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  • 1. Alsved, Malin
    et al.
    Wang, Cong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Civilis, Anette
    Sadrizadeh, Sasan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Ekolind, Peter
    Skredsvik, Henrik
    Höjerback, Peter
    Jakobsson, Jonas
    Löndahl, Jakob
    Experimental and computational evaluation of airborne bacteria in hospital operating rooms with high airflows2018In: Proceedings of The 5th Working & Indoor Aerosols Conference 18-20 April 2018; Cassino, Italy, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-operative infections after surgery can be decreased by the use of efficient ventilation with clean air. In this study, we investigated three types of operating room ventilation: turbulent mixed airflow(TMA), laminar airflow (LAF) and a new type of ventilation named temperature controlled airflow(TcAF). Measurements of airborne bacteria were made during surgery and compared with values calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The results show that LAF and TcAF are most efficient in removing bacteria around the patient. With LAF, there are large differences in bacterial loads, depending on location in the room.

  • 2. Kilkis, Siir
    et al.
    Wang, Cong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Cleaner energy scenarios for building clusters in campus areas based on the Rational Exergy Management Model2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 155, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Principles based on the quality of energy, namely exergy, can assist in attaining a more efficient and cleaner energy supply structure. This paper analyzes two building clusters in campus areas based on a stepwise approach with four steps according to the Rational Exergy Management Model. The clusters involve 8 buildings at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology and those in the Albano district that is a former industrial site and will become a joint campus area in Stockholm. The energy supply for the campus and urban vicinity includes a combined heat and power plant with district heating and cooling. In this context, the energy and exergy profiles of the building clusters are compared. The level of exergy match in the energy system is analyzed. Four scenarios are then devised, which involve energy savings and different shares of various supply options. These include a new biofuel unit, seawater heat pumps, large scale aquifer thermal energy storage, heat supply from solar collectors, and electricity and heat from photovoltaic thermal arrays. The present case and four scenarios are found to have exergy matches that range between 0.49 and 0.81. The scenarios indicate that savings of 16 GWh energy, 9.6 GWh exergy, and 2663 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions are possible. The paper contributes to exergy based analyzes for campus areas and concludes with the prospect of using campus areas as pioneering case studies for advancing the transition to cleaner energy scenarios.

  • 3. Kilkis, Siir
    et al.
    Wang, Cong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Cleaner energy supply structures for campus building clustersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The comparison of building clusters based on energy and the quality of energy (exergy) is a

    key aspect for determining steps towards cleaner energy supply structures. This paper

    compares two building clusters based on an integrated approach that involves building and

    energy system level analyses. The first cluster involves 8 buildings with diverse energy profiles

    at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology campus, including faculty buildings, laboratories, and

    a data center with waste heat recovery. The second cluster involves planned buildings in the

    Albano district in the vicinity of the KTH campus that will be a joint area with lecture buildings

    and accommodation for 3 universities in Stockholm. The present energy supply structure for

    the campus and the surrounding urban area includes a local combined heat and power (CHP)

    plant. The comparison of the building clusters involve analyses based on the Rational Exergy

    Management Model. Four scenarios, which involve different shares for the existing CHP units,

    new biofuel CHP unit, seawater heat pumps, peak load boilers, electric boilers, large scale

    aquifer thermal energy storage, heat supply from solar collectors, and electricity and heat from

    photovoltaic thermal arrays are devised for comparison. The scenarios have at most an exergy

    match of 0.81. The paper concludes with useful results that are in line with the aims of IEA

    Annex 64 on Optimised Performance of Energy Supply Systems with Exergy Principles.

