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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Sjölander, AndreasKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.Ansell, AndersKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Evaluation and analysis of laboratory tests of bolts-anchored, steel-fiber-reinforced shotcrete linings2017Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Bjureland, William
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Sjölander, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Spross, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Probability distributions of shotcrete parameters for reliability-based analyses of rock tunnel support2019In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 87, p. 15-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common support measure for underground excavations in jointed rock masses to support loose blocks is to apply a thin shotcrete layer to the periphery of the excavation and systematically install rockbolts into the surrounding rock mass. In this support system, large blocks are carried by the rockbolts and small blocks are carried by the thin shotcrete layer. To verify the shotcrete layer's load-bearing capacity and to stringently account for the large uncertainties incorporated in the variables involved in determining its capacity, analytical calculations in combination with reliability-based methods can be used. However, a lack of knowledge exists regarding the magnitude and uncertainty of shotcrete characteristics (thickness, adhesion, flexural tensile strength, residual flexural tensile strength, and compressive strength), making it difficult to apply reliability-based methods. A statistical quantification of these characteristics is therefore important to facilitate reliability-based methods in design and verification of shotcrete support. In this paper, we illustrate how shotcrete support against small loose blocks can be viewed as a correlated conditional structural system and how this system can be analyzed using reliability-based methods. In addition, we present a unique amount of data for the aforementioned variables, which are all incorporated in the design and verification of a shotcrete layer's ability to sustain loads from small loose blocks. Based on the presented data, we statistically quantify and propose suitable probability distributions for each variable. Lastly, we illustrate how the proposed probability distributions can be used in the design process to calculate the probability of exceeding the shotcrete's load-bearing capacity. Both the probabilistic quantification and the defined correlated conditional structural system along with the illustrative calculation example are followed by a discussion of their implications.

  • 3.
    Gasch, Tobias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Sjölander, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Malm, Richard
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    A coupled multi-physics model for creep, shrinkage and fracture of early-age concrete2016In: 9th International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures / [ed] John E. Bolander, Eric N. Landis, Victor E. Saouma, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The behaviour of concrete at early-age is complex and involves several physical fieldssuch as temperature, moisture and deformations. In this paper a hygro-thermo-chemo-mechanicalmodel for the analysis of early-age concrete based on a combination of models from the literature ispresented. The chemical model is based on the reaction degree concept, also used to define internal actions such as self-desiccation and ageing of mechanical properties. A mechanical model based on the Microprestress-Solidification theory for concrete creep is used, that in a simplified manner alsoconsiders concrete fracture. The model has been implemented in a numerical framework suitable for coupled multi-physics problems. It is here applied to a case study of an un-reinforced concrete tunnel plug made of a low-pH self-compacting concrete. Good agreement is generally obtained with measurements and hypotheses previously made on the behaviour of the plug are verified.

  • 4.
    Sjölander, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Analyses of shotcrete stress states due to varying lining thickness and irregular rock surfaces2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shotcrete is sprayed concrete applied pneumatically under high pressure and was invented in the beginning of the 1900's. This new technique decreased the construction time and since steel fibres were introduced in the shotcrete during the 1970's, shotcrete has been the primary support method for tunnels.

    Tunnels excavated with the drill and blast method creates a highly irregular rock surface which results in a shotcrete lining with varying thickness. The structural behaviour as well as the loads acting on the shotcrete lining depends on the interaction between the shotcrete, rock and rock bolts. There are several parameters influencing this interaction, e.g. bond strength, the stiffness of the rock and thickness of the shotcrete. All of these parameters are difficult to predict accurately which makes the structural design of the lining to a complex problem.

    This thesis present the first part of a research project with the long-term goal to improve the understanding of the structural behaviour of the shotcrete lining. To achieve this, numerical modelling have been used to study the build up of stresses and cracking of shotcrete when subjected to restrained loading caused by e.g. temperature differences and drying shrinkage. The response in the lining when subjected to a gravity load from a block has also been studied. The model is capable of describing the non-linear deformation behaviour of both plain and fibre reinforced shotcrete and uses presented in situ variations in thickness to more accurately account for the effects of expected variations in thickness. The thesis discuss and demonstrate the effect of important loads that acts on the shotcrete lining and how the irregular geometry of the rock surface in combination with the varying thickness of the shotcrete affect the development of stresses in the lining. It is also discussed how a full or partial bond failure affect the structural capacity of a shotcrete lining.  

