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  • 1.
    Alam, Assad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Björk, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Garcia Alonso, Liliana
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Khaksari, Farzad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Khan, Altamash
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Kjellberg, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Liang, Kuo-Yun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Lyberger, Rickard
    Scania CV AB.
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Nilsson, John-Olof
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    Scania CV AB.
    Pettersson, Simon
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Stålklinga, Elin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Sundman, Dennis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Zachariah, Dave
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Cooperative driving according to Scoop2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Scania are entering the GCDC 2011 under the name Scoop –Stockholm Cooperative Driving. This paper is an introduction to their team and to the technical approach theyare using in their prototype system for GCDC 2011.

  • 2.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Risks Related to the Use of Software Tools when Developing Cyber-Physical Systems: A Critical Perspective on the Future of Developing Complex, Safety-Critical Systems2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing complexity and size of modern Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) has led to a sharp decline in productivity among CPS designers. Requirements on safety aggravate this problem further, both by being difficult to ensure and due to their high importance to the public.

    Tools, or rather efforts to facilitate the automation of development processes, are a central ingredient in many of the proposed innovations to mitigate this problem. Even though the safety-related implications of introducing automation in development processes have not been extensively studied, it is known that automation has already had a large impact on operational systems. If tools are to play a part in mitigating the increase in safety-critical CPS complexity, then their actual impact on CPS development, and thereby the safety of the corresponding end products, must be sufficiently understood.

    An survey of relevant research fields, such as system safety, software engineering and tool integration, is provided to facilitate the discussion on safety-related implications of tool usage. Based on the identification of industrial safety standards as an important source of information and considering that the risks posed by separate tools have been given considerable attention in the transportation domain, several high-profile safety standards in this domain have been surveyed. According to the surveyed standards, automation should primarily be evaluated on its reliable execution of separate process steps independent of human operators. Automation that only supports the actions of operators during CPS development is viewed as relatively inconsequential.

    A conceptual model and a reference model have been created based on the surveyed research fields. The former defines the entities and relationships most relevant to safety-related risks associated with tool usage. The latter describes aspects of tool integration and how these relate to each other. By combining these models, a risk analysis could be performed and properties of tool chains which need to be ensured to mitigate risk identified. Ten such safety-related characteristics of tool chains are described.

    These safety-related characteristics provide a systematic way to narrow down what to look for with regard to tool usage and risk. The hypothesis that a large set of factors related to tool usage may introduce risk could thus be tested through an empirical study, which identified safety-related weaknesses in support environments tied both to high and low levels of automation. The conclusion is that a broader perspective, which includes more factors related to tool usage than those considered by the surveyed standards, will be needed.

    Three possible reasons to disregard such a broad perspective have been refuted, namely requirements on development processes enforced by the domain of CPS itself, certain characteristics of safety-critical CPS and the possibility to place trust in a proven, manual development process. After finding no strong reason to keep a narrow perspective on tool usage, arguments are put forward as to why the future evolution of support environments may actually increase the importance of such a broad perspective.

    Suggestions for how to update the mental models of the surveyed safety standards, and other standards like them, are put forward based on this identified need for a broader perspective.

  • 3.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Safety and Tool Integration, A System-Theoretic Process Analysis2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report I detail a System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) hazard analysis of the tool integration of development environments for embedded systems. Building on results from previous studies I generalize and expand on earlier findings regarding the relationship between safety and tool integration.

    To prepare for the analysis I customized STPA for the context of tool integration. This customization allowed me to subsequently design and analyze three versions of a tool chain originally provided by an industrial partner. A net result of 85, 98 and 73 risks was identified, in comparison to 25 integration weaknesses identified through expert knowledge. The design of the different versions of the tool chain and a comparison of the identified risks with the integration weaknesses allowed me to validate the usefulness of STPA for both identifying and correctly categorizing risks and causes in the context of tool integration. An analysis of my results also points out the fact that STPA is not a silver bullet, without enough expertise it is easy to omit important parts of process models and thus arrive at incomplete conclusions.

    In regard to the relationship between safety and tool integration nine properties were identified, properties that need to be supported correctly to avoid hazards in the context of tool integration. These properties require support throughout a noticeable part of a development environment to have an impact and derive much of that impact from the possibility to centralize them. They also interrelate, so that often several of them need to be handled to mitigate one type of risk. However, introducing support for them across a whole development environment is likely to be costly, or even impossible. Furthermore, introducing support for these properties will mitigate some risks, but also create other risks at higher levels of organization.

