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  • 1. Babelon, Ian
    et al.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Toward Cyborg PPGIS: exploring socio-technical requirements for the use of web-based PPGIS in two municipal planning cases, Stockholm region, Sweden2017In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 60, no 8, p. 1366-1390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Web-based Public Participation Geographic Information Systems (PPGIS) are increasingly used for surveying place values and informing municipal planning in contexts of urban densification. However, research is lagging behind the rapid deployment of PPGIS applications. Some of the main opportunities and challenges for the uptake and implementation of web-based PPGIS are derived from a literature review and two case studies dealing with municipal planning for urban densification in the Stockholm region, Sweden. A simple clustering analysis identified three interconnected themes that together determine the performance of PPGIS: (i) tool design and affordances; (ii) organisational capacity; and (iii) governance. The results of the case studies augment existing literature regarding the connections between the different socio-technical dimensions for the design, implementation and evaluation of PPGIS applications in municipal planning. A cyborg approach to PPGIS is then proposed to improve the theoretical basis for addressing these dimensions together.

  • 2.
    Erixon, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Regionens täthet och grönstrukturens potential: Det suburbana landskapets utvecklingsmöjligheter i en växande storstadsregion2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Av de två fallstudierna kan flera viktiga slutsatser dras av betydelse för den regionala planeringen. Vi kan konstatera att stadsnaturen utgör en viktig del av stadsutvecklingen och därmed också hälsa, demografi och samhällsekonomin på många nivåer. Då stadsplaneringen i högsta grad påverkar såväl bebyggelse som grönstruktur måste den på ett tydligare sätt integreras i regionplaneringen och strukturalternativ, särskilt i det inre förortslandskapet. I rapporten presenteras flera användbara mått på integrationen mellan grönstruktur och bebyggelse, såsom tillgänglighet, kompakthet och rymlighet. Vidare ges exempel på konceptverktyg, resiliens, läsbarhet, och tillgänglighet, som syftar till att tydliggöra grönstrukturens potential. Dessa konceptverktyg kan också upphäva polariseringen inom planeringsdiskursen och skapa överlagringar av värden och funktioner i grönstrukturen och landskapet som helhet. För att hantera den växande staden behövs ett nytt integrerat synsätt på grönstrukturen i staden. Kort sagt; staden förutsätter grönstrukturen och grönstrukturen förutsätter staden. Vi talar således mer om ett beroendeförhållande snarare än ett motsatsförhållande. I ett övergripande strukturellt perspektiv menar vi att städer alltid har växt och gör det fortfarande efter principen att maximera kompaktheten i centrum och maximera rymligheten i periferin (fig 4.2). Denna process sker inte automatiskt utan måste undersökas och styras genom regional och kommunal fysisk planering. En helt fri marknad riskerar att leda till ineffektivitet och orättvisor. Offentliga nyttigheter som trafik- och grönstrukturer måste utvecklas och förvaltas i en demokratisk process. Att inte låsa landskapet i ett bevarande utan att utgå från landskapets utvecklingsmöjligheter torde vara ett i grunden demokratiskt förhållningssätt till planering och landskapsdesign, därför att det utgår från hur miljön kan förbättras för allmänna och enskilda intressen. För detta nya förhållningssätt krävs nya begrepp och planeringsverktyg.

  • 3.
    Heyman, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    The willingness to pay for urban sustainability2013In: 2013 International Space Syntax Symposium, Sejong University Press , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quite recently certification systems for sustainable development of neighborhoods and communities, such as L EED ND and BREEAM for Communities, came to the market. These systems try to define urban sustainability through sets of criteria that in a variety of ways measure aspects in urban developments that have an influence on environmental, social and economical issues on a local level. This paper investigates the monetary values on these criteria, derived from property prices from apartments and single family houses in Copenhagen. In order to make proper estimates on the monetary values for certification criteria a hedonic price model is used. The model holds property prices from about 20 000 sales as dependent variable which is then correlated, through multiple regressions, with variables made out of the criteria through GIS-analyses. Translation from certification criteria into measurable variables is done with great consideration to contemporary urban theory. These variables are results from spatial analyses based on space syntax and other more standard spatial measures. The certification systems focuses on neighborhoods and communities, which is considered in the radiuses used for analyzing. It turns out that 19 of the 30 measured criterions are statistically significant, but a majority shows negative correlations to price. It is also acknowledged that space syntax measures like integration and betweenness have an influence on prices. Local integration, used as a proxy for various urban qualities, is shown to have a negative impact on prices. Qn the contrary, betweenness on a global scale is valued as positive. From these results the conclusion is that people are generally not willing to pay for urban sustainability on the local scale, as defined in LEED and BREEAM certification systems. However, it is furthermore argued that this is a question of measure and definition. Previous studies, e.g. (Spacescape and Evidens 2011) and (Sjaastad et al. 2007), imply that many of the measures used in this study are positively correlated to price if done on a global scale. It is concluded that the urban sustainability should to be examined further before rejecting the hypothesis that it has positive monetary value.

