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  • 1.
    Gatty, Hithesh K
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Antelius, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niclas, Roxhed
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A ppb-level miniaturized amperometric nitric oxide sensor2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Gatty, Hithesh K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Antelius, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    An amperometric nitric oxide sensor with fast response and ppb-level concentration detection relevant to asthma monitoring2015In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 209, p. 639-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A MEMS-based amperometric nitric oxide (NO) gas sensor is reported in this paper. The sensor is designed to detect NO gas for the purpose of asthma monitoring. The unique property of this sensor lies in the combination of a microporous high-surface area electrode that is coated with Nafion (TM), together with a liquid electrolyte. The sensor is able to detect gas concentrations of the order of parts-per-billion (ppb) and has a measured NO sensitivity of 0.045 nA/ppb and an operating range between 25 and 65% relative humidity. The settling time of the sensor is measured to 8s. The selectivity to interfering gases such as ammonia (NH3) and carbon monoxide (CO) was high when placing an activated carbon fiber filter above the sensor. The ppb-level detection capability of this sensor combined with its relatively fast response, high selectivity to CO and NH3 makes the sensor potentially applicable in gas monitoring for asthma detection.

  • 3.
    Gatty, Hithesh Kumar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Antelius, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    A ppb level, miniaturized fast response amperometric nitric oxide sensor for asthma diagnostics2013In: Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2013 IEEE 26th International Conference on, New York: IEEE , 2013, p. 1001-1004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a novel miniaturized MEMS-based amperometric nitric oxide sensor that is suitable for a point of care testing device for asthma. The novelty lies in the combination of a high surface area microporous structured electrode, nano-structured Nafion that is coated on the side walls of the micropores, and liquid electrolyte. This combination allows detection of very low concentration (parts-per-billion) gas, has a high sensitivity of 4 mu A/ppm/cm(2) and has both a response and a recovery time of 6 s. The sensor is integrated with a PCB potentiostat to form a complete measuring module. The limit of detection of this sensor was estimated to be 0.3 ppb.

  • 4.
    Hagberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. Swerea KIMAB AB, Sweden.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    High Precision Coulometry of Commercial PAN-Based Carbon Fibers as Electrodes in Structural Batteries2016In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 163, no 8, p. A1790-A1797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon fibers have the combined mechanical and electrochemical properties needed to make them particularly well suited for usage as electrodes in a structural lithium-ion battery, a material that simultaneously works as a battery and a structural composite. Presented in this paper is an evaluation of commercial polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers in terms of capacity and coulombic efficiency, as well as a microstructural and surface evaluation. Some polyacrylonitrile based carbon fibers intercalate lithium ions, resulting in a similar capacity as state-of-the-art graphite based electrodes, presently the most commonly used negative electrode material. Using high precision coulometry, we found a capacity of around 250-350 mAh/g and a very high coulombic efficiency of over 99.9% after ten cycles, which is even higher than a commercial state-of-the art graphitic electrode evaluated as reference. The high coulombic efficiency is attributed to the very low surface area of the carbon fibers, resulting in a small and stable solid-electrolyte interface layer. A highly graphitized ultra high modulus carbon fiber was evaluated as well and, compared to the other fibers, less lithium was inserted (corresponding to approximately 150 mAh/g). We show that the use of carbon fibers as an electrode material in a structural composite battery is indeed viable.

  • 5. Hassel, Beatriz I.
    et al.
    Trey, Stacy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. SP Tech Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    A Study on the Morphology, Mechanical, and Electrical Performance of Polyaniline-modified Wood - A Semiconducting Composite Material2014In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 5007-5023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the morphology, electrochemical modification with respect to the wood fiber direction, and mechanical properties of wood modified by in situ polymerization with polyaniline (PANI). This polymerization formed a composite material with applications as an antistatic, electromagnetic, anti-corrosion, and heavy metal purifying materials. The polymer was found throughout the entire structure of the wood and was quantified within the wood cell wall and middle lamella by SEM-EDX. The presence of PANI affected the conductivity of the composite specimens, which was found to be higher in the fiber direction, indicating a more intact percolation pathway of connected PANI particles in this direction. The PANI modification resulted in a small reduction of the storage modulus, the maximum strength, and the ductility of the wood, with decreases in the properties of specimens conditioned in an environment above 66% relative humidity. The in situ-polymerized PANI strongly interacted with the lignin component of the veneers, according to the decrease in the lignin glass transition temperature (T-g) noted in DMA studies.