  • 4.
    Polak, Joanna
    et al.
    Aalborg Univ, Danish Bldg Res Inst, AC Meyers Vaenge 15, DK-2450 Copenhagen SV, Denmark..
    Afshari, Alireza
    Aalborg Univ, Danish Bldg Res Inst, AC Meyers Vaenge 15, DK-2450 Copenhagen SV, Denmark..
    Sadeghian, Parastoo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Wang, Cong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Sadrizadeh, Sasan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Improving the performance of heat valve ventilation system: A study on the provided thermal environment2019In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 164, article id UNSP 106338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study presents and evaluates the performance of two types of supply air terminal devices applied in a heat valve ventilation (HVV) system with regard to the provided thermal environment in a room heated and ventilated by the HVV system. To that end, air temperature and air velocity patterns and local thermal discomfort due to draught were studied both experimentally and numerically. Using numerical simulations, parametric analysis was carried out for investigating the provided indoor thermal environment for a wider range of boundary conditions. The considered parameters included the influence of cold vertical surfaces, supply airflow rate and temperature, and room heating energy demand. The results showed that both of the applied air terminal devices could avoid temperature stratification within the occupied zone. The maximum air temperature difference between 0.1 and 1.8 m above the floor was 2.1 degrees C when using a circular valve placed in the external wall below the window and 2.6 degrees C in the case when the air was supplied through three nozzles located in the wall opposite to the window in the upper part of the room. In general, placing the air terminal device below the window provided more uniform air temperature distribution and contributed to the prevention of downdraught caused by a cold window surface. The outcomes of this study are relevant to selecting and designing ventilation and air heating systems for low-energy buildings.

  • 5.
    Sadeghian, Parastoo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Wang, Cong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Duwig, Christophe
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Sadrizadeh, Sasan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Impact of surgical lamp design on the risk of surgical site infections inoperating rooms with mixing and unidirectional airflow ventilationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Wang, Cong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Optimal Design of District Energy Systems: a Multi-Objective Approach2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to develop a holistic approach to the optimal design of energy systems for building clusters or districts. The emerging Albano university campus, which is planned to be a vivid example of sustainable urban development, is used as a case study through collaboration with the property owners, Akademiska Hus and Svenska Bostäder. The design addresses aspects of energy performance, environmental performance, economic performance, and exergy performance of the energy system. A multi-objective optimization approach is applied to minimize objectives such as non-renewable primary energy consumptions, the greenhouse gas emissions, the life cycle cost, and the net exergy deficit. These objectives reflect both practical requirements and research interest. The optimization results are presented in the form of Pareto fronts, through which decision-makers can understand the options and limitations more clearly and ultimately make better and more informed decisions. Sensitivity analyses show that solutions could be sensitive to certain system parameters. To overcome this, a robust design optimization method is also developed and employed to find robust optimal solutions, which are less sensitive to the variation of system parameters. The influence of different preferences for objectives on the selection of optimal solutions is examined. Energy components of the selected solutions under different preference scenarios are analyzed, which illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of certain energy conversion technologies in the pursuit of various objectives. As optimal solutions depend on the system parameters, a parametric analysis is also conducted to investigate how the composition of optimal solutions varies to the changes of certain parameters. In virtue of the Rational Exergy Management Model (REMM), the planned buildings on the Albano campus are further compared to the existing buildings on KTH campus, based on energy and exergy analysis. Four proposed alternative energy supply scenarios as well as the present case are analyzed. REMM shows that the proposed scenarios have better levels of match between supply and demand of exergy and result in lower avoidable CO2 emissions, which promise cleaner energy structures.

  • 7.
    Wang, Cong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Ventilation Performance in Operating Rooms: A Numerical Assessment2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) remain one of the most challenging postoperative complicationsof healthcare and threaten the lives of millions of patients each year. Current evidence hasshown a positive relationship between the airborne concentration of bacteria-carryingparticles (BCPs) in the operating room (OR) and the rate of infections. The OR ventilation iscrucial for mitigating the dispersion of airborne bacterial contaminants and thus controllingthe risk of SSIs. A variety of ventilation schemes have been developed for OR use. Each haspros and cons and may be better suited than another for operations under certain conditions.The proper functioning of OR ventilation is also affected by external and internal disruptions.By applying Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), the present study investigates the airflowand contaminant distribution in ORs under different conditions.The airflow distribution is of critical importance in removing or diluting airbornecontaminants. The conventional mixing ventilation is not able to reliably create an ultracleanenvironment. The usage of mixing ventilation in infection-prone surgery should be limited,especially when a large surgical team is involved. Laminar airflow (LAF) ventilation demandsa sufficient airflow rate to achieve desired performance. Temperature-controlled airflow(TAF) ventilation represents an effective ventilation scheme that can serve as an energyefficientalternative to LAF.Door openings have a detrimental impact on the microbiological cleanliness of the OR. Thetemperature in the OR and adjacent space should be well controlled to minimize the interzonalcontaminant transfer. Temporarily reducing the OR exhaust flow during door operationforms a directional airflow towards the adjacent space, which is found to be an effectivesolution to ensure the isolation.Surgical lamps serve as physical obstructions in the airflow path and significantly deterioratethe performance of LAF ventilation. It is highly recommended to improve the shape anddesign of the lamps in the LAF ventilation. TAF is found to be less sensitive to the presenceof surgical lamps in the airflow path. The buoyancy-driven airflow used by TAF is morecapable of circumventing obstacles than the inertia-driven flow used by LAF. Thermal plumesdeveloped from the surgical equipment in the OR have the potential to distort the buoyancydrivenairflow in TAF.The thesis conducts a comprehensive literature review of important topics in OR ventilation.The present study enhances the understanding of the strengths and limitations of differentventilation schemes and increases the knowledge of the design and usage of OR ventilation.