    These properties therefore point to the size a development environment, the number of contexts towards which the development environment can be verified and the effort required to ensure the added requirements at higher levels of organization as deciding factors on whether the effort to support them should be made (other efforts, more efficient in those particular cases, could otherwise be considered). The existence of these properties also point to the possibility of developing and pre-qualifying tools and tool chains based on the assumption that some or all of these properties will be supported by the final development environment. This could potentially lower, or at least distribute, the cost of the final qualification.

  • 4.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    The future of software tool chain safety qualification2015In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, Vol. 74, 37-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High profile systemic safety standards for Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) development within the transportation domain have commonalities with regard to their view of the safety-related implications of tool usage. Their guidelines on tool qualification favor a bottom-up approach in which tools are dealt with in isolation and mostly if they may directly introduce faults into end products. This guidance may ignore risk introduced by the integration of software tools, especially if these risks are related to low levels of automation - such as process notifications and improper graphical user interfaces. This paper presents a study that ties weaknesses in support environments to software faults. Based on the observed weaknesses guidelines for a top-down software tool chain qualification are suggested for inclusion in the next generation of safety standards. This has implications not only for the surveyed standards in the transportation domain, but also for other standards for safety-critical CPS development that do not include a broader view on risks related to tool usage. Furthermore, given the type of omission identified in the surveyed standards, it is suggested that researchers interested in the safety-related implications of tool integration should approach organizational research in search of possibilities to set up theory triangulation studies.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-07-14 10:35
  • 5.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tool Integration and Safety: A Foundation for Analysing the Impact of Tool Integrationon Non-functional Properties2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing complexity of embedded systems development is becoming difficult to handle with development environments based on disjoint engineering tools. Support for interactions between various engineering tools, especially through automated means, has therefore received an increased amount of attention during the last few years. The subsequent increase in the amount of tool integration is leading to an increased impact of tool integration on non-functional properties of development efforts, development environments and end products. At the same time there is a lack of methods and tools for analysing the relationship between these properties and tool integration. To establish a foundation for analysing this generic relationship, the specific relationship between tool integration and the safety of end products is analysed in this thesis.

    A survey was conducted to analyze the State of the Art of tool integration as related to safety. This survey specifically identified the lack of an efficient handling of tool integration by modern safety standards as an important concern. In relation to this survey, three theories were identified as of specific importance. These are the school of thought known as Systems Thinking, the Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) causality model and the System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) hazard analysis technique.

    Building on these theories, this thesis provides original contributions intended to (1) describe concepts and models related to tool integration and safety (the first and second contribution), (2) link tool integration to safety in a way that reduces complexity during analysis (the third contribution) and (3) propose how to interpret and make use of the implications of the presented theories and the first three contributions (the fourth and fifth contribution).

    • The first contribution is a new conceptual model of a development effort that emphasizes tool integration.

    • The second contribution is a new reference model for tool integration in highly heterogeneous environments.

    • The third contribution consists of nine safety-related tool chain properties, i.e. properties of tool chains that could mitigate at least part of the risks introduced by tool integration.

    • The fourth contribution is a proposition on how to identify safety implications due to a high level of automation of tool integration.

    • The fifth contribution is a proposition for a new software tool qualification process.

  • 6.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tool Integration Beyond Wasserman2011In: Advanced Information Systems Engineering Workshops / [ed] Camille Salinesi, Oscar Pastor, Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 2011, 270-281 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The typical development environment today consists of many specialized development tools, which are partially integrated, forming a complex tool landscape with partial integration. Traditional approaches for reasoning about tool integration are insufficient to measure the degree of integration and integration optimality in today’s complex tool landscape. This paper presents a reference model that introduces dependencies between, and metrics for, integration aspects to overcome this problem. This model is used to conceive a method for reasoning about tool integration and identify improvements in an industrial case study. Based on this we are able to conclude that our reference model does not detract value from the principles that it is based on, instead it highlights improvements that were not well visible earlier. We conclude the paper by discussing open issues for our reference model, namely if it is suitable to use during the creation of new systems, if the used integration aspects can be subdivided further to support the analysis of secondary issues related to integration, difficulties related to the state dependency between the data and process aspects within the context of developing embedded systems and the analysis of non-functional requirements to support tool integration.