     

  • 5.
    Sjölander, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Sprutbetongens verkningssätt i interaktion med hårt berg och bult2017In: Bygg & teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 7, p. 48-51Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Tunnlar i hårt berg byggs vanligtvis med en valvform för att berget ska kunna bära sig självt. För att säkerställa valvets stabilitet förstärks vanligen tunnlar med systematisk bultning och sprutbetong. Förstärkningen dimensioneras med numeriska metoder utan hänsyn till variationen i sprutbetongens tjocklek eller med empiriska metoder. Gemensamt för båda metoderna är att förstärkningens faktiska kapacitet eller dess säkerhet mot brott inte kan bestämmas. Resultat publicerade i ett pågående BeFo-finansierat doktorandprojekt på KTH visar att förstärkningens bärförmåga är kraftigt reducerad då bergets oregelbundna form och sprutbetongens varierande tjocklek beaktas vid numeriska analyser.

  • 6.
    Sjölander, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Utvärdering av fältmetod för mätningar på sprutbetong2019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten redovisas resultat från en utvärdering av nya fältmetoder för att mäta rörelser på sprutbetong i fält. Syftet var att föreslå en metod som är snabb och pålitlig och därmed användbar för att mäta deformationer i sprutbetong under pågående produktion. Först utvärderas mekanisk mätning med skjutmått och mikrometer. Tanken var att dessa instrument skulle användas för att mäta rörelser som uppstod mellan mätpunkter inom ett uppmarkerat mätområde på sprutbetongen. Metodens noggrannhet utvärderades i labbmiljö genom att mäta rörelsen mellan inskjutna spikar i en betongbalk som utsattes för uttorkningskrympning. Handhavandet av mikrometern gjorde att metodens repeterbarhet var låg och osäkerheten i de genomförda mätningarna var större än den deformation som skulle mätas. Att använda sig av mekaniska instrument som skjutmått eller mikrometerskruv är därför inte en lämplig metod att använda i fält. Därefter utvärderades fotogrammetri, som på senare år har blivit en allt mer populär metod för att i labb mäta deformationer av betong i samband med belastningsförsök. Tekniken Digital Image Correlation (DIC) och programmet PY2DIC, som bygger på öppen källkod och är utvecklat av avdelningen för Geodesi och Geoinformatik vid universitetet La Sapienza i Rom, har använts för att analysera deformationerna. Resultat presenterade i den här rapporten visar att deformationsmätningar kan genomföras med hög noggrannhet med en standard systemkamera och med betongens textur som enda referens. Det betyder att inga markörer på betongens yta behöver användas för att genomföra mätningarna. Baserat på två bilder tagna ifrån liknande positioner kan PY2DIC beräkna skillnaden i kamerans position för att särskilja kamerans translation ifrån betongens deformation. Detta utvärderas genom att jämföra deformationen av en betongbalk testad i labbmiljö med en fast monterad kamera och en kamera som mellan varje bild flyttades enligt ett fast schema. Under förutsättning att kamerans nya position är inom några centimeter visade dessa försök att god noggrannheten kunde uppnås med den rörliga kameran. Slutligen användes en rörlig kamera för att mäta sprutbetongens deformation i tunnelmiljö under 8 veckor samt att utvärderade en metod för att övervaka sprickors propagering i fält. Den här rapporten har visat att fotogrammetri har stora möjligheter att kunna användas för att mäta deformationer av sprutbetong i fält. Mätningar med hög noggrannhet kan genomföras under förutsättning att en fast monterad kamera används. Projektet har visat att det finns goda möjligheter att genomföra deformationsmätningar i fält med en rörlig kamera men fortsatt forskning krävs innan en praktiskt tillämpningsbar metod kan presenteras. Vidare har en metod för att kunna övervaka propageringen av sprickor i tunnlar med fotogrammetri presenterats. Denna metod kan få stor praktisk nytta och har potential att automatisera övervakningen av sprickor under tunnelns driftskede.

  • 7.
    Sjölander, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Analysis of the interaction between rock and shotcrete for tunnel support2017In: XXIII Nordic Concrete Research Meeting / [ed] Marianne Tange Holst, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first part of a project aiming at increase the knowledge and understanding of how shotcrete (sprayed concrete) in interaction with rock could better be modelled is presented. The study focus on how an irregular thickness of shotcrete will affect its structural capacity. Examples show that continuously bonded shotcrete have an ability to redistribute local stresses while partly de-bonding leads to localized, wide cracks. One goal is to obtain a better understanding for how and why cracking and bond failure is initiated. The results obtained so far are here briefly summarized and commented, also showing some examples of results.