  • 8.
    Wang, Cong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Sadrizadeh, Sasan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Impact of door opening on the risk of surgical site infections in an operating room with mixing ventilationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Wang, Cong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Sadrizadeh, Sasan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Numerical study of temperature-controlled airflow in comparison with turbulent mixing and laminar airflow for operating room ventilation2018In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 144, p. 45-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operating room (OR) ventilation is crucial for reducing airborne bacteria-carrying particles (BCPs) concentration and thus preventing post-operative infections. A variety of ventilation schemes have been introduced to ORs. This study explores the effectiveness of a newly developed ventilation scheme, temperature-controlled airflow (TAF), with respect to reducing BCPs distribution and sedimentation in an OR. Comparisons are made with the conventional turbulent mixing and laminar airflow (LAF) ventilation. The study is conducted using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Lagrangian particle tracking (LPT), with numerical models validated against literature data. The results reveal that TAF represents reliable and effective ventilation and can serve as an energy-efficient alternative to the LAF systems. The results also show that increasing ventilation rates alone will not always result in better control of BCPs distribution. Airflow patterns play an important role in removing and diluting airborne BCPs, so a specific analysis is necessary to each design of OR ventilation.

  • 10.
    Wang, Cong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Kilkis, Siir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Tjernström, Johan
    Akademiska hus.
    Nyblom, Jerker
    Akademiska hus.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Multi-objective optimization and parametric analysis of energy system designs for the Albano university campus in Stockholm2017In: Procedia Engineering, Elsevier, 2017, p. 621-630Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a multi-objective optimization approach is applied to the energy system design of the Albano university campus in Stockholm. The greenhouse gas emissions, the life cycle cost and the net exergy deficit of the campus are minimized, while the nearly zero energy requirements are respected. Four optimal solutions are identified based on those under equal importance, environment-oriented, economy-oriented, and exergy-oriented scenarios. The energy components of the four scenarios are analyzed and compared. A parametric analysis is conducted to investigate the impact of the variations in a number of economic, environmental and technical parameters on the composition of the optimal solution.

  • 11.
    Wang, Cong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Magny, Alessandro
    Multi-objective optimization of energy system designs for the Albano university campus in Stockholm2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a multi-objective optimization approach based on genetic algorithm is applied to the energy system design of a sustainable district – the new Albano university campus in Stockholm. The study aims to help district planners find optimal energy solutions that have good energy, environmental and economic performances. Three objectives are minimized: the non-renewable primary energy consumption, the greenhouse gas emissions, and the levelized life cycle cost. A wide range of energy conversion technologies and energy sources including both renewables and non-renewables have been modeled. The potential to recover waste heat from greywater and a prospective IT/Data center is analyzed. The energy system is modelled in steady-state and simulated in an hourly resolution with renewable energy production determined at real time. The optimization results are presented in the form of Pareto fronts, which helps district planners understand more clearly the trade-off between conflicting objectives and make more informed decisions.

  • 12.
    Wang, Cong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Magny, Alessandro
    Multi-objective robust optimization of energy systems for a sustainable district in Stockholm2015In: Proceedings of BS2015: 14th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association, Hyderabad, India, Dec. 7-9, 2015., 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper applies a multi-objective robust design optimization approach to the energy system design of a sustainable district. The life cycle cost and the greenhouse gas emissions are the two objectives that are minimized. In order to investigate the possbility to implement a nearly zero energy district, the nonrenewable primary energy consumption is kept below a certain value, handled as a constraint in the optimization. Through the proposed robust design optimization methodology, the robust Pareto optimal solutions are obtained, which are less sensitive than the deterministic ones to the uncertainties assumed in the selected most influential economic and technical paramers as well as design variables.