  • 7.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Towards the Automated Qualification of Tool Chain Design2012In: SAFECOMP 2012 Workshops: Sassur, ASCoMS, DESEC4LCCI, ERCIM/EWICS, IWDE, Magdeburg, Germany, September 25-28, 2012, Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, 392-399 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of safety-critical embedded systems is supported by a number of development tools, which are increasingly integrated into automated tool chains. Safety standards require these tool chains to be qualified, which is costly and requires a large effort. To reduce cost and effort tool chains can be composed of pre-qualified tools and then themselves pre-qualified by identifying the parts of tool chain software that have an impact on safety more exactly. In this paper we propose the use of a modeling language to describe this tool chain composition. This allows us to reduce effort even further by automatically analyzing the tool chain model for safety issues. It also promises to reduce the effort and cost of later steps in the deployment of the tool chain by formalizing the communication of safety issues and automating the generation of code for tool chain software.

  • 8.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    Törngren, Martin
    Qualifying Software Tools, a Systems Approach2012In: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 31st International Conference, SAFECOMP 2012, Magdeburg, Germany, September 25-28, 2012. Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, 340-351 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern safety standards designed to ensure safety in embedded system products often take a descriptive approach, focusing on describing appropriate requirements on management, processes, methods and environments during development. While the qualification of software tools has been included in several such standards, how to handle the safety implications of tools integrated into tool chains has been largely ignored. This problem is aggravated by an increase both in automation of tool integration and the size of development environments.

    In this paper we define nine safety goals for tool chains and suggest a qualification method that takes a systems approach on certifying software tools as parts of tool chains. With this method, software tools are developed and pre-qualified under the assumption that certain properties will be supported by the development environment they are to be deployed in. The proposed method is intended to (1) achieve a stronger focus on the relevant parts of tool chains in regard to safety and (2) separate the extra effort these parts imply from the effort already stipulated by safety standards.

  • 9.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    Törngren, Martin
    Safety-Guided Design through System-Theoretic Process Analysis, Benefits and Difficulties2012In: 30th International System Safety Conference Proceedings, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development environments for embedded systems are moving towards increased automation between Commercial Of The Shelf (COTS) engineering tools. While automation provides new opportunities for e.g. verification, it also to some extent decreases the possibility of identifying and acting on safety issues that arise during development. To investigate the relationship between tool integration and safety we performed a System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) of a tool chain from an industrial case study. This tool chain was then reanalyzed and redesigned twice, in part motivated by identified hazards.

    This paper presents our experiences from applying STPA to safety-guided design in the context of integrating COTS engineering tools into tool chains. We discuss the benefits of and difficulties with applying STPA. We also suggest improvements that complement STPA with support methods and tools.

    The primary benefit was the support in categorizing risks and causes. The three difficulties we encountered were identifying context-specific causal factors, defining control structures across several domains (management, user, technical, etc.) and limiting the domains taken into account. The use of STPA during safety-guided design would be facilitated by the use of expert systems and simulation, especially in regard to relating different domains.

  • 10.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    The Discourse on Tool Integration Beyond Technology, A Literature Survey2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 106, 117-131 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tool integration research area emerged in the 1980s. This survey focuses on those strands of tool integration research that discuss issues beyond technology.

     

    We reveal a discourse centered around six frequently mentioned non-functional properties. These properties have been discussed in relation to technology and high level issues. However, while technical details have been covered, high level issues and, by extension, the contexts in which tool integration can be found, are treated indifferently. We conclude that this indifference needs to be challenged, and research on a larger set of stakeholders and contexts initiated.

     

    An inventory of the use of classification schemes underlines the difficulty of evolving the classical classification scheme published by Wasserman. Two frequently mentioned redefinitions are highlighted to facilitate their wider use.

     

    A closer look at the limited number of research methods and the poor attention to research design indicates a need for a changed set of research methods. We propose more critical case studies and method diversification through theory triangulation.

     

    Additionally, among disparate discourses we highlight several focusing on standardization which are likely to contain relevant findings. This suggests that open communities employed in the context of (pre-)standardization could be especially important in furthering the targeted discourse.

  • 11.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    Biehl, Matthias
    El-khoury, Jad
    Frede, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tool Integration, from Tool to Tool Chain with ISO 262622012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of innovative power sources in future cars has long-ranging implications on vehicle safety.  We studied these implications in the context of the guidance on software tool qualification in the then current ISO 26262 draft, when building an urban concept vehicle to participate in the 2011 Shell Eco-Marathon. While the guidance on tool qualification is detailed, the guidance in regard to tools integrated into tool chains is limited. It only points out that the environment that tools execute in needs to be taken into consideration.