  • 6.
    Jacques, Eric
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Zenkert, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Hellqvist Kjell, Maria
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Piezo-Electrochemical Energy Harvesting with Lithium-Intercalating Carbon Fibers2015In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 7, no 25, p. 13898-13904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical and electrochemical properties are coupled through a piezo-electrochemical effect in Li-intercalated carbon fibers. It is demonstrated that this piezo-electrochemical effect makes it possible to harvest electrical energy from mechanical work. Continuous polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers that can work both as electrodes for Li-ion batteries and structural reinforcement for composites materials are used in this study. Applying a tensile force to carbon fiber bundles used as Li-intercalating electrodes results in a response of the electrode potential of a few millivolts which allows, at low current densities, lithiation at higher electrode potential than delithiation. More electrical energy is thereby released from the cell at discharge than provided at charge, harvesting energy from the mechanical work of the applied force. The measured harvested specific electrical power is in the order of 1 muW/g for current densities in the order of 1 mA/g, but this has a potential of being increased significantly.

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    fulltext
  • 7.
    Johannisson, Wilhelm
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Ihrner, Niklas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Zenkert, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Analysis of Carbon Fiber Composite Electrode2015In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Composite Materials Copenhagen, 19 - 24th July 2015, INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS , 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article a novel energy-storing composite electrode is investigated with regards to its mechanical and electrochemical properties. This composite electrode consists of carbon fibers, which provide both the mechanical reinforcement and the negative electrode in the battery cell. Also, this carbon fiber composite electrode consists of a polymer matrix that can conduct lithium ions, in order to simultaneously act as the electrolyte in the battery cell.

    Electrochemical tests were performed on the manufactured composite electrode and show extremely promising results for the battery performance. Furthermore, mechanical tests show that the composite electrode has acceptable mechanical properties for structural use.

    It is shown that the internal distances in the composite are large, and volume fraction of fibers is low. This is not only significantly limiting the mechanical properties of the composite, but also the electrochemical properties.

    Overall, the carbon fiber composite electrode is found to have suitable characteristics for further research, where many further research topics are found in order to improve and characterize the composite further. 

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    fulltext
  • 8.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Electrically Induced Debonding of Adhesives2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically induced adhesive debonding is a process where an adhesive can be debonded at command with help of an applied voltage. To make this process function, the adhesive is  bonded between two metal substrates. In this study an epoxy adhesive is adhered between two aluminium foils forming a laminate structure. The adhesive is made ionically conductive by an addition of an ionic liquid before the curing. This arrangement forms an electrochemical cell, where the metal substrates act as the electrodes while the ionically conductive adhesive acts as the electrolyte. When a voltage is applied over the laminate, a current passes due to electrochemical reactions at the electrode interfaces and ionic transport in the adhesive.

    This type of material can potentially be used in a wide range of applications. This includes making adhesive joints in automotives to both reduce the total weight but also to simplify the disassembly after end-of-life, enabling an inexpensive recycling process. Another potenital use for debondable adhesives is within consumer packaging. Here it could be possible to pack and transport goods using less packaging material as well as making the handling easier.

     The aim of this study was to increase the understanding about the processes leading to debonding. This knowledge is important in the development of new types of debonding adhesives. In this study, the commercial laminate Sinuate® was used as a model system. The experiments were focused on the electrochemical behavior and were performed mainly using galvanostatic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Information about the chemistry of debonding was collected with techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mass spectrometry (MS) and Raman spectroscopy. The debonding did always take place at the anodic interface, separating the adhesive and the anode aluminium foil. It was found that the total cell resistance increased drastically during polarization, and that essentially all of this increase originated within the anodic half of the laminate. Examining the resistance behavior with EIS, it was found that the increase in total resistance was reversible.

    The anodic  electrochemical reaction during polarization was determined to consist mainly of an oxidation of aluminium, while the major reaction at the cathodic interface was reduction of water into hydrogen. The debonding process, which took place at the anodic interface, could be related to reaction products formed in the polarization process. These products grew out from the anodic aluminium surface into the adhesive. A debonding mechanism is proposed where these products induce an increase in the adhesive volume, causing stresses at the interface which ultimately result in debonding.