  • 4.
    Karlström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    Marcus, Lars
    Place Syntax: geographic accessibility with visibility in GIS2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Karlström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Place, space syntax and attraction-accessibility2009In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Space Syntax Symposium, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Dahlhielm, Malin
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Brunkebergstorg, analysis of public space towards a development plan2010Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Dahlhielm, Malin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Södra City, Support in the development of new forms for a development plan for the South Central City in Stockholm2010Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Nordström, Tobias
    Dahlhielm, Malin
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Västra City: Evaluation of present situation and design support for proposal of new Central station in Stockholm2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Sjöberg, Örjan
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Lilja, Elisabeth
    Stockholms universitet.
    Schantz, Peter
    Idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Samhällsbyggnadsministern ser inte staden för alla bostäder2005Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Dahlhielm, Malin
    Spacescape AB.
    Architectural Knowledge and Complex Urban Space: Analysis of Five Proposals for Slussen in Stockholm2010In: Journal of Space Syntax, ISSN 2044-7507, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 177-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents, compares and evaluates five design proposals for remodelling the famous, or as some would say infamous, Slussen transport interchange in the Swedish capital, Stockholm. Slussen is strategically located where the locks between Lake Mälaren and the Baltic Sea meet the land bridge between northern and southern Sweden. It is now a major hub for Stockholm's road, bus, boat, rail and underground transport systems, which in 1935 was redesigned as integrated transport node in the modernist style. This has now become so physically deteriorated and obsolete that a series of proposals were put forward during the opening years of the new millennium for its complete remodelling. As a contribution to that exercise, the urban design practice Spacescape was commissioned to analyse and evaluate the likely performance of the various regeneration proposals for Slussen, using methodologies based on space syntax theory and other methods, in order to predict the likely outcome of each proposal on Stockhlom's urban life. In what follows, projects by Atelier Nouvel and Habiter Autrement, Big, Foster and Partners and Berg, Nyréns and finally Wingårdh and Tema have been compared and evaluated in the light of the goals set out in Stockholm's comprehensive city plan.

  • 11.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Dahlhielm, Malin
    Nordström, Tobias
    Markhede, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Slussen: Evaluation of proposals for redevelopment of Slussen by Atelier Nouvel, Foster and Partners, BIG, Wingardh Architects and Nyrén Architects2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Fitger, Martin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis, NA.
    The Place Syntax Tool (PST): Application for GIS MapInfo2005Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Nordström, Tobias
    Slussens betydelse för stadslivet: Analys av Slussen idag samt utvärdering av förslagen Nybyggt bevarande och Nya Slussen2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Nordström, Tobias
    Stadslivet flödar i Nya Slussen2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Minoura, Eva K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    TU Delft, Faculty of Architecture.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    TERRITORIAL PERFORMANCE OF URBAN FORM2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of urban territoriality is situated at the very heart of urbanism - namely at the interface between the public and privaterealms, entangled with both circulation and habitation, between absolute and relative space2. This research seeks to understand therole of urban form as a parameter in use and appropriation of collective open space – that is relational space. For instance, empiricalevidence shows that a sense of ownership of space and appropriation through personalization (with gardens, furniture, etc) is acomponent distinct from use, facilitated by different built-form elements. However, sometimes sanctioned use and ownership are notsupported by the built form, a condition abundant in post war modernist suburbs but also in very recent residential proposals. Whetherthis is a problem depends upon how much credence is given to the ‘performative’ aspects of the built environment, given that usevalueto residents appears to suffer as a result of unclearly differentiated open space. In fact many residents with open courtyardsdon’t perceive that they have a yard at all. Strategies are needed which combine densification aims with knowledge about territorialbehaviour and how transformation strategies can support resident perceptions of what a yard is. the ‘performative’ aspects of the builtenvironment, given that use-value to residents appears to suffer as a result of unclearly differentiated open space. In fact manyresidents with open yards don’t perceive that they have a yard at all. Whether this is a problem depends upon how much credence isgiven to performative effects of urban form.