  • 13.
    Wang, Cong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Sadeghian, Parastoo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Sadrizadeh, Sasan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Effect of staff number on the bacteria contamination in operating rooms with temperature-controlled airflow ventilation and turbulent mixing ventilation2019In: Proceedings of Building Simulation 2019: 16th Conference of IBPSA, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Wang, Cong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Sadrizadeh, Sasan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Numerical Assessment of a Novel Ventilation Strategy for Operating Rooms in Comparison with Turbulent Mixing and Laminar Air Flow2018In: Proceedings of The 15th Conference of the International Society of Indoor Air Quality & Climate (ISIAQ). July 22-27, 2018; Philadelphia, PA, USA, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infectious airborne particles can cause surgical site infections (SSIs). SSIs cause substantially increased morbidity and mortality as well as patients’ sufferings. A well-functioning ventila-tion system in an operating room (OR) plays an essential role in the prevention of SSIs. In this study, we applied Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to evaluate the performance of a novel OR ventilation strategy – temperature controlled airflow (TAF) against two widely used OR ventilation systems: laminar airflow (LAF) and turbulent mixing airflow (TMA). The performance was measured in terms of airborne bacteria concentration. Simulation results confirmed the superiority of LAF and TAF to TMA in providing high air cleanliness and also showed that TAF can serve as an efficient alternative to LAF.

  • 15.
    Wang, Cong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Sadrizadeh, Sasan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Application of open-source CFD software to the indoor airflow simulation2017In: In: Proceedings of 38th AIVC - 6th TightVent & 4th Venticool Conference, 2017. September 13-14 2017; University Of Nottingham, Nottingham  – UK, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of open-source CFD has been growing in both industry and academia. Open-source CFD saves users a considerable license cost and provides users with full transparency of implementation and maximum freedom of customization. However, it is often necessary to assess the performance of an open-source code before applying it to the practical use. This study applies one of the most popular open-source CFD codes – OpenFOAM to theindoor airflow and heat transfer prediction. The performance of OpenFOAM is evaluated and validated against awell-documented benchmark test. Various OpenFOAM built-in turbulent viscosity models are attempted withinthe framework of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulation (RANS) approach and the simulation results arecompared to the experimental data. Among all models, the 𝑘 − 𝜔 𝑆𝑆𝑇 model has shown the best overall performance, whereas the standard 𝑘 − 𝜀 model is the most robust one despite its deficiencies. The results of this study demonstrate the capability of OpenFOAM in the field of indoor air simulation and promote users confidence in using OpenFOAM in their research work.

  • 16.
    Wang, Cong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Sadrizadeh, Sasan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Influence of the shape of surgical lamps on the airflow and particle distribution in operating rooms2018In: Proceedings of Roomvent & Ventilation 2018. June 02-05, 2018; Espoo, Finland, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operating room ventilation plays a significant role in reducing bacteria carrying particles concentration and preventing post-operative infections. The ventilation airflow may be disturbed by objects and heat loads and their effectiveness in reducing bacteria concentration can be compromised. Surgical lamps are one of the major disturbances in an operating room. This study numerically investigated the influence of lamp shapes on airflow patterns and dispersion of airborne bacteria.

    Two different shapes of lamps were studied: a closed-shape and an open-shape lamp. The simulation was performed based on the physical configuration of two operating rooms ventilated respectively by laminar airflow and temperature controlled airflow. Results show that the closed-shape lamp severely obstructs the airflow and results in high bacteria concentration in the laminar airflow, whereas the open-shape lamp has a negligible impact on the particle dispersion. The temperature controlled airflow is less sensitive to obstructions and maintains a clean surgical site with both types of lamps.

  • 17.
    Wang, Cong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Sadrizadeh, Sasan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Fluid and Climate Technology (closed 20090101). KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology. KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), KTH Syd. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Numerical assessment of the influence of heat loads on the performance of temperature-controlled airflow in an operating room2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Zhang, Mengmeng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Tomac, Maximillian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Wang, Cong
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Rizzi, Arthur
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Variable fidelity methods and surrogate modeling of critical loads on X-31 aircraft2013In: 51st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition 2013, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for effcient creation of the aerodynamic database for the X-31 experimental aircraft, from low fidelity (Euler) and high fidelity (RANS) CFD. The challenge is to obtain good data for extreme flight conditions. A co-Kriging interpolation model for aerodynamic moments, forces and span loads is used, with an additional decision support system (DSS) using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition for data reduction.

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