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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Towards Affordable Provisioning Strategies for Local Mobile Services in Dense Urban Areas: A Techno-economic Study2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The future mobile communication networks are expected to cope with growing local usage patterns especially in dense urban areas at more affordable deployment and operation expenses. Beyond leveraging small cell architectures and advanced radio access technologies; more radio spectrum are expected to be required to achieve the desired techno-economic targets. Therefore, the research activity has been directed towards discussing the benefits and needs for more flexible and local spectrum authorization schemes. This thesis work is meant to be a contribution to this ongoing discussion from a techno-economic perspective.

     

    In chapter three, the engineering value of the different flexible authorization options are evaluated from the perspective of established mobile network operators using the opportunity cost approach. The main results in chapter three indicate the economic incentives to deploy more small cells based on flexible spectrum authorization options are subject to the potential saving in the deployment and operation costs. Nonetheless; high engineering value can be anticipated when the density of small cells is equal or larger than the active mobile subscribers’ density.

     

    While in chapter four, the possible local business models around different flexible authorization options are investigated from the perspective of emerging actors with limited or ’no’ licensed spectrum resources. In this context, dependent or independent local business can be identified according to surrounding spectrum regulations. On possible independent local business models for those emerging actors is to exploit the different flexible spectrum authorization options to provision tailored local mobile services. Other viable dependent local business models rest with the possibility to enter into different cooperation agreements to deploy and operate dedicated local mobile infrastructure on behalf established mobile network operators.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Chatzimichail, Konstantinos
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Cavdar, Cicek
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Techno-economics of Green Mobile Networks Considering Backhauling2014In: European Wireless 2014; 20th European Wireless Conference; Proceedings of, Barcelona: VDE Verlag GmbH, 2014, 1-6 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we consider a comparative analysis of different deployment solutions in terms of total cost of ownership (TCO) and impact of energy efficiency as a cost parameter, i.e. mobile operator's electric bill. Different deployment options for the wireless segment of the network are considered: macro only versus heterogeneous networks with femto cells to support indoor traffic demand. In addition to the wireless segment different technologies for the backhauling segment are also considered: microwave versus fiber (10G-PON). Considering different user traffic intensities in an urban area and different environments such as business and residential areas, the impact of energy consumption on the TCO has been analyzed. The scope of the paper is extended to compare different backhaul technologies considering the annual increase in the traffic demand up to year 2020. The obtained results indicate that the impact of electric bill becomes more significant over the TCO especially after year 2018. Moreover, the heterogeneous deployment strategy utilizing indoor femto-cells achieves significant savings in terms of electric bill and TCO compared to the macro only solution. However, the saving ratio varies according to the adopted backhauling technology.

  • 3.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Impact of the flexible spectrum aggregation schemes on the cost of future mobile network2015In: 2015 22nd International Conference on Telecommunications, ICT 2015, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, 96-101 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays the spectrum regulations landscape is changing towards more flexible spectrum management schemes, such trends are expected to make additional spectrum resources available and lowers the spectrum access hurdles. In this paper, different spectrum aggregation scenarios have been compared focusing on the tradeoff between the total cost of ownership and the targeted QoS under different market conditions. The main finding in this study thereof indicates that the addition of more spectrum resources will lead to an overall reduction in the total cost of ownership (TCO) as long as the spectrum price remains small compared to the cost of the network infrastructure. Moreover, schemes such as LSA and secondary access will enable operators who have insufficient licensed spectrum resource to expand their mobile network infrastructure especially in hotspots with high subscribers demand in a cost-effective way. In this regard, the harmonization of spectrum use for LSA and TVWS across multiple countries stands as a key requirement for the reduction of the production cost of equipment and hence, the creation of an economy of scale considering both of the network equipment (i.e. radio base station) and end-subscriber devices. © 2015 IEEE.

