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  • 1.
    Femenia, Marc
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Characterization of ferrite-austenite boundary region of duplex stainless steels by SAES2004In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 151, no 11, p. B581-B585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAES) has been used to investigate the phase boundary region between ferrite and austenite in three duplex stainless steels. Of the elements investigated Cr and Mo are partitioned to the ferrite phase, while Ni and N are partitioned to the austenite phase. The composition gradient across the phase boundary occurs within a few micrometers. The results are in accordance with previous results of the same phase boundary region obtained with complementary techniques. They form evidence of galvanic interaction between the ferrite and austenite phases and suggest this to be the main cause of the higher initial dissolution rate of ferrite adjacent to the austenite phase. The addition of alloying elements improves corrosion resistance of both the ferrite and austenite phases, the weaker sites are comparatively more strengthened. In the highly alloyed duplex stainless steel, the alloying elements are also partitioned, but in such a way that the corrosion resistance of the two phases is very similar, which results in a homogeneous dissolution behavior.

  • 2.
    Femenia, Marc
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Corrosion Studies of Duplex Stainless Steels with Micrometer Resolution2004In: Journal of Corrosion Science & Engineering, ISSN 1466-8858, E-ISSN 1466-8858, Vol. 6, p. paper 28-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The local corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel (DSS) is affected by a wide variety of factors. Localized corrosion of DSS frequently starts at micrometer scale inclusions or precipitates, which are often segregated in the austenite-ferrite boundary regions. Moreover, due to the partitioning of the key alloying elements of ferrite (Cr and Mo) and austenite (N and Ni), the local interactions between the phases must also be considered. The aim of this doctoral study was to increase the knowledge about the local dissolution behavior of DSS in acidic-chloride environments. The recent developments of new local probing techniques have opened a new frontier in corrosion science, providing valuable local information not accessible in the past. The local techniques used include electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM), scanning probe force microscopy (SKPFM), magnetic force microscopy (MFM), and scanning Auger electron Spectroscopy (SAES), all with micrometer or sub-micrometer resolution. With EC-STM, it was possible to monitor local dissolution processes on DSS in situ, and in real time. MFM was capable of imaging the phase distribution in DSS without the need of the traditional surface etching, while SKPFM revealed that the Volta potential difference between the two phases was measurable and significant. SAES showed that the composition gradient at the phase boundaries is narrower than 2 µm. Different types of DSSs have been studied, from low-alloyed DSS to superduplex. Higher contents of Cr, Mo and N strengthened both phases as well as the phase boundaries, resulting in phases having similar corrosion resistance that showed a more uniform dissolution behavior. However, the Volta potential difference between the phases proved to be of the same order for all the DSSs studied. Austenite was in general associated to regions displaying a more noble Volta potential than ferrite, resulting in a higher dissolution rate of the ferrite next to the austenite phase.

  • 3.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Femenia, Marc
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Microscopic corrosion studies of duplex stainless steels2004In: Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters), ISSN 1006-7191, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 625-631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning electrochemical microscopy have been used for in situ monitoring of localized corrosion processes of different Duplex stainless steels (DSS) in acidic chloride solutions. The techniques allow imaging of local dissolution events with micrometer resolution, as opposed to conventional electrochemical techniques, which only give an overall view of the corrosion behavior. In addition, combined scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy were used for mapping the Volta potential variation over the surface of DSSs. A significant difference in Volta potential between the austenite and ferrite phases suggests galvanic interaction between the phases. A compositional gradient appears within 2 micrometers across the phase boundary, as seen with scanning Auger microscopy (SAM). In all, the studies suggest that higher alloyed DSS exhibit a more homogeneous dissolution behavior than lower alloyed DSS, due to higher and more similar corrosion resistance of the two phases, and enhanced resistance of the ferrite/austenite phase boundary regions.

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