     

     

     

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 9.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Preparation and Characterization of Electrochemical Devices for Energy Storage and Debonding2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the framework of this thesis, three innovative electrochemical devices have been studied. A part of the work is devoted to an already existing device, laminates which are debonded by the application of a voltage. This type of material can potentially be used in a wide range of applications, including adhesive joints in vehicles to both reduce the total weight and to simplify the disassembly after end-of-life, enabling an inexpensive recycling process. Although already a functioning device, the development and tailoring of this process was slowed by a lack of knowledge concerning the actual electrochemical processes responsible for the debonding. The laminate studied consisted of an epoxy adhesive, mixed with an ionic liquid, bonding two aluminium foils. The results showed that the electrochemical reaction taking place at the releasing anode interface caused a very large increase in potential during galvanostatic polarization. Scanning electron microscopy images showed reaction products growing out from the electrode surface into the adhesive. These reaction products were believed to cause the debonding through swelling of the anodic interface so rupturing the adhesive bond.

    The other part of the work in this thesis was aimed at innovative lithium ion (Li‑ion) battery concepts. Commercial Li-ion batteries are two-dimensional thin film constructions utilized in most often mechanically rigid products. Two routes were followed in this thesis. In the first, the aim was flexible batteries that could be used in applications such as bendable reading devices. For this purpose, nano-fibrillated cellulose was used as binder material to make flexible battery components. This was achieved through a water-based filtration process, creating flexible and strong papers. These paper-based battery components showed good mechanical properties as well as good rate capabilities during cycling. The drawback using this method was relatively low coulombic efficiencies believed to originate from side-reactions caused by water remnants in the cellulose structure. The second Li-ion battery route comprised an electrochemical process to coat carbon fibers, shown to perform well as negative electrode in Li-ion batteries, from a monomer solution. The resulting polymer coatings were ~500 nm thick and contained lithium ions. This process could be controlled by mainly salt content in the monomer solution and polarization time, yielding thin and apparently pin-hole free coatings. By utilizing the carbon fiber/polymer composite as integrated electrode and electrolyte, a variety of battery designs could possibly be created, such as three-dimensional batteries and structural batteries.

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    DissertationLeijonmarck2013
  • 10.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Carlson, T.
    Hellqvist Kjell, Maria
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Asp, L. E.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Maples, H.
    Bismarck, A.
    Coated carbon fibre battery half-cells for structural battery composites2013In: ICCM International Conferences on Composite Materials, International Committee on Composite Materials , 2013, p. 5342-5343Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Carlson, T.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Asp, L. E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Maples, H.
    Bismarch, A.
    Solid polymer electrolyte coated carbon fibres for batteriesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Carlson, T.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Asp, L. E.
    Maples, H.
    Bismarck, A.
    Solid polymer electrolyte-coated carbon fibres for structural and novel micro batteries2013In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 89, p. 149-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a method to deposit a thin solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) coating around individual carbon fibres for the realization of novel battery designs. In this study an electrocoating method is used to coat methacrylate-based solid polymer electrolytes onto carbon fibres. By this approach a dense uniform, apparently pinhole-free, poly(methoxy polyethylene glycol (350) monomethacrylate) coating with an average coating thickness of 470. nm was deposited around carbon fibres. Li-triflate, used as supporting electrolyte remained in the coating after the electrocoating operation. The Li-ion content in the solid polymer coating was found to be sufficiently high for battery applications. A battery device was built employing the SPE coated carbon fibres as negative electrode demonstrating reversible specific capacity of 260. mA. h/g at low currents (C/10), suggesting that these coated carbon fibres can be employed in future structural composite batteries.

  • 13.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Danielsson, Carl-Ola
    Stora Enso, Karlstad Research Centre.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Electrochemical characterization of electrically induced adhesive debonding2011In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 158, no 10, p. P109-P114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns with controlled debonding of adhesive generated with electricity. This is a concept which could potentially be used in a wide range of applications, such as light-weight automotives, which can be easily recyclable at the touch of a button. The studied material is produced as a laminate with an epoxy adhesive bonded between aluminium foils. An electrochemical investigation of these debonding adhesives was performed. A three-electrode system with a circular quasi-reference electrode was validated and used together with electrical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. It was found that the resistance at the debonding anodic interface of the laminate increased during polarization. This increase in resistance was shown to be reversible at open circuit. During the polarization, aluminium compounds were produced at the anode. These compounds grew to penetrate the adhesive. A debonding mechanism based on increasing mechanical stresses at the anodic interface is proposed.

