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  • 1.
    Alexiou, Nikolaos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Basagiannis, S.
    Petridou, S.
    Formal security analysis of near field communication using model checking2016In: Computers & security (Print), ISSN 0167-4048, E-ISSN 1872-6208, Vol. 60, 1-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Near field communication (NFC) is a short-range wireless communication technology envisioned to support a large gamut of smart-device applications, such as payment and ticketing. Although two NFC devices need to be in close proximity to communicate (up to 10 cm), adversaries can use a fast and transparent communication channel to relay data and, thus, force an NFC link between two distant victims. Since relay attacks can bypass the NFC requirement for short-range communication cheaply and easily, it is important to evaluate the security of NFC applications. In this work, we present a general framework that exploits formal analysis and especially model checking as a means of verifying the resiliency of NFC protocol against relay attacks. Toward this goal, we built a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) model using the PRISM model checker. Firstly, we took into account NFC protocol parameters and, then, we enhanced our model with networking parameters, which include both mobile environment and security-aware characteristics. Combining NFC specifications with an adversary's characteristics, we produced the relay attack model, which is used for extracting our security analysis results. Through these results, we can explain how a relay attack could be prevented and discuss potential countermeasures.

  • 2.
    Alexiou, Nikolaos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Basagiannis, S.
    Petridou, S.
    Security analysis of NFC relay attacks using probabilistic model checking2014In: IWCMC 2014 - 10th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference, IEEE , 2014, 524-529 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Near Field Communication (NFC) is a short-ranged wireless communication technology envisioned to support a large gamut of smart-device applications, such as payment and ticketing applications. Two NFC-enabled devices need to be in close proximity, typically less than 10 cm apart, in order to communicate. However, adversaries can use a secret and fast communication channel to relay data between two distant victim NFC-enabled devices and thus, force NFC link between them. Relay attacks may have tremendous consequences for security as they can bypass the NFC requirement for short range communications and even worse, they are cheap and easy to launch. Therefore, it is important to evaluate security of NFC applications and countermeasures to support the emergence of this new technology. In this work we present a probabilistic model checking approach to verify resiliency of NFC protocol against relay attacks based on protocol, channel and application specific parameters that affect the successfulness of the attack. We perform our formal analysis within the probabilistic model checking environment PRISM to support automated security analysis of NFC applications. Finally, we demonstrate how the attack can be thwarted and we discuss the successfulness of potential countermeasures.

  • 3.
    Alexiou, Nikolaos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Gisdakis, Stylianos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Laganà, Marcello
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Papadimitratos, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Towards a secure and privacy-preserving multi-service vehicular architecture2013In: 2013 IEEE 14th International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, WoWMoM 2013, IEEE , 2013, 6583472- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensive efforts in industry, academia and standardization bodies have brought vehicular communications (VC) one step before commercial deployment. In fact, future vehicles will become significant mobile platforms, extending the digital life of individuals with an ecosystem of applications and services. To secure these services and to protect the privacy of individuals, it is necessary to revisit and extend the vehicular Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)-based approach towards a multi-service security architecture. This is exactly what this work does, providing a design and a proof-of-concept implementation. Our approach, inspired by long-standing standards, is instantiated for a specific service, the provision of short-term credentials (pseudonyms). Moreover, we elaborate on its operation across multiple VC system domains, and craft a roadmap for further developments and extensions that leverage Web-based approaches. Our current results already indicate our architecture is efficient and can scale, and thus can meet the needs of the foreseen broad gamut of applications and services, including the transportation and safety ones.

  • 4.
    Alexiou, Nikolaos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Laganá, Marcello
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Gisdakis, Stylianos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Khodaei, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Papadimitratos, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    VeSPA: Vehicular security and privacy-preserving architecture2013In: HotWiSec 2013: Proceedings of the 2013 ACM Workshop on Hot Topics on Wireless Network Security and Privacy, 2013, 19-23 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicular Communications (VC) are reaching a near deploment phase and will play an important role in improving road safety, driving efficiency and comfort. The industry and the academia have reached a consensus for the need of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), in order to achieve security, identity management, vehicle authentication, as well as preserve vehicle privacy. Moreover, a gamut of proprietary and safety applications, such as location-based services and pay-as-you-drive systems, are going to be offered to the vehicles. The emerging applications are posing new challenges for the existing Vehicular Public Key Infrastructure (VPKI) architectures to support Authentication, Authorization and Accountability (AAA), without exposing vehicle privacy. In this work we present an implementation of a VPKI that is compatible with the VC standards. We propose the use of tickets as cryptographic tokens to provide AAA and also preserve vehicle privacy against adversaries and the VPKI. Finally, we present the efficiency results of our implementation to prove its applicability.