    In this paper we clarify the implications of tool chains on tool qualification in the context of ISO 26262 by focusing on answering two questions; first, are there parts of the development environment related to tool integration that are likely to fall outside of tool qualification efforts as currently defined by ISO 26262; secondly, can we define if, and -if so- how, tool integration is affected by ensuring functional safety.

    We conclude by identifying two areas related to tool integration that are likely to fall outside the tool qualification efforts (data integrity and process logic) and describing how different constraints imposed by ISO 26262 in relation to tool qualification conflict when tool integration is improved (improvements aimed at supporting completeness, consistency and the safety lifecycle vs. tool qualification cost).

    We are able to make additional conclusions in relation to the State of the Art discussion on software tool qualification according to ISO 26262. First, reference tool chains and guidelines on which characteristics tool qualification should ensure for tool chains are needed to complement ISO 26262. Secondly, guidance on tool integration can be found in the completeness characteristic, the consistency characteristic and the ISO 26262 safety lifecycle process. Finally, qualification efforts should ideally target tool chains rather than individual tools.

  • 12.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Hawkins, Richard
    University of York.
    McDermid, John A.
    University of York.
    The Need for a Confidence View of CPS Support Environments (Fast Abstract)2015In: Proceedings of HASE 2015, The 16th IEEE International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, 273-274 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-View Modelling Integration Frameworks (MVMIFs) may help mitigate complexity associated with the development of CPS, but may also have implications on safety. Safety-related standards do not provide guidance to mitigate this problem. We therefore suggest that MVMIFs are extended with a confidence view to support the creation of an assurance case that covers issues related to risks in the support environment.

  • 13.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.). The SP Technical Research Institute, Sweden.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Architecture challenges for intelligent autonomous machines: An industrial perspective2016In: 13th International conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-13), Springer, 2016, Vol. 302, 1669-1681 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machines are displaying a trend of increasing autonomy. This has a far reaching impact on the architectures of the embedded systems within the machine. The impact needs to be clearly understood and the main obstacles to autonomy need to be identified. The obstacles, especially from an industrial perspective, are not just technological butalso relate to system aspects like certification, development processes and product safety. In this paper, we identify and discuss some of the main obstacles to autonomy from the viewpoint of technical specialists working on advanced industrial product development. The identified obstacles cover topics like world modeling, user interaction, complexity and system safety.

  • 14. Cancila, D.
    et al.
    Birk, W.
    Nuzzo, V.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Stoycheva, M.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Experiences and reflections on three years of CPS Summer schools within EIT digital2016In: 2016 Workshop on Embedded and Cyber-Physical Systems Education, WESE 2016 - Organized as a Part of Embedded Systems Week, Proceedings, ACM Digital Library, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an overview of current European Commission effort in term of educational innovation to reduce the gap between research and industry which still is a barrier to the economic development. Entrepreneurial innovation & education driving Europe's digital transformation (EIT Digital for short) is an European-based initiative fostering I&E (innovation and entrepreneurship) by integrating education, research and business at different educational levels. For instance in EIT master programmes, students work together with industries and academics to have a faster go-to-market of research results. Summer schools are part of the master programs; three of them have been organised related to CPS (cyber-physical systems), critical infrastructure and, more recently, Industry 4.0. Past and present events are discussed and the experience from these events is reported. It is further analysed how the general setup of the summer school program is affecting the educational aspects and achievement of the intended learning outcomes.

  • 15.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Kenneth, Östberg
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    A Systematic approach to Risk Management in ITS Context: Challenges and Research Issues2014In: Radioelectronic and Computer Systems, 2014, No 5 ( 69 ), Ukraine, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) with autonomic functions that are cyber-physical in nature is of rapidly increasing importance for traffic efficiency and safety. Current engineering approaches to such functions often rely on worst-case assumptions, originally used for safety engineering, due to the difficulty and cost involved in precisely modeling and analyzing the system boundaries and emergent behaviors in a highly dynamic configuration of system-of-systems. This can lead to the loss of many of the benefits in regard to traffic efficiency, but also to conditions where the transport system as a whole is prone to unacceptable high risks. We envisage a systematic approach to the development of autonomous functions in ITS resting on the basis of a formal modeling framework. This paper presents our vision for achieving such a goal on the basis of EAST-ADL, which is an ISO26262 compatible architecture modeling language and methodology for the development and management of automotive Electrics & Electronics systems. Especially, this paper elaborates on some key challenges and outlines related research issues to be regarded in a Swedish research initiative, referred to as SARMITS (Systematic Approach to Risk Management in ITS Context).

