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  • 1.
    Aronsson, K
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Teär Fahnehjelm, K
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nylén, P
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Synergonomi och ögonbesvär hos personal på ögonsjukhus.2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ögonläkare, ögonsjuksköterskor, optiker och annan personal på ögonsjukhus arbetar ofta med synkrävande arbetsuppgifter i dämpad belysning eller helt utan allmänbelysning. Inför den planerade byggnationen av ett nytt ögonsjukhus i Stockholm ca år 2018 gjordes en enkätstudie för att kartlägga ögonbesvär och trötthet hos personalen på S:t Eriks Ögonsjukhus. Studien som är ett multidisciplinärt samarbetsprojekt mellan S:t Erik, Karolinska Institutet och Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, syftar till att optimera belysning, dagsljusinsläpp och ljusmiljö vid det nya ögonsjukhuset.

    Totalt 265 anställda på S:t Eriks Ögonsjukhus samt 60 röntgenläkare och 45 barnläkare, varav de senare två  utgjorde jämförelsegrupper, inviterades till  studien.  Enkäten som distribuerades baserades på synergonomienkäter av Knave och Hemphälä och bestod av 31 validerade frågor om subjektiva ögonbesvär, nuvarande belysning, tillgång till dagsljus och välbefinnande. Ögonbesvären räknades om till ett gruppmedelvärde (ögonbesvärsindex) med avseende på svårighetsgrad och frekvens. Studien är godkänd av Etikprövningsnämnden. 

    Nittiosex av 265 (33%) anställda på S:t Eriks Ögonsjukhus hade t o m juni 2012 besvarat enkäten tillsammans med 23 röntgenläkare (38%) och 14 barnläkare (31%). Ögonbesvär som torrhets- och gruskänsla var vanligt förekommande hos alla yrkesgrupper på ögonsjukhuset och generellt vanligare hos kvinnor. Då samtliga grupper jämfördes med avseende på ögonbesvärsindex var skillnaden mellan män och kvinnor statistiskt säkerställd (p<0,05). Röntgenläkarna rapporterade högst ögonbesvärsindex och barnläkarna lägst, skillnaden mellan dessa yrkesgrupper var signifikant (p<0,05). Ögonpersonal och röntgenläkare som rapporterade att de ofta arbetade i mörker, associerade detta med  ökad trötthet i högre grad än  med barnläkarna (p<0,05).

    Ögonbesvär var vanliga hos ögonpersonalen inkluderade i studien. Den grupp som arbetade mest i mörker hade mer ögonbesvär än den grupp som arbetade minst i mörker. Kvinnor hade mer ögonbesvär än män. Arbete i mörker ökade den subjektiva känslan av trötthet . Optimala ljusförhållanden och bra synergonomi bör ges hög prioritet vid planering av ett nytt ögonsjukhus.

  • 2.
    Aronsson, K
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Teär Fahnhjelm, K
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nylén, P
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Visual ergonomics and eye strain in eye careprofessionals2012In: NES2012 Proceedings: Ergonomics for sustainability and growth / [ed] Ann-Beth Antonsson, Göran M Hägg, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye care professionals spend many hours a day in darkness performing visually demanding tasks. A new eye hospital will be built in Stockholm 2018. The current lighting, logistics, and working conditions are analysed in a multidisciplinary project aiming to optimise settings in the new hospital. The main purpose of the present project was to study visual ergonomics and current eye strain in employees at an eye hospital. Ninety-six employees answered a validated questionnaire regarding their experiences of light, visual ergonomics and eye strain problems. Twenty-three radiologists and 14 paediatricians at a university hospital were used as comparison groups. Eye strain was common in all departments at the hospital but was significantly more common only among radiologists compared to paediatricians. Overall, women experienced significantly more eye strain than men.