  • 4.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Cavdar, Cicek
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Interplay Between Cost,Capacity and Power Consumption in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks2014In: 2014 21st International Conference on Telecommunications, ICT 2014, Lisbon: IEEE Press, 2014, , 5 p.98-102 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile operators nowadays tend to deploy dense heterogeneous layers of 3G and 4G networks in outdoor and indoor environments by adding more macrocells and small cells (e.g. microcells, picocells and femtocells) in response to the increasing demand for coverage and capacity. Another main driver and enabler behind this tendency is the phenomenon that around 80% of power consumption in mobile communication networks stems from the radio base stations. This situation makes mobile operators opt for the use of lowpower radio base stations to provide better coverage, capacity and an environmentally-friendly operation. In this paper the interplay between the deployment costs, targeted QoS and power consumptions have been studied considering two deployment options for the provisioning of the required mobile broadband coverage and capacity; namely the heterogeneous network (HetNet) option versus the homogenous macrocell deployment option. The main findings indicate that, the perceived saving in the total cost of ownership (TCO) resulting from offloading percentage of network traffic to indoor smallcell, in the case of HetNet, is bounded by the mobile subscriber density per area, their usage patterns, the adopted backhaul solution and the used spectrum resources. In general, a quite paying cost and power saving can be achieved by the heterogonous deployment solution for scenarios with high demand levels especially when there is a need to use the spectrum resources more efficiently.

  • 5.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Cavdar, Cicek
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Study on the effects of backhual solutions on indoor mobile deployment "macrocell vs. femtocell"2013In: 2013 IEEE 24th International Symposium on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, 2444-2448 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of low cost and low power base stations has been recognized in recent years as a promising cost-efficient solution and energy-efficient strategy. In this paper the femtocell and macrocell deployment options have been compared in the context of indoor mobile broadband deployment, with focus on the effect of different backhauling solutions in power consumption and the total deployment cost. This study has been based on the deployment of mobile broadband services within an area of one square kilometers in a new densely populated business district where the different user demands, spectrum bandwidths, backhaul technologies and radio access technologies are taken into account. Moreover, various deployment scenarios reflecting the business perspectives of mobile operators have been looked into as well. The main findings reached indicate that backhaul solutions contribute differently to cost and power consumption depending on the employed deployment strategy. However, contributions to the total power consumption and to the CapEx and OpEx elements of the total deployment cost elements turned to be more significant in the case of femtocell deployment scenarios than in the case of macrocell ones. It is worthy of notice that the femtocell deployment is more cost-efficient, especially in high demand situation when new macro sites are needed to be deployed.

  • 6.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Evaluation of Spectrum Access Options for Indoor Mobile Network Deployment2013In: 2013 IEEE 24th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC Workshops), IEEE , 2013, 138-142 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The investments in indoor mobile networks are highly related to the spectrum availability and its associated authorization options. The aim of this paper is to discuss the differences in the spectrum demand taking into consideration both wide and local area network deployment requirements and the kind of actor that provides the indoor wireless access. The analysis covers different authorizations options namely licensed, unlicensed, licensed shared access (LSA) and secondary access. A quantitative approach is used to analyze the differences between macrocell and femtocell deployments focusing on deployment cost and spectrum demand. This is complemented by a qualitative study to explore and discuss the strategic business decisions of different actors in view of the available spectrum bands and spectrum authorization options. The main conclusions from this study are; spectrum has more value in macrocell deployment scenarios than in femtocell ones. More spectrum in macrocell deployment scenarios means that operators can deploy less number of new sites and exploit previous infrastructure investments. Femtocell networks are often coverage limited which allows for frequency re-use. As a consequence, the value of spectrum is not the same for mobile network operators (MNOs) and for local network operator (LNOs). MNOs are traditionally confined to macrocell deployment strategies which entail the exclusive usage of licensed bands. While, the use of licensed spectrum by LNOs may incur more cost than the cost of infrastructure deployment. This explains why the use of unlicensed bands is lucrative and viable for LNOs. Furthermore, the LSA scheme may or could soon become an enabler for LNO's business due to the prevailing technical, regulation and policies developments.