  • 14.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Danielsson, Carl-Ola
    Åkermark, Torbjörn
    Brandner, Birgit D.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Electrolytically assisted debonding of adhesives: An experimental investigation2012In: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 32, p. 39-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technology of electrically assisted delamination has potential applications in many fields, such as easy-to-open consumer packaging and recycling of lightweight materials. A better understanding about the mechanisms leading to debonding is important for further development of the technique, and is a goal of this study. A functional epoxy-based adhesive, applied between two aluminum foils, has been investigated using electrochemical and surface analytical techniques. Delamination occurred at the anodic adhesive boundary, which became acidic during polarization. The reactions during polarization of the laminates consisted of two steps, with aluminum oxide/hydroxide formation as the first and the build-up of a sulfur rich organic film as the second. Several possible debonding processes are discussed.

  • 15.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Flexible nano-paper-based positive electrodes for Li-ion batteries- Preparation process and properties2013In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 794-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible battery solutions is an emerging field due to a demand for bendable electronic devices. In this study, a route to make flexible positive electrodes for Li-ion batteries by utilizing nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) as binder material has been examined. These LiFePO4-based electrodes are made by filtration of a water dispersion of NFC, LiFePO4 and Super-P carbon particles, resembling a paper-making process. The resulting electrodes show good mechanical properties both dry as well as when soaked with battery electrolyte with a stress at break of typically at 5.2 and 2.2 MPa, respectively. The cycling performance was 151 mAh/g at C/10 and 132 mAh/g at 1C for samples dried at 170 degrees C. The drying temperature, after the filtration step, was found to be important and to affect both the mechanical properties, rendering the electrodes more ductile at lower temperatures, as well as the electrochemical properties, causing a higher coulombic efficiency at higher temperatures.

  • 16.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Single-paper flexible Li-ion battery cells through a paper-making process based on nano-fibrillated cellulose2013In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 1, no 15, p. 4671-4677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, a need for mechanically flexible and strong batteries has arisen to power technical solutions such as active RFID tags and bendable reading devices. In this work, a method for making flexible and strong battery cells, integrated into a single flexible paper structure, is presented. Nano-fibrillated cellulose (NFC) is used both as electrode binder material and as separator material. The battery papers are made through a paper-making type process by sequential filtration of water dispersions containing the battery components. The resulting paper structure is thin, 250 mm, and strong with a strength at break of up to 5.6 MPa when soaked in battery electrolyte. The cycling performances are good with reversible capacities of 146 mA h g(-1) LiFePO4 at C/10 and 101 mA h g(-1) LiFePO4 at 1 C. This corresponds to an energy density of 188 mW h g(-1) of full paper battery at C/10.

  • 17.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. Swerea SICOMP AB, Sweden .
    Mathew, A.
    Oksman, K.
    Lindbergh, G.
    Asp, L.
    Direct electropolymerization of polymer electrolytes onto carbon fibers - A route to structural batteries?2014In: 16th European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an effort to further reduce weight of carbon fibre reinforced composites, the concept of structural batteries has arisen. A structural battery is a multifunctional material managing both energy storage and enabling of structural integrity. More specific, the carbon fibres in the composites are used as negative electrode in a Li-ion battery. A crucial part of such a battery is the preparation of a thin, ionically conductive and stiff polymer matrix. One route to realize this is the use of electropolymerization, which can cover each individual fibre with polymer. In this study, the surface morphology of coated carbon fibres is investigated with electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Additionally, the curing degree as a function of process temperature during polymerization is tested.