  • 3.
    Glimme, S
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Törnquist, A L
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nylén, Per
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Teär Fahnerhjelm, K
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lighting and task analysis in an eye hospital.2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lighting is crucial in visually demanding activities and essential for a good visual environment. Access to daylight is important for health, wellbeing, production, and patient safety. The purpose of the present project is to design innovative multifunction examination rooms for the planning of a new eye hospital. The specific aims of the current study were to evaluate existing lighting conditions in examination rooms, to identify the tasks undertaken by eye care professionals, and how they relate to lighting. Lighting conditions in three such rooms and task analyses of three ophthalmologists’ work are presented. The mean illumination levels and the equability of illumination were inadequate. Even if there was access to daylight through windows existed, this possibility was rarely used. Task analyses showed that a significant percentage of the time was devoted to examining the patients (44 %), reading and writing or prescribing drops (23%), in medical records. The lighting was adjusted several times between full and dim illumination during contact with patients. There is substantial potential to improve the lighting conditions.

  • 4. Glimne, S.
    et al.
    Öqvist Seimyr, G.
    Ygge, J.
    Nylén, Per
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Brautaset, R. L.
    Measuring glare induced visual fatigue by fixation disparity variation2013In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 431-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To introduce fixation disparity variance as an objective measure of visual discomfort. A higher variance in fixation disparity is indicative of more visual fatigue. This observation is based on the results from a study where we investigated how fixation disparity was affected by glare on a VDU. Participants. In total 16 subjects with normal vision participated in this study. METHOD: In a balanced repeated-measurement experiment, all subjects performed equal near-vision tasks. In addition to the condition of no glare three controlled conditions of glare were used: direct light, indirect light, and desk luminary. After each condition, the fixation disparity was measured 15 times using a computerized fixation disparity test. RESULTS: The results showed that the average (mean) disparity was found to increase towards esophoric (crossed) with the adversity of the lighting conditions, but the differences were not significant. However, when analyzing the variation (standard deviation) within the 15 measurements and comparing these between conditions, we found that the direct light condition resulted in significantly higher variation compared to lighting condition of no glare and desk luminary lighting. CONCLUSION: Based on these findings, we argue that fixation disparity variance may be a useful objective measure of visual fatigue.

  • 5. Hemphälä, H
    et al.
    Nylén, Per
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Lagstadgade belysningskrav, finns de och är de i så fall rimliga?2013In: Tidskrift för ljuskultur, ISSN 0024-5429, no 6, p. 18-21Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Hemphälä, H
    et al.
    Nylén, Per
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Synergonomi gäller så mycket mer än trötta ögon2013In: Tidskrift för ljuskultur, ISSN 0024-5429, no 4, p. 4-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Av det sammanlagda inflödet från våra sinnen står synen för ca 80 procent. Därmed har synsystemet en central betydelse då vi utför våra arbetsuppgifter, inte minst för att kroppen inte ska tröttas eller fara illa. En förutsättning för goda synförhållanden är god belysning och god synergonomi, det senare ett ämnesområde som tar upp samspelet mellan den visuella omgivningen och synfunktionerna.

    För att med framgång uppnå goda synergonomiska förhållanden på våra arbetsplatser krävs ett multidisciplinärt arbetssätt som inbegriper professionella yrkesgrupper som exempelvis ljusdesigners, arkitekter, synergonomer, elinstallatörer, projektörer men även de som jobbar direkt mot brukarna såsom företagsoptiker, ögonläkare, skyddsombud, arbetsledare samt inte minst arbetsmiljöingenjörer, företagssköterskor med flera yrkeskategorier inom företagshälsovården.

    I den nyligen utkomna broschyren Allt Ljus på Arbetsmiljön nr 4, utgiven av Belysningsbranschen, beskrivs ämnesområdet synergonomi kortfattat. En mer detaljerad genomgång finns i Syn och Belysning i Arbetslivet skriven Per Nylén och utgiven av Prevent år 2012. Där görs en grunduppdelning av ämnet i fem delområden: ljuset, synen, arbetsobjektet, arbetslokalen samt samspelet mellan dessa fyra områden.

