
    Fonseca, Joana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control). KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Wei, Jieqiang
    Ericsson .
    Johansen, Tor Arne
    Norwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control). KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Cooperative circumnavigation for a mobile target using adaptive estimation2021In: Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2021, Vol. 695, p. 33-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we consider the problem of tracking a mobile target using adaptive estimation while circumnavigating it with a system of Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USVs). The mobile target considered is an irregular dynamic shape approximated by a circle with moving centre and varying radius. The USV system is composed of n USVs of which one is equipped with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) capable of measuring both the distance to the boundary of the target and to its centre. This USV equipped with the UAV uses adaptive estimation to calculate the location and size of the mobile target. The USV system must circumnavigate the boundary of the target while forming a regular polygon. We design two algorithms: One for the adaptive estimation of the target using the UAV’s measurements and another for the control protocol to be applied by all USVs in their navigation. The convergence of both algorithms to the desired state is proved up to a limit bound. Two simulated examples are provided to verify the performance of the algorithms designed in this paper.

  • 5.
    Fonseca, Joana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control). KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Wei, Jieqiang
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control). KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control). KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansen, T. A.
    Cooperative decentralised circumnavigation with application to algal bloom tracking2019In: IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 3276-3281Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Harmful algal blooms occur frequently and deteriorate water quality. A reliable method is proposed in this paper to track algal blooms using a set of autonomous surface robots. A satellite image indicates the existence and initial location of the algal bloom for the deployment of the robot system. The algal bloom area is approximated by a circle with time varying location and size. This circle is estimated and circumnavigated by the robots which are able to locally sense its boundary. A multi-agent control algorithm is proposed for the continuous monitoring of the dynamic evolution of the algal bloom. Such algorithm comprises of a decentralised least squares estimation of the target and a controller for circumnavigation. We prove the convergence of the robots to the circle and in equally spaced positions around it. Simulation results with data provided by the SINMOD ocean model are used to illustrate the theoretical results.

  • 6.
    Gouveia Fonseca, Joana Filipa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Cooperative Multi-Vehicle Circumnavigation and Tracking of a Mobile Target2020Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-vehicle system is composed of interconnected vehicles coordinated to complete a certain task. When controlling such systems, the aim is to obtain a coordinated behaviour through local interactions among vehicles and the surrounding environment.One motivating application is the monitoring of algal blooms; this phenomenon occurs frequently and has a substantial negative effect on the environment such as large-scale mortality of fish. In this thesis, we investigate control of multiple unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) for mobile target circumnavigation and tracking, where the target can be an algal bloom area.A protocol based on local measurements provided by the vehicles is developed to estimate the target's location and shape.Then a control strategy is derived that brings the vehicle system to the target while forming a regular polygon.

    More precisely, we first consider the problem of tracking a mobile target while circumnavigating it with multiple USVs. A satellite image indicates the initial location of the target, which is supposed to have an irregular dynamic shape well approximated by a circle with moving center and varying radius. Each USV is capable of measuring its distance to the boundary of the target and to its center. We design an adaptive protocol to estimate the circle's parameters based on the local measurements. A control protocol then brings the vehicles towards the target boundary as well as spreads them equidistantly along the boundary. The protocols are proved to converge to the desired state. Simulated examples illustrate the performance of the closed-loop system.

    Secondly, we assume that the vehicles can only measure the distance to the boundary of the target and not to its center. We propose a decentralised least-squares method for target estimation suitable for circular targets. Convergence proofs are given for also this case. An example using simulated algal bloom data shows that the method works well under realistic settings.

    Finally, we investigate how to extend our protocols to a quite general irregular mobile target. In this case, each vehicle communicates only with its two nearest neighbors and estimates the curvature of the target boundary using their collective measurements. We validate the performance of the protocol under various settings and target shapes through a numerical study.