  • 16.
    Minoura, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Territorial Performance Analysis in (Sub)urbia2011In: ISUF: International Seminar on Urban Form / [ed] Dr. Jason Gilliland, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suburban modernist examples built in Sweden between 1930-80 had a strong sociopolitical program, following a strict Corbusian  urban design doctrine. 8 suburban districts in Stockholm and Malmö were selected for territorial analysis, investigating spatial configurations as well as the utility of open spaces. Spatial analysis was conducted by a territorial model identifying different social and legal spaces and spatial objects, such as fences, hedges, gates etc. Utility analysis was conducted by sending out 100 questionnaires to residents in the district inquiring into perceptions and use of open spaces and courtyards in their blocks of residence. On-site observation of use and traces of use (such as furniture, toys, evidence of tended lawns, flower beds) was also analysed. Finally, spatial analysis and utility analysis were correlated by map overlay techniques and by statistical regression.

  • 17.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Compact sprawl: Exploring public open space and contradictions in urban density2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Twentieth century urbanization has left a tremendous footprint on the globe. It is generally speaking a spread out fragmented suburban and exurban landscape continuously growing according to what has been called sprawl-like development, increasing energy and automobile dependency, challenging urban sustainability. Recently urban growth has also turned inwards because of economic and political change. Thus one of the main challenges for future urban design will be to ‘compact sprawl’. This thesis, set in the field of urban morphology, explores the spatial conditions for suburban densification by looking at administrative and user-related measures of density, public open space, and pedestrian accessibility. If we consider useful open space, it would not decrease density, but rather increase spatial compactness. So would also a well-connected street network, if we consider accessibility as part of density. The thesis’ first four papers explore new measures that contradict ordinary notions of density and the last three papers examine densification scenarios on different urban scales in collaboration with urban planners in practice.

    The paper Place syntax explores a possibility to combine the space syntax description of cognitive accessibility, axial line distance, with place attraction into a combined attraction-accessibility analysis model. Empirical investigation shows that place syntax analysis captures pedestrian movement and can be used for new types of location density analyses.

    Sociotope mapping describes the theoretical body of a new urban planning tool called the “sociotope map” (sociotopkarta) developed in Stockholm planning practice. The map emphasizes that the same public open space can have different direct use values for different people and thereby assesses qualitative open space area.

    Exploring Ambiterritory investigates the notion of (sub)urban no-man’s-land. Densification most often means increased open space use, which naturally leads to an increase of potential conflicting territorial interests. However, the reduction of vague user space and unclear legal territories by densification can increase the size of useful open space.

    More green space in a denser city investigates whether little public green space means low accessibility. User questionnaires and GIS-analyses in ten city districts in Stockholm correlate and show that it is possible to have more accessible green space in a denser city.

    Strategic exurban landscape densification investigates different municipal location strategies and development rates in the municipality of Kungälv. Results show that location strategies create the biggest landscape impact and not development rates.

    Greening metropolitan growth analyzes the density landscape in Stockholm county region and finds some correlations with health and socioeconomic variables. Growth scenarios in the regional plan for 2030 show decreasing compactness and spaciousness in inner suburbia.

    Compact sprawl experiments use the measures developed in the former papers on four densification scenarios in two suburbs in Stockholm. The results show how it is possible to efficiently compact modernist sprawl, particularly the inner suburbs.

    It is likely that we will be more dependent on walking, bicycling, and public transportation in the future. Street networks and public open spaces are then key issues today just as they were at the end of the nineteenthcentury, creating compact, sustainable, liveable, equitable, and more competitive cities. In fact, many compact urban cores such as in Stockholm, London, and Manhattan have through the 20th century persistently stood up to the competition against more sprawling cities. The thesis shows that compacting inner suburbia seems to be the new frontier many cities and planners are facing. In fact, this is a vast unexplored field that needs further attention in urban studies and urban morphology in particular.