  • 7. Hemphälä, H.
    et al.
    Nylén, Per
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Optimal correction in spectacles: Intervention effects on eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort among postal workers2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 329-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The static posture of postal workers when sorting mail can lead to musculoskeletal discomfort. Research has shown a connection between eyestrain and upper-body musculoskeletal discomfort in general, including postal workers. A previous study of postal workers found that most of those with eye strain were in need of a new correction in their existing spectacles.

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate intervention effects on eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort with new spectacles for postal workers.

    METHODS: Postal workers subjectively reported eyestrain, musculoskeletal discomfort and their opinions of the visual environment via questionnaires pre- and post-intervention. After an eye examination the postal workers were divided into two groups: those who needed new spectacles and those who did not.

    RESULTS: Those who needed new spectacles showed a higher prevalence of eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort pre-intervention. Post-intervention, the postal workers rated their vision better and the average eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort decreased for both groups. These workers also experienced a decrease in discomfort on the left (static) side of the neck while sorting mail.

    CONCLUSION: An intervention providing the optimal correction reduces eyestrain and decreases musculoskeletal discomfort, especially from the neck.

  • 8. Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Dahlqvist, Camilla
    Nordander, Catarina
    Gao, Chuansi
    Kuklane, Kalev
    Nylén, Per
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Hansson, Gert-Åke
    Working spectacles for sorting mail2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 319-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sorting mail into racks for postmen is visually demanding work. This can result in backward inclination of their heads, especially more pronounced for those who use progressive addition lenses. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of customized working spectacles on the physical workload of postmen. METHODS: Twelve male postmen sorted mail on two occasions: once using their private progressive spectacles and once using customized sorting spectacles with inverted progressive lenses. Postures and movements of the head, upper back, neck, and upper arms were measured by inclinometry. The muscular load of the trapezius was measured by surface electromyography. RESULTS: With the customized sorting spectacles, both the backward inclination of the head and backward flexion of the neck were reduced (3 degrees), as well as the muscular load of the right upper trapezius, compared to sorting with private spectacles. However, with the sorting spectacles, there was a tendency for increased neck forward flexion, and increased sorting time. CONCLUSION: The reduction in work load may reduce the risk for developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders due to the positive reduction of the backward inclination of the head. But the tendency for increased neck forward flexion may reduce the positive effects. However, the magnitude of the possible reduction is difficult to predict, especially since quantitative data on exposure-response relationships are unknown. Alternative working spectacles with inverted near progressive lenses ought to be evaluated. They should still result in a positive reduced backward inclination of the head and may not cause any increased forward flexion.

  • 9. Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Nylén, Per
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Hur påverkas vi av flimmer?2013In: Tidskrift för ljuskultur, ISSN 0024-5429, no 5, p. 30-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Du kör en vårkväll i en allé med tjocka ekar tätt intill vägen. Solen ligger lågt snettframför dig och lyser omväxlande mellan träden för att skuggas i nästa ögonblick.Flertalet av oss upplever den upprepade starkt varierade ljusintensiteten som mycketobehaglig och saktar ner hastigheten och därmed även frekvensen hos ljusvariationerna.Nu känns det bättre och det är även lättare att se vägbanan skarpt.

    Vad var det som hände? Att dethandlar om bländning är uppenbart.Ljusintensiteten varierar såsnabbt från ett ögonblick till ett annatatt ögat inte kan hitta en fungerandeljusadaptation mellan de två nivåernadär man kan se skarpt. Dennabländningsform kallas temporalbländningoch är en delkomponeneti det som ofta benämns flimmer.Vad är då flimmer? I dagligt talär det visuellt detekterbara snabbavariationer i ljusintensitet eller luminans.Det är en benämning på densubjektiva upplevelsen, inte på detfysikaliska fenomenet. Om ljusintensitetenvariera så snabbt att den inteuppfattas visuellt handlar det i striktmening inte längre om flimmer utanom amplitudmodulerade ljusvariationer.