  • 18.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Pupurs, A.
    Asp, L.
    Strength of thin solid polymer electrolyte coatings and the coated carbon fibres2015In: ICCM International Conferences on Composite Materials, International Committee on Composite Materials , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a route to increase the efficiency of electric vehicles, weight reductions through composite building materials are constantly being introduced. To further aid this effort focus has been put on structural batteries, where the composite is multifunctional serving both as energy storing as well as load bearing unit. In an attempt to reduce the high ionic resistances solid polymer electrolytes introduces, carbon fibres have been individually coated with polymeric layers ranging from <500 nm to >3 µm in thickness. This study investigates the feasibility of using such coatings in structural applications with respect to mechanical load cycling. The coated fibres were subjected to cyclic load up to approximately 1 % strain for up to 70,000 cycles. The polymer coatings were found not to be visibly affected by the prolonged mechanical fatigue. No cracks were observed in the coatings which makes the coating technique promising for future structural battery applications. © 2015 International Committee on Composite Materials. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Lu, Huiran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Behm, Mårten
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Cornell, Ann M.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Flexible Paper Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries Using Low Amount of TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibrils as Binder2016In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 8, no 28, p. 18097-18106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible Li-ion batteries attract increasing interest for applications in bendable and wearable electronic devices. TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNF), a renewable material, is a promising candidate as binder for flexible Li-ion batteries with good mechanical properties. Paper batteries can be produced using a water-based paper making process, avoiding the use of toxic solvents. In this work, finely dispersed TOCNF was used and showed good binding properties at concentrations as low as 4 wt %. The TOCNF was characterized using atomic force microscopy and found to be well dispersed with fibrils of average widths of about 2.7 nm and lengths of approximately 0.1-1 mu m. Traces of moisture, trapped in the hygroscopic cellulose, is a concern when the material is used in Li-ion batteries. The low amount of binder reduces possible moisture and also increases the capacity of the electrodes, based on total weight. Effects of moisture on electrochemical battery performance were studied on electrodes dried at 110 degrees C in a vacuum for varying periods. It was found that increased drying time slightly increased the specific capacities of the LiFePO4 electrodes, whereas the capacities of the graphite electrodes decreased. The Coulombic efficiencies of the electrodes were not much affected by the varying drying times. Drying the electrodes for 1 h was enough to achieve good electrochemical performance. Addition of vinylene carbonate to the electrolyte had a positive effect on cycling for both graphite and LiFePO4. A failure mechanism observed at high TOCNF concentrations is the formation of compact films in the electrodes.

  • 20.
    Lu, Huiran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Alvarado, Fernando
    Behm, Mårten
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. Swerea SICOMP AB, Sweden.
    Li, Jiebing
    Tomani, Per
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lignin as a Binder Material for Eco-Friendly Li-Ion Batteries2016In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 9, no 3, article id 127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial lignin used here is a byproduct from Kraft pulp mills, extracted from black liquor. Since lignin is inexpensive, abundant and renewable, its utilization has attracted more and more attention. In this work, lignin was used for the first time as binder material for LiFePO4 positive and graphite negative electrodes in Li-ion batteries. A procedure for pretreatment of lignin, where low-molecular fractions were removed by leaching, was necessary to obtain good battery performance. The lignin was analyzed for molecular mass distribution and thermal behavior prior to and after the pretreatment. Electrodes containing active material, conductive particles and lignin were cast on metal foils, acting as current collectors and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. Good reversible capacities were obtained, 148 mAhg(-1) for the positive electrode and 305 mAhg(-1) for the negative electrode. Fairly good rate capabilities were found for both the positive electrode with 117 mAhg(-1) and the negative electrode with 160 mAhg(-1) at 1C. Low ohmic resistance also indicated good binder functionality. The results show that lignin is a promising candidate as binder material for electrodes in eco-friendly Li-ion batteries.

  • 21.
    Nowak, Andrzej
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Hagberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Schweinebarth, Hannah
    Baker, Darren
    Uhlin, Anders
    Tomani, Per
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Lignin-based carbon fibers for renewable and multifunctional lithium-ion battery electrodes2018In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 81-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin-based carbon fibers (LCFs) from the renewable resource softwood kraft lignin were synthesized via oxidative thermostabilization of pure melt-spun lignin and carbonization at different temperatures from 1000 degrees C to 1700 degrees C. The resulting LCFs were characterized by tensile testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and confocal Raman spectroscopy. The microstructure is mainly amorphous carbon with some nanocrystalline domains. The strength and stiffness are inversely proportional to the carbonization temperature, while the LCFs carbonized at 1000 degrees C exhibit a strength of 628 MPa and a stiffness of 37 GPa. Furthermore, the application potential of LCFs was evaluated as negative electrodes in a lithium-ion battery (LIB) by electrochemical cycling at different current rates in a half-cell setup. The capacity drops with the carbonization temperature and the LCFs carbonized at 1000 degrees C have a capacity of 335 mAh g(-1). All LCFs showed good cycling stability. Because of the mechanical integrity and conductivity of the LCFs, there is no need to apply current collectors, conductive additives or binders. The advantage is an increased gravimetric energy density compared to graphite, which is the most common negative electrode material. LCFs show a promising multifunctional behavior, including good mechanical integrity, conductivity and an ability to intercalate lithium for LIBs.