  • 8.
    Sjölander, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    In-Situ and Laboratory Investigation on Leaching and Effects of Early Curing of Shotcrete2019In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 23-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the construction of a rock tunnel in Stockholm, several sections with leaching shotcrete (sprayed concrete) were found one year after the spraying was completed. An investigation was therefore conducted, and its results are presented in this paper. The amount of leaching after such a short time indicated that a one-sided water pressure existed in combination with a permeable shotcrete. The reason for the water pressure was likely a partly unsuccessful grouting that created sections with leaking water. The permeable shotcrete could be a combined result of insufficient curing and the use of accelerators, and the effect of in-situ curing was therefore investigated. A total of six slabs were sprayed and cured under different conditions in the tunnel. Test results according to standards indicated that curing has no significant effect on the development of mechanical strength or water penetration through the shotcrete. However, this is believed to be a result of the test method rather than the non-existing effect of curing. Lastly, some modifications to the test standard were proposed for future studies of in-situ curing.

  • 9.
    Sjölander, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Investigation of non-linear drying shrinkage for end-restrained shotcrete of varying thickness2018In: Magazine of Concrete Research, ISSN 0024-9831, E-ISSN 1751-763X, Vol. 70, no 6, p. 271-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tunnels in hard, jointed rock are commonly reinforced with shotcrete (sprayed concrete) applied directly on the irregular rock surface. The thickness for such linings can be as small as 50 mm, which result in a fast drying. The resulting shrinkage of the restrained lining is a well-known phenomenon, which leads to cracking. The installation of drainage systems also results in an end-restrained shotcrete lining that is more prone to shrinkage cracking. The drying process is a complex problem that depends on multiple factors such as cement content, porosity and ambient air conditions (i.e. temperature, relative humidity and wind speed). Two numerical models capable of capturing the structural effects of drying shrinkage were compared in this study. It was found that inclusion of non-linear drying shrinkage is important for accurately describing crack initiation in an end-restrained shotcrete slab. The best fit to the experimental data was obtained when the rate of drying was described as a non-linear decreasing function.

  • 10.
    Sjölander, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Investigation of non-linear drying shrinkage for end-restrained shotcrete with varying thicknessIn: Magazine of Concrete Research, ISSN 0024-9831, E-ISSN 1751-763XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tunnels in hard, jointed rock is commonly reinforced with shotcrete (sprayed concrete) applied directly on the irregular rock surface. The thickness for such lining can be as low as 50 mm which result in a fast drying. The resulting shrinkage of the restrained lining is a well known phenomena that causes cracking. Installation of some drainage system also results in an end-restrained shotcrete lining which is more prone to shrinkage cracking. The drying process is a complex problem that depends on multiple factors such as cement content, porosity and conditions of ambient air, i.e. temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. In this paper, two numerical models capable of capturing the structural effects of drying shrinkage was compared. Results shows that inclusion of non-linear drying shrinkage is important to accurately describe crack initiation in a end-restrained shotcrete slab. Best fit to experimental data was obtained when the rate of drying was described as a non-linear decreasing function.

  • 11.
    Sjölander, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Numerical simulations of restrained shrinkage cracking in glass fibre reinforced shotcrete slabs2017In: Advances in Civil Engineering / Hindawi, ISSN 1687-8086, E-ISSN 1687-8094, no 8987626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern tunnels in hard rock are usually constructed by drill and blast with the rock reinforced by shotcrete (sprayed concrete) in combination with rock bolts. The irregular rock surface and the projection method of shotcrete leads to a tunnel lining of varying thickness with unevenly distributed stresses that affect the risk of cracking during shrinkage of the young and hardening material. Depending on water conditions, shotcrete is either sprayed directly onto the rock surface or over a drainage system, creating a fully restrained or an end-restrained structural system. In this paper, a method for non-linear numerical simulations has been demonstrated, for the study of differences in stress build up and cracking behaviour of restrained shotcrete slabs subjected to shrinkage. Special focus was given to the effects of the irregular shape and varying thickness of the shotcrete. The effects of glass fibre reinforcement and bond were implemented in the study by changing the fracture energy in bending and in the interaction between shotcrete and the substrate. The study verifies that an end-restrained shotcrete slab is prone to shrinkage induced cracking, and shows the importance of a continuous bond to avoid wide shrinkage cracks when shotcrete is sprayed directly onto the rock. 