  • 18.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Exploring ambiterritory: no-man's-land in post-war morphologies, confusing users and complicating maintenance2007In: Proceedings, 6th. International Space Syntax Symposium, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although territorial issues are typically not part of space syntax research, territorial issues have always been part of spatial configurations. Already The social logic of space highlights the fundamental differences between the interior and (private) and the exterior (public). This paper expands this straightforward scheme by investigating a very particular territorial phenomenon in urban open space. When territories are contradictory or blurred, an ambiterritory (a no-man’s-land) is created. GIS-analyses show that ambiterritory is mostly found in post-war modernist morphologies.

    A theoretical framework defines two types ambiterritory. Goods ambiterritory (Type A) are the mismatch of lived and perceived space in terms of the divergence of private and public territorialities defined by intervisibility and use. Territorial human actions are translated into material actants in space and create disturbed public ambiterritory (A1) and disturbed private ambiterritory (A2). Legal ambiterritory (Type B) appears when use value and property owner do not match. This creates public pseudo-property (B1) and private pseudo-property (B2).

    A GIS-study was applied to the framework in ten city districts in Stockholm: three urban grid areas, one postmodern area, three villa areas, and three post-war modernist areas. The results are clear and unambiguous. Post war modernist areas and in-fills create extensive ambiterritory. In the modernist areas, 4-8% of open space (A1), 7-12% of public property (B1), or 14-15% of private property is lost to ambiterritory. These findings where confirmed by interviews with experienced professionals in public open space management. Ambiterritories are hence used by no one, left by management, creating an uncertain void that makes it costly for society.

    The framework presented in this paper must be considered as an initial theoretical sketch, far from being complete. There are still many factors left out and uncorrelated. A fundamental difficulty is the limitations in getting quantitative empirical data. Hypotheses and preliminary findings nonetheless indicate that what has been called ambiterritoriality ought to be something worth further investigation and that GIS can be a very useful tool. There is also a need for problematizing the debate on public space and margins. Take for example the concepts so commonly used in urban research and urban design practice “semi private” and “semi public”, which clearly lack distinction. Space syntaxtheory has great potential to put territoriality into new light.

  • 19.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Mer park i tätare stad2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevailing urban planning strategy in the 21st century in many European cities is urbanisa-tion by densification. The strategy, which has obvious consequences for green and open space, has commonly been described as “Compact city” or “Smart growth”. Densification has mainly been initiated by large building companies, often in conflict with local lobby groups with strong social capital. This has frequently led to deadlocks in planning, especially concerning green space exploitation. This paper suggests new tools for understanding and measuring how urban structuring affects open space accessibility, not only because urban structure distributes open space to people, it also creates users and stakeholders.

    Since the 1950:s Swedish urban planning has been led by normative open space guidelines developed by research and national ministries, guidelines that are still present but has lost in power. Generally these guidelines are based on either density, i.e. sqm green space/person within a defined area, or range, i.e. maximum metric distance to a minimum park size. Planning practice has essentially dealt with size and qualities, often confusing, in micro economic terms, use value and non-use value (e.g. the “ecological”). This paper introduces new ways of integrating use value (sociotop) and orientation (axial lines) into new measures of open space accessibility. A new GIS-application “The Place Syntax Tool” (PST), developed within the research project, makes it possible to calculate the ‘topological’ open space accessibility from every place (address or plot) in an urban area, current or planned. ‘Topological’ accessibility analyses handles the “modified area unit problem” (MAUP) discussed in geography.

    A questionnaire from 2001 (TEMO) states that, citizens in some dense inner-city-districts experience higher park and nature accessibility than in some low-density “green” sub-urbs in Stockholm. This peculiar result was the starting point of testing old and new measures in ten different city districts, using PST. The conclusion is that a new measure, which take range, orientation, green space size and number of use values into account, correlates consid-erably better to the questionnaire (R2=0,75 p<0,001), than any conventional measures. It shows that the 19th century “deformed” inner city grid with defined urban parks connected by green boulevards more effectively distributes open space to many citizens compared with the “interrupted” grid and segregated green structure of the post war “modernist” suburbs.