  • 22. Tondi, Gianluca
    et al.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. SP Tecnical Research Institute of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Trey, Stacy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. SP Tecnical Research Institute of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Tannin based foams modified to be semi-conductive: Synthesis and characterization2015In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 78, p. 488-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to modify highly insulative and lightweight biorenewable foam thermosets to be semi-conductive for primarily building material applications. The foams were formed and then posttreated with in-situ polymerization of polyaniline, both doped and undoped, adsorbing and possibly absorbing (observed by SEM-EDX) to the foam structure at levels of 100-120 wt%. The modified tannin foams were shown to be semi-conductive in comparison to the highly insulative structure prior to polyaniline modification. While the 50% protonated polyaniline modified foams, or doped foams, had a higher conductivity than the undoped polyaniline modified foams, the acid used in fabrication of the foams provided some degree of conductivity to the undoped PANI modified foams. Moreover, the modified foams had an increased volume of 15% after modification, were more sensitive to moisture, and the polyaniline did not affect the degradation temperature of the foams.

  • 23.
    Willgert, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. Swerea SICOMP AB, Sweden.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Malmström Jonsson, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Cellulose nanofibril reinforced composite electrolytes for lithium ion battery applications2014In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 2, no 33, p. 13556-13564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of a series of four composite electrolytes for lithium ion battery applications. The two-phase electrolytes are composed of a soft, ionic conductive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) matrix having stiff nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) paper as reinforcement to provide mechanical integrity. The reinforcing CNF is modified in order to create covalent bonds between the phases which is particularly beneficial when swelling the composite with a liquid electrolyte to enhance the ionic conductivity. After swelling the composite polymer electrolyte, forming a gelled structure, values of ionic conductivity at 5 x 10(-5) S cm(-1) and an elastic modulus around 400 MPa at 25 degrees C are obtained.

  • 24.
    Wokpetah, Joseph
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. Pennsylvania State University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 212 Fenske Laboratory, University Park, PA, United States .
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Incorporating nano-Si particles into cellulose fibers as a way of making anodic composites for lithium-ion batteries2013In: Energy and Transport Processes 2013: Core Programming Area at the 2013 AIChE Annual Meeting: Global Challenges for Engineering a Sustainable Future, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Zenkert, Dan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Jacques, Eric
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Multifunctional Composite Materials using Lithium Ion Functionalization2015In: International Conference on Composite Materials 20, ICCM-20, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2015, Copenhagen: ICCM , 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we show how one can functionalise carbon fibres by using them as an electrochemicalelectrode. The electrochemical process is the same as in a lithium-ion battery cell so that the carbonfibres act as an active electrode in future structural battery concepts. The functionalization of carbonfibres using lithium ion intercalation reveals three novel and interesting possibilities enabling carbonfibres composites to obtain several other multi-functionalities. These are strain sensing, actuation andenergy harvesting.We have found that by intercalating lithium ions into the nano-/micro-structure of carbon fibres apiezo-electrochemical effect is revealed. This is observed as a change in the potential of the carbon fibreelectrode when applying a mechanical load. The response is direct and easily measurable being in theorder of several mV. This can be utilised as a strain sensor since there is a relation between the potentialchange and the strain in the carbon fibre.Secondly, we have measured substantial axial expansion of carbon fibres when intercalated withlithium ions. The strain measured is as high as 1%. Since the stiffness of carbon fibres is very high, thiscorresponds to very large forces. This can be used for actuation or morphing.Thirdly, the newly found piezo-electrochemical effect can be used to harvest energy by convertingmechanical work to electrical energy. Applying a tensile force to carbon fibre bundles used as Liintercalatingelectrodes results in a response of the electrode potential of a few mV which allows, at lowcharge rates, discharge at higher electrode potential than at charge. More electrical energy is therebyreleased from the cell at discharge than provided at charge, harvesting energy from the mechanical workof the applied force.

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