  • 16.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Östberg, Kenneth
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Brezhniev, Eugene
    National Aerospace University KhAI, Kharkiv, Centre for Safety Infrastructure Oriented Research and Analysis, Ukraine.
    Kharchenko, Vyacheslav
    National Aerospace University KhAI, Kharkiv, Centre for Safety Infrastructure Oriented Research and Analysis, Ukraine.
    Towards an Ontology-Based Approach to Safety Management in Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems2015In: Theory and Engineering of Complex Systems and Dependability: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Dependability and Complex Systems DepCoS-RELCOMEX, June 29 – July 3 2015, Brunów, Poland / [ed] Zamojski, W., Mazurkiewicz, J., Sugier, J., Walkowiak, T., Kacprzyk, J., Springer, 2015, Vol. 365, 107-115 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expected increase in transports of people and goods across Europe will aggravate the problems related to traffic congestion, accidents and pollution. As new road infrastructure alone would not solve such problems, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) has been considered as new initiatives. Due to the complexity of behaviors, novel methods and tools for the requirements engineering, correct-by-construction design, dependability, product variability and lifecycle management become also necessary. This chapter presents an ontology-based approach to safety management in Cooperative ITS (C-ITS), primarily in an automotive context. This approach is supposed to lay the way for all aspects of ITS safety management, from simulation and design, over run-time risk assessment and diagnostics. It provides the support for ontology driven ITS development and its formal information model. Results of approach validation in CarMaker are also given in this Chapter. The approach is a result of research activities made in the framework of Swedish research initiative, referred to as SARMITS (Systematic Approach to Risk Management in ITS Context).

  • 17.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Meinke, Karl
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Östberg, Kenneth
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Baumann, Christoph
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    A Knowledge-in-the-Loop Approach to Integrated Safety&Security for Cooperative System-of-Systems2015In: IEEE Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Information Systems, IEEE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A system-of-systems (SoS) is inherently open inconfiguration and evolutionary in lifecycle. For the nextgeneration of cooperative cyber-physical system-of-systems,safety and security constitute two key issues of public concernthat affect the deployment and acceptance. In engineering, theopenness and evolutionary nature also entail radical paradigmshifts. This paper presents one novel approach to thedevelopment of qualified cyber-physical system-of-systems, withCooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) as one target.The approach, referred to as knowledge-in-the-loop, aims toallow a synergy of well-managed lifecycles, formal qualityassurance, and smart system features. One research goal is toenable an evolutionary development with continuous andtraceable flows of system rationale from design-time to postdeploymenttime and back, supporting automated knowledgeinference and enrichment. Another research goal is to develop aformal approach to risk-aware dynamic treatment of safety andsecurity as a whole in the context of system-of-systems. Key basetechnologies include: (1) EAST-ADL for the consolidation ofsystem-wide concerns and for the creation of an ontology foradvanced run-time decisions, (2) Learning Based-Testing for runtimeand post-deployment model inference, safety monitoringand testing, (3) Provable Isolation for run-time attack detectionand enforcement of security in real-time operating systems.

  • 18.
    El-khoury, Jad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A Roadmap Towards Integrated CPS Development Environments2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber Physical System (CPS) development is highly heterogeneous, involving many stakeholders, each of which interacts with its development artifacts through a variety of tools, and within several engineering processes. Successful CPS development requires these tools to be well-integrated into a Development Environment (DE) in order to support its many stakeholders and processes. In this paper we identify the main challenges facing DE development for CPSs, and presents a roadmap to meet these challenges. We here take the position that focus should be redirected from trying to achieve a single, one-size-fits-all solution to such a heterogeneous problem. Instead, focus should be placed on supporting the development of highly-customized DEs, which readily can be applied to industrial development. Such a highly-customized DE should fit the needs of a particular development organization, while at the same time taking advantage of relevant standardization efforts.

  • 19.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Measuring Tool Chain Interoperability in Cyber-physical Systems2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-Physical Systems are developed through complex engineering projects that include many stakeholders and a variety of tools and processes from different engineering backgrounds. Interoperability in these development tool chains is an important aspect for well-integrated systems. Furthermore, since full tool chain interoperability is neither possible nor necessarily desired, measuring interoperability in development environments is essential for setting the right priorities. This systematic literature review gives an overview of the literature about interoperability assessment methods. A survey was conducted through digital libraries and a total of 42 papers were read. Out of these papers, 24 different interoperability assessment models were identified and analyzed. A striking find of this study is that no proof of industrial adaptation of these models was found. In this paper, we analyze the reasons for this lack of validation in the context of CPS development. 