  • 7.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Investment strategies for different actors in indoor mobile market: "in view of the emerging spectrum authorization schemes"2013In: 24th European Regional Conference of the International Telecommunication Society, Florence, Italy, 20-23 October 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The regulatory landscape is changing towards more flexible spectrum management schemes. Such schemes are expected to make additional spectrum resources available and lower the spectrum access barriers. Emerging spectrum authorization schemes such as secondary access (TV White Space) and Licensed Shared Access (LSA) are expected to open doors for new actors rather than traditional MNOs to access licensed spectrum resources at reasonable costs. These schemes will allow actors such as Facility Owners (FO), Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNO) and Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to invest in indoor mobile network infrastructure. These actors can act as Local Network Operators (LNO) and build their business models around provisioning of mobile services in locations where there seems to be a hole or lack of service coverage in a particular area within the mobile network operators (MNOs) service footprint. This paper highlights the differences between indoor deployment and outdoor deployment in the light of the available spectrum bands to be used and the possible business models for MNOs and LNOs. In short, the possible investment strategies for provisioning indoor mobile services vary between MNOs and LNOs cases due to economic and regulatory aspects surrounding them. The main finding in this study indicates that the willingness of MNOs to invest in dedicated indoor solutions is driven by the balance between the potential revenues and the deployment cost. Moreover MNOs have more spectrum and investment options compared to LNOs who must bond their investment strategies to the available spectrum resources (i.e. the regulations of spectrum access).

  • 8.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    The Incentives and Challenges of Delivering Linear Broadcasting Services over Cellular Network in Developing Countries: Sudan as Case study2014In: The 25th European Regional Conference of the International Telecommunications Society,Brussels, Belgium, 22nd - 25th June 2014, Brussels: nternational Telecommunications Society , 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Broadcasting sector has been evolved in terms of service production, transmission platform and reception devices in the last few decades. In contrast to cable and satellite platform, which are suitable for fixed reception only, the terrestrial digital platform can support portable, mobile and fixed reception scenarios. In general, there are two options of mobile multimedia service; one is based on a mobile communication network with IP cast known as MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services), while the other is based on broadcast technology. In the context of convergence, the players in the mobile sector argues that unlike traditional mobile  network systems, where the use was restricted to a given application, emerging  mobile networks will be able to carry a variety of services and accordingly separate broadcasting networks will no longer be required. In line with argument, it is not economically viable to roll out dedicated wireless broadband networks by the broadcasters to meet the increasing demand for interactive broadcasting services. That is why the broadcasters may look for innovative mechanism to deliver the broadcast services over mobile broadband network owned by the telecommunication operators.

    The focus on this paper is to investigate the incentives and challenges for such trend in developing countries; taking Sudan as case study. The main conclusion in this paper indicate that a potential economic incentive for delivering the broadcasting service over cellular network in Sudan subject to the deployment of high efficient mobile network. Moreover, the mobile operators may consider support such approach considering the increase demand for additional frequency resource.  However, the key challenges remain in how to develop a suitable regulations landscape to assure fair and competitive business practices on hand while guaranteeing the continuation of the public broadcasting service. In this regard, a new regulation framework needs to be developed to separate the three key functions in digital terrestrial broadcasting value chain (namely the content production and distribution). Further on, the necessary interconnection regulations need to put on place in order to pave the way for rollout of common platform that are necessary for interactive and nonlinear services. 

  • 9.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Toward capacity-efficient, cost-efficient and power-efficient deployment strategy for indoor mobile broadband2013In: 24th European Regional ITS Conference, Florence 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile operators nowadays tend to deploy dense heterogeneous layers of 3G and 4G networks in outdoor and indoor environments by adding more macrocells and smallcells (e.g. microcells, picocells and femtocells) in response to the increasing subscriber demand for coverage and capacity. The main driver and enabler behind this tendency is the phenomenon that around 80% of power consumption in mobile communication networks stems from the radio base stations. This situation makes mobile operators opt for the use low-power radio base stations to provide better coverage, capacity and a more environment-friendly operation. The use of low-power radio base stations leads to reduction of energy consumption in mobile communication networks power. The aim of this study is to conduct a comparative study between homogenous macrocell deployment and indoor smallcell deployments as alternative solutions for provision of the required indoor coverage and capacity. Moreover, the study highlights the importance of backhaul solutions being critical components in the smallcell network deployment. Furthermore, the scope of the study is extended to cover the investigation of the value of the heterogeneous (i.e. hybrid marcocell-femtocell) deployment scenario as a cost and power-efficient solution versus the homogenous marcocell deployment scenario in view of the variations in the mobile network traffic during the day. The main findings indicate that the CapEx and OpEx of the backhaul solution represent the major part of the total deployment cost in the indoor smallcell deployment scenario (i.e. femtocell case) compared to those of the macrocell deployment scenario. Nonetheless, the perceived saving in the total cost of ownership (TCO) resulting from the use of indoor smallcell (i.e. femtocell) remains a satisfactory and convenient motivation considering the traffic variation across the day, traffic distribution between indoor and outdoor locations and the keenness to use the spectrum resources more efficiently.