  • 5. Ehdaie, M.
    et al.
    Alexiou, Nikolaos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Ahmadian, M.
    Aref, M. R.
    Papadimitratos, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Key splitting for random key distribution schemes2012In: Network Protocols (ICNP), 2012 20th IEEE International Conference on, IEEE , 2012, 6459951- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) security schemes have been proposed in the literature, relying primarily on symmetric key cryptography. To enable those, Random Key pre-Distribution (RKD) systems have been widely accepted. However, WSN nodes are vulnerable to physical compromise. Capturing one or more nodes operating with RKD would give the adversary keys to compromise communication of other benign nodes. Thus the challenge is to enhance resilience of WSN to node capture, while maintaining the flexibility and low-cost features of RKD. We address this problem, without any special-purpose hardware, proposing a new and simple idea: key splitting. Our scheme does not increase per-node storage, and computation and communication overheads, and it can increase connectivity. More important, it achieves a significant increase in resilience to compromise compared to the state of the art, notably when the adversary does not have overwhelming computational power.

  • 6.
    Ehdaie, Mohammad
    et al.
    CCL, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Iran.
    Alexiou, Nikolaos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Ahmadian, Mahmoud
    CCL, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Iran.
    Reza Aref, Mohammad
    CCL, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Iran.
    Papadimitratos, Panos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Key Splitting for Random Key Distribution Schemes2012In: 7th Workshop on Secure Network Protocols (NPSec12), 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7. Ehdaie, Mohammad
    et al.
    Alexiou, Nikolaos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Attari, Mahmoud Ahmadian
    Aref, Mohammad Reza
    Papadimitratos, Panos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Key splitting: making random key distribution schemes resistant against node capture2015In: Security and Communication Networks, ISSN 1939-0114, E-ISSN 1939-0122, Vol. 8, no 3, 431-445 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of random key pre-distribution (RKD) schemes have been proposed in the literature to secure wireless sensor network applications, relying on symmetric key cryptography. However, sensor nodes are exposed to physical compromise by adversaries, who target the symmetric keys stored at each node. With the stolen keys in their possession, the adversaries are then able to compromise communication links between benign nodes. Here, the big challenge arises: how to increase resilience of RKD schemes for wireless sensor networks to node capture, while maintaining the flexibility and low-cost features of RKD? We propose the idea of key splitting to address this problem, without the need of any special-purpose hardware. Our key splitting scheme neither increases per-node storage nor introduces additional computation and communication overheads. Nevertheless, it can achieve better connectivity. More importantly, it significantly increases resilience to node compromise, when the adversary does not have overwhelming computational power.

  • 8. Ehdaie, Mohammad
    et al.
    Alexiou, Nikos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Ahmadian, Mahmoud
    Aref, Mohammad Reza
    Papadimitratos, Panos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    2D Hash Chain robust Random Key Distribution scheme2016In: Information Processing Letters, ISSN 0020-0190, E-ISSN 1872-6119, Vol. 116, no 5, 367-372 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Random Key Distribution (RKD) schemes have been proposed in the literature to enable security applications in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). A main security aspect of RKD schemes is their resistance against node capture attacks, since compromising the sensors and capturing their keys is a common risk in such networks. We propose a new method, based on a 2-Dimensional Hash Chain (2DHC), that can be applied on any RKD scheme to improve their resilience. Our method maintains the flexibility and low cost features of RKD schemes and it doesn't require any special-purpose hardware or extra memory to store keys in the sensors. We demonstrate that our approach significantly increases the resilience of RKD schemes against node capture at the cost of a few additional computations, while maintaining network connectivity at the same level.

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