    Another finding is that axial lines seem to capture movement to and within open space better than any metric measure. Correlation was found when comparing observed pedes-trian flow and calculated population accessibility (Södermalm dij=3, R2=0,682, p<0,001; Hög-dalen dij=6, R2=0,442, p<0,001). Correlation was also found when comparing a questionnaire asking “How often do you go to your favourite green area?” (USK 2002) and axial line distance between all addresses in the study areas and the closest green area (R2=0,77, p=0,018). These results can also be explained by the Space syntax integration analysis which shows that the green spaces in the inner city grid is much more integrated than in the post war suburbs. This means that orientation plays a big part in determining if, and how often people visit open spaces.

    Consequently, better measures could promote understanding of open space planning as an asset to city development, help overcome the deadlock in densification planning and change the common opinion of open space and “green” from a static to a dynamic urban entity.

  • 20.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    More green space in a denser city: Critical relations between user experience and urban form2010In: Urban Design International, ISSN 1357-5317, E-ISSN 1468-4519, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 47-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article suggests new tools for understanding and measuring how urban design affects green space accessibility: how urban structure distributes open space to people and how it creates users and stakeholders. Two similar questionnaires from 2001 and 2004 reveal that citizens in some dense inner city districts experience higher green space accessibility than citizens in some low-density ‘green’ suburbs in Stockholm. This peculiar result was the starting point of testing old and new measures in 10 different city districts using a new GIS-application ‘The Place Syntax Tool’ (PST). PST makes it possible to calculate the open space accessibility from every address point in an urban area. A new measure, which considers range (1000 m), orientation (axial line distance), green space size (sqm) and number of use values, correlated considerably better to the questionnaires (R2=0.74, P<0.001) than any of the conventional measures. Correlation was also found when comparing another questionnaire that asked participants how often they go to their favorite green area and axial line accessibility to green areas (R2=0.77, P=0.018). Consequently, cognitive anthropocentric measures of accessibility and attraction can change the common opinion of open space and ‘green’ from a static to a dynamic urban entity.

  • 21.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Sociotope mapping: Exploring public open space and its multiple use values in urban and landscape planning practice2006In: Nordic Journal of Architectural Research, ISSN 1102-5824, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 59-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to describe the theoretical body of a new urban planning tool called the "sociotope map" (Swedish: sociotopkarta), developed within the planning practice of the Stockholm City Urban Planning Administration. Since the postmodern communicative turn in urban and landscape planning, dominated by densification and sprawl, there has been a great demand for a more efficient connection between the system world of planners and the life world of citizens, starting from the users’ space and perspective, not the planners’. In Lefebvre’s terms the sociotope map is a representation of the users’ perceived space. The key Marxist concept here is use value, or more accurately in environmental economic terms: direct use value. The Stockholm sociotope map is consequently a map of the commonly perceived direct open use values of specific open space, of the citizens of Stockholm. The map emphasizes that people share use values but that every open space has a unique set of values. Its representation of diversity of place (topos) is maybe just the level of reduction that makes the map true enough to the citizens and at the same time useful for the planners. This can explain its recent recognition in Stockholm and other fast growing municipalities in Sweden (e.g. Gothenburg 2004-2007 and Uppsala/Gottsunda 2006). However more experience and research still remain to completely understand this tool. The recent success can only be explained by the fact that there is a true demand. A society which is turning increasingly postmodern, globalized and individualized can hardly plan, develop or grow without knowledge of the common use values of urban public open space.

  • 22.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Bernow, Roger
    Värdering av stadskvaliteter2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av Stockholms stad, Regionplanekontoret, Lidingö stad, Nacka kommun och Haninge kommun genomförde Spacescape och Evidens tillsammans denna studie där 7000 bostadsrättsförsäljningar korrelerades med 1000 olika stadsbyggnads- och lägesanalyser.

    Stadsbyggnads- och lägesanalyserna genomfördes av Spacescape med avancerad GIS-teknik på ett omfattande dataunderlag över Storstockholm.  Bland de analyserade och uppmätta variablerna finns olika attraktioner som handel, grönområden, vattenområden, kollektivtrafik, skolor, vårdcentraler, stadsrum. Tillgänglighet till dessa analyserades med olika avståndsmått som orienterbarhet, gångavstånd, cykelavstånd, gatunätsavstånd, restider med kollektivtrafik och bil. Även bebyggelsens struktur i sig analyserades som täthet, rumsintegration, kvartersutformning, entréplacering, hushöjder, fastighetsstruktur.