  • 10.
    Ahmed, Ashraf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Yang, Yanpeng
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Won Sung, Ki
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    On the Engineering Value of Spectrum in Dense Mobile Network Deployment Scenarios2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    the continuing growth in the mobile data traffic magnifies the challenges for the design and deployment of scalable high-capacity mobile networks that can meet the future demand at reasonable cost levels. In order to meet the future traffic demand, an operator should invest on both infrastructure, i.e. densification of base stations, and more radio spectrum. Knowing the effectiveness of each element is thus of utmost importance for minimizing the investment cost. In this paper, we study the economic substitutability between spectrum and densification. For this, we measure the engineering value of spectrum, which refers to the potential saving in the total cost of ownership (TCO) as result of acquiring additional spectrum resources. Two countries are considered to represent different market situations: India with dense population and high spectrum price and Sweden with moderate population density and low spectrum fee. Numerical results indicate that additional amount of spectrum substantially relieves the need for densifying radio base stations, particularly for providing high user data rate in dense India. Nonetheless, the engineering value of spectrum is low in India (i.e. spectrum acquisition has less cost benefit) under the high spectrum price of today, whereas spectrum is instrumental in lowering the total cost of ownership in Sweden. Our finding highlights the importance of affordable and sufficient spectrum resources for future mobile broadband provisioning.

  • 11.
    Châtaignier, Arnaud
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Teslenko, Maxim
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Regulation development on licensed shared access and TV white spaces2014In: Der Open-Access-Publikationsserver der ZBW, Brussels: ITS , 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For several years, the demand for data has increased. Furthermore, this is a growing trend. There are three ways to meet this demand. One option is to make the network denser; this implies large investments. We can work on improving the bandwidth efficiency; unfortunately, the channel limit is about to be reached[1]. Finally, the bandwidth allocated to telecommunication can be enlarged. Indeed, there are large spaces on spectrum which have been underused by the army or by the TV broadcasters. These players employ only a part of their allocated frequencies or use them only in a restricted area or time. Thus, regulatory frameworks are under construction to allow second users to exploit the locally unused frequencies without harming the incumbent. The two most advanced projects in this area are Licensed Share Access (LSA) and TV White Spaces (TVWS). Under LSA, an agreement is settled between an incumbent who underuses its spectrum (e.g: the Army) and one to several second users (share licensees). The agreement states, among other things, the area where the share licensees can deploy their networks and the conditions leading to its termination. In the case of TVWS, which takes advantage of the locally unused TV frequencies, the number of second users is unlimited and there is no direct contract with the incumbents (TV broadcasters and PMSE1 ). Instead, second users have to obtain the regulator authorization. Concretely, second users inform a database of their localization and the characteristics of their devices and will get in return available channels and power limitations. Even if there is a common understanding of these regulatory frameworks, regulators[2][3] are still working on the definition. This paper aims at presenting in several countries the trends in the regulation of TVWS and LSA. Aspects such as normalization, authorized uses, and allocated bandwidths will be highlighted. From this overall regulatory picture, this research will provide insight on the business development around TVWS and LSA.

  • 12.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Awadelakrim Widaa, Ashraf
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Cooperation patterns in Smallcell networks: Risks and opportunities to distinguish the win-win model2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperation and collaboration with either competitors and/or other actors in the ecosystem seems to become a relevant method for Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) in order to decrease costs and boost revenues at the same time. But, there are always risks and imperfections in front of such models such as losing control over network, empowering existing or potential competitors and unwillingness to contribute evenly in different cases with other actors. In this paper we discuss possible cooperation patterns for indoor smallcell networks, adopted from successful cooperation patterns in macro cellular networks. This is done by analyzing three main areas: Deployment of smallcells, sharing strategies and outsourcing. Based on the works done in this field, an intersection of these three areas is missing that is studying possible cooperation patterns with all possible actors (operators, third parties and Facility owners) of shared smallcell networks.