  • 20.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Visual Analytics Towards Tool Interoperabilty: A Position Paper2016In: Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications, SCITEPRESS , 2016, 141-147 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex-engineering projects include artefacts from several engineering disciplines such as mechanical, electrical, software components, processes and plans. While software tools can be powerful in each individual discipline, it is difficult to build integrated tool chains. Moreover, it is challenging to evaluate and update existing tool chains. At the same time, the field of visualization is getting mature and visual analytics promises an opportunity to develop knowledge, methods, technologies and practice for exploiting and combining the strengths of human and data. We consider this as a potential to evaluate current tool chains. This position paper discusses the visualization and visual analytics practices to assess existing tool chains performance.

  • 21.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Assessing tool chain interoperability in cyber-physical systems: A systematic reviewIn: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are developed using artefacts from several engineering disciplines. Powerful software tools are utilized by each individual discipline, but it remains challenging to connect these into tool chains for increased efficiency. To support this endeavour, a survey of the literature on interoperability assessment was performed to identify concepts that could be valuable to transfer to the tool integration field.

    Interoperability assessment models were identified as potentially valuable to transfer, but lacking in industrial uptake. To avoid importing inefficient concepts, this lack of impact was analysed. Three main problems were identified as; the models either use complex metrics, separate levels or combinations of these; they concentrate on selective aspects of interoperability; and they focus on structure and content, providing little guidance on how to deal with problems. Visualization and visual analytics is discussed as a promising direction to be used during assessment of tool integration. Based on this approach it is suggested that the following concepts are transferred: the elaborated parts of system contexts; types of interoperability; and the theory connected to interoperability as a balance between interests rather than an optimization of a single, uniform metric. It is also suggested that interoperability researchers consider visualization and visual analytics techniques in their own contexts.

  • 22.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Bensalem, Saddek
    VERIMAG.
    McDermid, John
    Univ. of York.
    Passerone, Roberto
    Trento University.
    Pfeifer, Holger
    Fortis Munich.
    Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto
    UC Berkeley.
    Schätz, Bernhard
    Technical University of Munich.
    Characterization, Analysis, and Recommendations for Exploiting the Opportunities of Cyber-Physical Systems2017In: Cyber-Physical Systems: Foundations, Principles and Applications / [ed] H. Song, D. B. Rawat, S. Jeschke and C. Brecher, Academic Press, 2017, 3-13 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leveraging a comprehensive analysis of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) in Europe, this chapter presents overall findings focusing on (i) a characterization of CPS, (ii) opportunities and challenges in representative CPS application domains, and (iii) recommendations for action resulting from a cross domain analysis. The characterization enables a high-level description of a CPS, or classes of CPS, according to their technical emphasis, cross-cutting aspects, level of automation and life-cycle integration. We illustrate how these characteristics can be used to relate to design issues, systems and related terms.

    The recommendations are to (1) Strengthen cross-disciplinary research collaboration, (2) Foster CPS education and training, (3) Stimulate public-private partnerships for CPS technology experimentation and to ensure dependable ICT infrastructure, (4) Promote interoperability of CPS technology, (5) Anticipate new business models and supporting open innovation, (6) Ensure trustworthiness including safety and security, and (7) Favor human-centered approaches to CPS. 

  • 23. Östberg, K.
    et al.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Bengtsson, M.
    Intelligent transport systems - The role of a safety loop for holistic safety management2014In: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: SAFECOMP 2014 Workshops: ASCoMS, DECSoS, DEVVARTS, ISSE, ReSA4CI, SASSUR. Florence, Italy, September 8-9, 2014. Proceedings, Springer , 2014, 3-10 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ITS represents a Cyber-Physical System (CPS), which will involve information exchange at operational level as well as potential explicit collaboration between separate entities (systems of systems). Specific emphasis is required to manage the complexity and safety of such future CPS. In this paper we focus on model-based approaches for these purposes for analyzing and managing safety throughout the lifecycle of ITS. We argue that: (1) run-time risk assessment will be necessary for efficient ITS; (2) an information centric approach will be instrumental for future ITS to support all aspects of safety management - a "safety loop"; (3) a formal basis is required to deal with the large amounts of information present in an ITS. We elaborate these arguments and discuss what is required to support their realization.

1 - 23 of 23
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