    Den statistiska analysen som genomfördes av Evidens innefattar en regressionsanalys med de 7000 borättsköpen samlade i 319 basområden. I regressionen finns även avgift till föreningen och lägenhetens storlek.  Bostadsrättspriset används här som ett mått på betalningsvilja och attraktivitet i boendet. Studien innefattar ej småhus. Tidigare studier visar att betalningsvilja för bostadsrätter är samma som för hyresrätter. Analysresultaten visar på betalningsviljan givet dagens värderingar och vad som finns på bostadsmarknaden idag, och är alltså ett svar på dagens utbud och efterfrågan. Detta kan självklart ändras i framtiden.

    Resultaten visar att man med åtta variabler kan förutsäga prisvariationen på bostadsrätter med mer än 90% säkerhet. Sju av variablerna består av rena stadsbyggnadsfaktorer och den åttonde är en kontrollvariabel som är ett socioekonomiskt index. De sju stadskvaliteterna är

    1. NÄRHET TILL CITY = Gång-och gatunätsavstånd till Centralhallen

    2. NÄRHET TILL SPÅRSTATION = T-bana, pendel eller spårvagn inom 500m gångavstånd

    3. TILLGÅNG TILL GÅNG-GATUNÄTET = Gators och gångstråks centralitet med 12 axialstegs radie (space syntax-analys)

    4. TILLGÅNG TILL URBANA VERKSAMHETER = Antalet verksamheter inom restaurang, sällanköpshandel och kultur inom 1 km gångavstånd

    5. TILLGÅNG TILL PARK = kvm parkyta inom 1 km gångavstånd

    6. NÄRHET TILL VATTEN = gångavstånd till vattenområden större än 5 ha

    7. KVARTERSFORM = grad av slutenhet samt andel utåtvända entréer mot gata

    Stadskvalitetmodellen kan användas för marknadsanalys och precisera intäktssidan i exploateringskalkyler. Den kan även användas för stadsbyggnadsanalys och för att utvärdera planalternativ och kvalitetssäkra planprogram och detaljplaner. I ett bredare perspektiv ger denna studie bättre underlag för att mer precist analysera och prata om ekonomisk hållbar stadsutveckling.

  • 23.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Caballero, Leandro
    Department of Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Greening metropolitan growth: integrating nature recreation, compactness and spaciousness in regional development planning2010In: International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, ISSN 1946-3138, Vol. 2, no 1-2, p. 64-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports the findings on analyses of landscape morphology by density and green space distribution of the Stockholm county region, correlations between morphology and socio-economic data and assessments of two regional development scenarios for 2030 modelled in the proposed regional plan (The Office of Regional Planning and Urban Transportation in Stockholm 2010). Today, Stockholm is a relatively green and spacious metropolitan region with a small compact city core. We found the correlations between compactness (product of floor area and nature recreation area) and highly mixed parcels (R 2 = 0.729, p < 0.001), between compactness and overweight (R2 = 0.47, p < 0.001) and between accessibility to nature recreation and reduced psychological well-being (R 2 = 0.40, p < 0.001). It seems that new housing developments and income levels are driven by compactness in the city centre and spaciousness (quotient of nature recreation area and floor area) in the suburban periphery. The scenario FÖRDELAD is more spread out and spacious in the periphery and the scenario TÄT is more compacted in the city centre; however, both scenarios decrease in compactness and spaciousness in the inner suburbs. We consider that the decline in spaciousness in inner suburbia would be accepted if compactness also increased a situation that is not part of either scenario. The apparent risk of this development is that suburbia will lose its attractiveness and this will fall to a level that it will fuel even more peripheral sprawl. With support from the correlation studies and other sprawl research, we suggest that this planned development could have severe negative consequences for sustainability and attractiveness, which are claimed to be the core goals in the proposed regional plan.