    The aim of this paper is to see how it is possible to enable cases where all involved actors benefit from the cooperation pattern, by looking into existing solutions as well as proposing new patterns that a multitude of actors may be willing to adopt. Since there is no distinct answer for such a question, the proposed Wholesale model or Comprehensive system helps mobile operators to rethink about smallcell specific business models. This investigation enables distinguishing between revenue-efficient and cost-efficient smallcell network deployments for both operators and other investors.

  • 13.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Awadelakrim Widaa, Ashraf
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Regulations for and against Cooperation in smallcells: How could regulations stimulate co-opetition by supporting sharing?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperation between Mobile Network Operators (MNO), as competing entities, has become a solution to overcome lack of revenue by reducing expenditures during recent years; where theses cooperation patterns consist of horizontal and vertical models. As much as all these models apply in macrocell networks, they are all applicable in smallcell networks as well, but it is observed that smallcells are still deployed in single operator patterns.

    On the other hand, telecom regulatory authorities are always concerned about cooperation between operators since they prefer fare distribution of market power among competing operators. The idea to stimulate competition, in order to bring maximum profit for end users, is an ultimate goal for regulators. At the same time, regulators are worried if a high level of collaboration between operators introduces new dilemmas such as creating “closed clubs” with significant market power.

    In this paper we first discuss interpretations of national European telecom regulators from the European electronic communications regulatory framework, which is considered as a reference for all countries. Surprisingly, we see that European countries have different interpretations of the same European framework while transposing it into their regulations. Next, the effect of these regulations that are either pro or against cooperation in smallcell networks is investigated. We conclude by presenting the idea that European regulators may need to revise their legislations by considering regulation for promoting smallcell wholesale network sharing as the proper solution.

  • 14.
    Laya, Andres
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Wang, Kun
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Alonso-Zarate, Jesus
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Alonso, Luis
    Device-to-device communications and small cells: Enabling spectrum reuse for dense networks2014In: IEEE wireless communications, ISSN 1536-1284, E-ISSN 1558-0687, Vol. 21, no 4, 98-105 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the evolution of communication networks, there has always been a need to increase the capacity to cope with the continuous growing demand for data transmission. However, with the arrival of the Internet-of-Things and the commoditization of broadband access through smartphones, tablets, smart-watches, and all types of connecting devices, future networks must be capable of providing higher bandwidth and Quality of Experience, as wellas operating in dense networks with a massive number of simultaneous connections. This high number of connections will be very heterogeneous, spanning from highly-demanding data rate applications to low-complexity and high energy-efficient Machine-to-Machine communications. In such a dense and complex scenario, a more flexible use of spectrum resources is deemed to be the way to meet the growing requirements for data transmission. In particular, this article focuses on Device-to-Device communications and small cell deployments as emerging facilitators of such a demanding and heterogeneous scenario. The pros and cons of both complementary strategies are identified from both a technical and a business point of view, and main standardization activities are discussed. The aim of this article is to identify and describe open challenges and to inspire new areas for research that make viable the next generation of dense networks.

  • 15.
    Markendahl, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Mölleryd, Bengt G
    PTS, Swedish Post and Telecom Authority,.
    Business models and Investment options for use  of Licensed Shared Access of Spectrum2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A Licensed Shared Access (LSA) “authorization/license” includes an agreement between the secondary sharing user (some type of operator) and the primary license holder (e.g. a government organization) around the conditions of use (where, when, how).  Compared to secondary access LSA offers a more attractive case for long term investments.  The contribution in this paper is that we look into how LSA can be used by different types of actors. The outcome depends heavily on what type of actor that makes use of the spectrum using LSA. Based on cost structure analysis (leading to required investments) and analysis of availability of the basic spectrum resource we can identify clear differences of the commercial usability of spectrum awarded using LSA, all depending on what actors that make use of the LSA contract. Cases where new actors need to invest a lot in new infrastructure do not that look that promising. We cannot identify a separate “LSA business case” that is feasible from a business perspective (where the key resource for the operator is spectrum awarded using LSA).  Service availability that cannot be guaranteed due to LSA type of spectrum being the only resource seems risky, especially when combined with high investments. However this applies only for outdoor deployment. For deployment of a new indoor network the situation is different. The cost structure is the same no matter if a new or existing actor deploys the networks. In addition, a multitude of spectrum bands and spectrum access options exist indoor so the service provisioning will be less vulnerable if some part of spectrum is not available some period of time. 