  • 12.
    Sjölander, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Probabilistic modelling of fibre reinforced shotcrete2019In: Tunnels and Underground Cities: Engineering and Innovation meet Archaeology, Architecture and Art- Proceedings of the WTC 2019 ITA-AITES World Tunnel Congress, CRC Press, 2019, p. 3105-3112Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shotcrete is widely used as rock support and can support the load from blocks either by bonding to the rock or by bending between rock bolts. By introducing fibres, the ductility of the shotcrete will increase and the crack widths decrease. Predictions of the structural behaviour for fibre reinforced shotcrete (FRS) are however complicated due to the large scatter normally seen in test results. The reason is mainly related to the non-uniform distribution and orientation of the fibres which could lead to uncertainties regarding the quality of in-situ shot-crete. The aim with this paper is therefore to investigate if a probabilistic material model for FRS can be used to capture the scatter in the results. An isotropic damage model that combines an exponential softening curve for unreinforced shotcrete and a bi-linear curve to account for the effect of fibres were used. Suitable distributions for each of the parameters in the model have been proposed based on fitting of experimental results. Thereafter, Monte Carlo simula-tions were used to produce results for a large number of lab tests. Results show that the model together with the proposed distributions was able to capture the scatter in test results.

  • 13.
    Sjölander, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Bjureland, William
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    On failure probability in thin irregular shotcrete shells2017In: Proceedings of the World Tunnel Congress 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tunnels through hard jointed rock are commonly reinforced with a combination of fibre reinforced shotcrete (sprayed concrete), FRS, and rock bolts. The design of such reinforcement is a complex task. First, the interaction between rock bolts, FRS and rock should be considered. Secondly, a natural variation in important parameters such as thickness of the shotcrete, fracture energy, and bond strength between shotcrete and rock exists. In this paper, a numerical framework for non-linear analyses of FRS suitable for Monte Carlo simulations is presented. As a case study, a 2D FE-model of a bolted shotcrete lining subjected to load from a pushing block was used to perform a sensitivity analysis for the variation in thickness. Results indicate that an irregular shotcrete thickness highly affects the failure load but has a smaller impact on ductility.

  • 14.
    Sjölander, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Gasch, Tobias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Malm, Richard
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Shrinkage cracking of thin irregular shotcrete shells using multiphysics models2016In: 9th International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures / [ed] John E. Bolander, Eric N. Landis, Victor E. Saouma, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shotcrete (sprayed concrete) is commonly used to support tunnels in good quality hard rock. Including a drainage system often results in end-restrained sections of shotcrete, which have created problems with shrinkage induced cracking. In this paper a multi-physical material model with coupled behaviour between thermal actions, moisture transportation and mechanical strain has been used to model and describe the complex behaviour and effects of shrinkage of such a structure. The model was first calibrated against a free shrinkage test and then used to simulate an experimental set-up for testing of end-restrained shrinkage. The first results lead to a need of tuning of the parameters controlling the drying of the shotcrete to accurately describe the experimental results. This tuning could be an indication that the shrinkage behaviour differs between a restrained and an un-restrained sample. However, further research about possible changes in the pore structure as well as more detailed measurements of the early shrinkage behaviour is needed before any such conclusions can be drawn.

  • 15.
    Sjölander, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Hellgren, Rikard
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Modelling aspects to predict failure of a bolt-anchored fibre reinforced shotcrete lining2018In: 8th International Symposium on Sprayed Concrete: Modern Use of Wet Mix Sprayed Concrete for Undergro­und Support / [ed] Thomas Beck, Synnove A. Myren, Siri Engen, Trondheim, 2018, p. 278-292Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Tunnels in hard and jointed rock are normally excavated with an arch shape to enable the rock to carry itself. The arch effect depends on the stability of individual blocks and too high or too low horizontal stresses could cause blocks to be pushed out or to fall down. To prevent this, systematic rock bolting in combination with fibre reinforced sprayed concrete (FRSC) is commonly used to support the rock. To understand the failure mechanism of the lining when subjected to the load from one block is therefore important for the design. In this paper, the three main failure mechanisms for a rock support shotcrete lining has been identified as failure in the fibre reinforced concrete, bond failure between shotcrete and rock or failure of rock bolts. For each of the failure modes, a short review of numerical methods is presented followed by a selection of a preferred modelling approach. The selected methods are then verified against experimental results from the literature. The selected methods all shows good agreements with tests and demonstrates the ability to simulate each failure mode one by one.

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