  • 24.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Caballero, Leandro
    Department of Geography, Stockholm University.
    Greening metropolitan growth: Integrating nature recreation, compactness and spaciousness in regional development planningManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Compact Sprawl Experiments: four strategic densification scenarios for two modernist suburbs in Stockholm2009In: Proceedings of the 7th International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Daniel Koch, Lars Marcus, Jesper Steen, 2009, p. 109:1-109:15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the biggest challenges for future urban design is to cope with suburbia and sprawl. This paper investigates how sprawl can be compacted in terms of spatial morphology. New 'user-related' location density measures, like spaciousness and compactness, are introduced that integrate floor area, axiality of pedestrian network, and public open space. These and 'administrative' area density measures are applied to two modernist suburbs in Stockholm, Björkhagen and Rågsved (1946-1957), and four strategic densification scenarios: 'New urbanism', 'New regularism', 'New conservatism', and 'New modernism'. The results show that the suburbs can increase by 100% in Floor Area Ratio in the first two and but only 20-40% in the other two. Floor area accessibility, however, is influenced by network accessibility more than plot density. Public open space is needed to uphold spaciousness and compactness. To conclude, tree-like morphologies seem rational in peripheral low density suburbs with a lot of public open space, but when densified the grid becomes more necesary to uphold compactness. Even though densification by 'New urbanism' or 'New regularism' in modernist suburbia is improbable due to political reality, they point out possible ways to compact more efficiently modernist sprawl as well as the need for further research.

  • 26.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Place Syntax: Geographic accessibility with axial lines in GIS2005In: Proceedings, Fifth international space syntax symposium / [ed] van Nes, A., Delft: Techne Press, 2005, p. 131-144Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the beginning there has been a strong and pervasive emphasis within space syntax on description. In a not so often referred to text (Hillier et al 1984a) this is put quite straightforward: “For the architectural researcher, the question ought to be crystallised as his or her most pressing concern, since how can any investigation be truly systematic unless the architectural variable can be controlled?” It might sound self-evident to researchers within most disciplines but within architecture the subject of description is often treated without the necessary scientific care. From the beginning there has also been a strong conviction that architecture needs to be described and studied in its concrete manifestations, that is as architec­tural physical form rather than as architectural ideas, hence the residence of space syntax in architectural and urban morphology rather than architectural history and theory. It also seems likely that this development of form-studies within architectural research can contribute much to other disciplines.

    One such discipline that could gain from architectural research of this kind is geography and transportation science with its wide range of subdisciplines, where the field of accessibility research is the one that comes closest to space syntax. As a matter of fact, from within this field space syntax is likely to be regarded as nothing else than a special case of accessibility, for example: “[…] space syntax which we consider a special case of accessibility within graphs” (Batty 2004a). In a simplistic sense the difference between space syntax and accessibility research in general has to do with scale, where accessibility research to the most part have been conducted on a comprehensive geographic level, while space syntax deal with a more detailed geometric or morphological level. But in a more specific and interesting sense the difference has to do with the epistemological foundations for either field, where space syntax, even though to a large part rooted in a mathematical para­digm just like accessibility research, also draws in an interesting way from an experiential and cognitive paradigm, something pointed out by Seamon (1994) and specifically discussed in recent papers by Hillier (2003a and b).

    Against this background it seems most useful to try to use space syntax descriptions when bringing accessibility research to the more detailed scale of urban settings, foremost by bringing the experiential dimension to such studies. This has also been both suggested and done by Jiang et al (1999), where both the mathematical background and the actual development of a software extension Axwoman for the GIS ArcInfo using space syntax are presented. In our paper a similar route is taken leading to the development of a software extension called The Place Syntax Tool for the GIS Mapinfo, but where the emphasizes lie on the empirical testing of such a device rather than its mathematical theory.

    Our tests we believe show results that open new possibilities for not only accessibility research in general but specifically space syntax as well. For accessibility research in that the descrip­tions developed within space syntax, such as the axial map, are shown to work better in predicting such things as pedestrian movement than conventional descriptions within spatial analysis. For space syntax in that the results show how similar predictions within space syntax can be improved with the possibility to load the axial map with geographical data. We fur­thermore believe that this marriage between accessibility and architectural research have episte­mological implications of great use for urban planning practice, in that it brings to such practice knowledge that rests on descriptions that take into account the experiential dimension, where knowledge traditionally within this field rests on rather abstract system-descriptions. Implicit in this we see nothing less than a possible displacement of power.

  • 27.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301).
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Place Syntax: geographic accessibility with visibility in GIS2009In: Environment and Planning, B: Planning and Design, ISSN 0265-8135, E-ISSN 1472-3417Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Place syntax: Geographic attraction-accessibility analysis with axial linesIn: Environment and Planning, B: Planning and Design, ISSN 0265-8135, E-ISSN 1472-3417Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Seiler, Andreas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Strategic exurban landscape densification: Evaluating landscape fragmentation in counter-sprawl policiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
1 - 29 of 29
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