  • 16.
    Martinez Ballesteros, Luis Guillermo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Widaa, Ashraf
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Segall, Zary
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    QoE: a market perspective analysis2014In: International Telecommunications Society (ITS) 25th European Regional ITS Conference, Brussels, 22-25 June 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of mobile networks, customer needs and behaviours have changed. Mobile communications means so much more than simple voice communication; there is now mobile Internet with web surfing, videophone, streaming media, and micro blogging. The objective of network optimization has gradually shifted from enhancing network performance to improve quality of experience (QoE). Therefore, assessing and optimizing QoE is the trend for optimizing future mobile networks. Today, users want reliable access for their content, wherever they go in the network. To deliver the best possible experience to mobile broadband subscribers, operators need new ways to assess performance that will enable them to build and manage their networks in the most efficient way. The new paradigmatic eco system (user-interfacenetwork- content) requires novel and disruptive end-to-end considerations in order to enable and sustain the next generation of services and user experience. Thus, the extraordinary adoption of mobile connectivity by end users, and the need for optimized bandwidth management network resource, on the one hand, and the growing interest for good quality content delivery/consumption, is boosting the creation of new network solutions.

  • 17.
    Pablo Lasso, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Mobile Network Sharing Trends in Developing and Developed Mobile Markets (Regulations and Market Forces): A comparison between Selected Latin American Markets and Sweden2013In: 24th European Regional ITS Conference, Florence 2013, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present document has the objective of analyzing the impact of several factors that are part of mobile telecom markets into the feasibility of sharing resources as a strategy for operators to deploy their networks in a cost-efficient manner and cope with the ever increasing amount of data traffic. These factors include the situation of the operators with their distribution of market shares, the nature of national regulatory authorities, and their lines of action. The study comprises the description and analysis of three markets: Ecuador, Chile, and Sweden, as they pose very different scenarios and are useful to prove the contrast present in two different regions of the world.

     

    The results of this research work show that in order to ease the adoption of network sharing in a market, a state of fair competition must be encouraged, reflected by a good distribution of market shares between operators. This is for the most part a task of the regulators, as they must make sure to award resources to operators in an equitable manner, as well as to identify the right moments to introduce new actors into the market, as it is observed in the cases of Chile and Sweden. Additionally, the regulators must have a liberal approach in their decisions, by permitting both active and passive network sharing, as this study shows that this is not the case in Chile and Ecuador so far.

  • 18. Quiroz, Gerardo Daniel Aguirre
    et al.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Can Licensed Shared Access bring benefits to Developing Countries?  A comparison of the potential benefits of LSA in Europe and Latin America2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectrum is a key factor for network deployments, since it determines the capacity of thenetwork. Nonetheless, spectrum is a limited natural resource, i.e. a finite, non-exhaustiblecommon resource. In order to fulfill the high performance targets of future mobile broadband(MBB) systems, a more efficient use and more effective management of spectrum resources haveto be developed.Licensed Shared Access is a new complementary spectrum access scheme that allows for thesharing of partially used licensed spectrum from an incumbent (e.g. a government organization),by a limited number of “LSA licensees” (e.g. Mobile Network Operators). The LSA agreementfollows pre-defined dynamic or static sharing conditions, that determine where, when and how touse the incumbent’s spectrum.The implementation of Licensed Shared Access needs the support of a very good regulatoryframework and follow the harmonized spectrum pathway. Spectral harmonization or the uniformallocation of frequency bands across an entire region lowers the technology costs, making iteasier for any country to consider its implementation. Once adopted throughout the regions,economies of scale are achieved.The approach taken in this research covers the interrelations between technical, market andregulatory conditions in Latin America, in order to present the possible value LSA could bring tothe region. The research showed how the region still has a vast amount of spectrum to beallocated as exclusive spectrum, which is preferred by operators. The low mobile broadbandpenetration in most of the region is another factor for the low value of LSA at the time of thisstudy.

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