    Download full text (pdf)
    LicentiateJoana
  • 7.
    Gouveia Fonseca, Joana Filipa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Optimizing Ocean Feature Estimation and Tracking through Adaptive Sampling and Formation Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles2023Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased ocean temperatures caused by climate change are expected to lead to more frequent and severe harmful algal blooms, which deteriorate water quality, cause human illness and fish mortality. Scientific understanding of algal blooms and their dynamics is limited due to the lack of data from such ocean phenomena. State-of-the-art ocean monitoring includes satellite imagery and dedicated research vessels. Mobile sensors based on autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and other robotic technologies are of growing importance for efficient environmental monitoring of the oceans. The overall objective of this thesis is to design a system for ocean feature estimation and tracking based on adaptive sensor sampling using AUVs. The thesis contributions are focused on the following three problems.

     The first problem we consider is how to estimate and track circular and non-circular ocean features using a multi-robot system. We propose a circumnavigation control law, proving that it forces the AUVs to converge to a circular formation. Two target estimation algorithms are presented: one is based on a leader-follower approach, while the other is distributed. Both algorithms are shown to successfully estimate and track the mobile target's location. Secondly, we consider the problem of tracking ocean fronts using a single AUV supported by satellite data. We develop a Gaussian process model for the front estimation and show how it can be updated based on the available sensor and satellite data. Using this model, a control law is developed that guides the AUV to move toward and along the ocean front. The closed-loop system is evaluated through a detailed simulation environment with realistic vehicle and environment models and real algal bloom data. Finally, we develop an experimental setup based on a real AUV to demonstrate that our method for algal bloom tracking is feasible in practice. We show experimental results from two surveys in the Stockholm archipelago and compare the performance of the real system with simulation studies. The results indicate that the front tracking and gradient estimation algorithms are working well but also suggest important items for further studies.

    Download full text (pdf)
    PhD_Thesis
  • 8. Teixeira, D.
    et al.
    Sousa, J. B. D.
    Mendes, R.
    Fonseca, Joana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control). KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    3D Tracking of a River Plume Front with an AUV2021In: Oceans Conference Record (IEEE), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of the concurrent tracking and mapping of a river plume front with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is formulated and addressed in the framework of an interdisciplinary approach building on experience in robotics and oceanographic field studies. The problem formulation is targeted at the scientific study of the processes by which the river and the ocean interact. The approach extends previous work in AUV plume tracking to the simultaneous tracking and mapping under different ocean and meteorological conditions. This is done with the help of parameterizable motion control algorithms to enable adaptation to these time-varying conditions. The approach is evaluated in simulation with the help of a high-resolution hydrodynamic model. The test plan covers over 300 test cases exercising the most representative combinations of the ocean and meteorological conditions. Lessons learned and future operational deployments are discussed in the conclusions.

  • 9.
    Yang, Ziwen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control). Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Intelligent Control and Management, Shanghai, China.
    Fonseca, Joana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Zhu, Shanying
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Intelligent Control and Management, Shanghai, China.
    Chen, Cailian
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Intelligent Control and Management, Shanghai, China.
    Guan, Xinping
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Intelligent Control and Management, Shanghai, China.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control). KTH Digital Futures.
    Adaptive Estimation for Environmental Monitoring Using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle2023In: 2023 62nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2023l, CDC 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2023, p. 2521-2528Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers the problem of monitoring and adaptively estimating an environmental field, such as temperature or salinity, using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The AUV moves in the field and persistently measures environmental scalars and its position in its local coordinate frame. The environmental scalars are approximately linearly distributed over the region of interest, and an adaptive estimator is designed to estimate the gradient. By orthogonal decomposition of the velocity of the AUV, a linear time-varying system is equivalently constructed, and the sufficient conditions on the motion of the AUV are established, under which the global exponential stability of the estimation error system is rigorously proved. Furthermore, an estimate of the exponential convergence rate is given, and a reference trajectory that maximizes the estimate of the convergence rate is obtained for the AUV to track. Numerical examples verify the stability and efficiency of the system.

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