  • 10.
    Nylén, Per
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Deficient visual conditions may contribute to strained neck and back posture in dentists2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Nylén, Per
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Occupational visual ergonomic conditions for workers above sixty-five2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Nylén, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Favero, Federico
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Glimne, S.
    Fahnehjelm, K. Tear
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Vision, light and aging: A literature overview on older-age workers2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 399-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In many western countries individuals will need to continue their professional careers beyond the current retirement age. This requires adaptation of the working conditions to compensate for age related visual changes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to compile and structure knowledge concerning age related changes in visual and non-visual functions among older-age workers and to describe in what way these changes relate to light and work performance. METHOD: An overview of the literature was performed in PubMed and EMBASE concerning visual changes among elderly people, light, visual ergonomics and consequences at work. RESULTS: Visual conditions and lighting design have an impact on work performance in those over age 65 even if there are few studies available. Natural age related changes in the eyes or ocular diseases can result in reduced visual function and performance. Moreover, evidence of the importance of light and dark rhythms for circadian regulation is mounting; there are indications that the older-age population might need specific attention related to this issue. Finally, visual deteriorations might also, secondarily, induce strained postures and musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and injury. CONCLUSION: Age-related changes in the eyes and also ocular diseases among older-age people have an impact on well-being and work performance, and therefore call for reconsideration of their working conditions. Knowledge about how visual functions, light and ocular diseases is needed for work design and preventive actions.

  • 13. Nyström, A-K
    et al.
    Nylén, Per
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Reids Base line as an alternative to the horizontal line when defining the visual angle2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Teär Fahnerhjelm, Kristina
    et al.
    S:t Eriks Ögonsjukhus.
    Aronsson, Karolina
    S:t Eriks Ögonsjukhus.
    Ejhed, Jan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Favero, Federico
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Glimne, Susanne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Moberg, Caroline
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Nylén, Per
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics.
    Törnquist, Alba Lucia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Belysning och utveckling av undersökningsrum: Multifunktionsrum i sjukvården2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Employees in an eye hospital spend many hours in semidarkness or darkness performing visually demanding activities that can cause fatigue and eye strain. As preparation for the planning of a new eye hospital, this project was initiated in order to produce knowledge of how to improve lighting in examination rooms. Current light conditions at S:t Erik Eye Hospital were assessed including questionnaires to employees/patients, and measurements of luminance, space analyses and energy consumption. Visits to other prominent eye hospitals and a literature review were performed. The questionnaires revealed that eyestrain problems were common in eye care professionals, especially in women. Working in dark rooms increased the subjective feeling of fatigue. Many, but not all, lacked daylight. The general lighting system was often insufficient with poor light distribution, shadows, and a colour temperature that in general was too low. Improvements included possibilities to regulate inflow of daylight, installation of remote controls, and timing and level of adaptation to different light levels. These improvements have been tested in a real scale installation that used the latest technology in terms of artificial lighting, a lighting control systems and a novel solution to control daylight. Five different light scenarios were preinstalled and evaluated by professionals and patients. A majority reported an improvement compared with traditional solutions. Current and actual energy consumption was monitored. Simulations of future consumption points to a possible energy reduction by 50 %, using new lighting technology, daylight and optimal room design. With improved logistics, new buildings and new work organization, energy savings can be even higher, around 70 %.

  • 15. Zetterberg, C
    et al.
    Hemphälä, H
    Nylén, Per
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Workshop in visual ergonomics2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased use of computers is common across many work sectors. Prolonged near work at a computer screen is associated with both visual discomfort and neck/shoulder discomfort and pain. Inadequate visual ergonomics at a computer workstation can also influence both visual and neck/shoulder discomfort. The new provision from the Swedish Work Environment Authority on prevention of musculoskeletal disorders includes risk assessment of occupational visual conditions. These assessments require practitioners to have knowledge of the topic, as well as experience with practical assessment tools.

    The first part of the workshop proposed here will involve a presentation of the theories underlying visual ergonomic practices and a discussion of the most important factors to assess at a computer workstation. These factors include contrast, font size, resolution, glare, reflexion, non-visual flicker, and edge sharpness. The second part of the workshop, will allow participants hands-on practice in measuring and evaluating visual ergonomics at a computer workstation.

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