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  • 1.
    Fjaestad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Environmental Histories of the Cold War2012In: Technology and culture, ISSN 0040-165X, E-ISSN 1097-3729, Vol. 53, no 1, 233-234 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Fjaestad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. Max Planck Inst Hist Sci, Germany; MIT, USA.
    Fast Breeder Reactors in Sweden Vision and Reality2015In: Technology and culture, ISSN 0040-165X, E-ISSN 1097-3729, Vol. 56, no 1, 86-114 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fast breeder is a type of nuclear reactor that aroused much attention in the 1950s and '60s. Its ability to produce more nuclear fuel than it consumes offered promises of cheap and reliable energy. Sweden had advanced plans for a nuclear breeder program, but canceled them in the middle of the 1970s with the rise of nuclear skepticism. The article investigates the nuclear breeder as a technological vision. The nuclear breeder reactor is an example of a technological future that did not meet its industrial expectations. But that does not change the fact that the breeder was an influential technology. Decisions about the contemporary reactors were taken with the idea that in a foreseeable future they would be replaced with the efficient breeder. The article argues that general themes in the history of the breeder reactor can deepen our understanding of the mechanisms behind technological change.

  • 3.
    Fjæstad, M.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Engineers and the environment: How the profession responded in the Swedish Society of Engineers, 1965-19722016In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 82, no 1, 66-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how the Swedish engineers' main organization Svenska Teknologforeningen (the Swedish Society of Engineers, STF) reacted to the environmental debate in the late 1969s, and how this can be understood in terms of their professional identity. Several authors have singled out the importance of an apolitical scientific identity to the creation of the engineering profession. Criticism of technological development was an important part of the green movement, in Sweden as elsewhere, but it provoked the STF, who instead wanted to highlight how technology could be used to save the environment. The article discusses how the STF handled the dilemma of being relevant in society but at the same time at least appearing to be apolitical experts. It is concluded that the organisation did indeed act as a political force in all but name in its strong defence of technological progress.

  • 4.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Arga amatörer ville stoppa Einsteins teori2010In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 10/6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Demokratins triumf eller fiasko?: Folkomröstningen om kärnkraft i retroperspektiv2008In: Dædalus, Tekniska museets årsbok., ISSN 0070-2528, Vol. 76, 64-75 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Den svenska bridreaktorn: vision och verklighet2010In: Teknik- och Vetenskapshistoriska dagar: 10‒12 november 2010 Lindholmen Science Park Göteborg, 2010, 30- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den snabba bridreaktorn är en typ av kärnreaktor som väckte stor uppmärksamhet under 1950- och 60-talen. Dess förmåga att producera mer kärnbränsle än den förbrukar erbjöd löften om billig och tillförlitlig energi, och knöt den därmed också samman med utopiska idéer om evig energiförsörjning. Det fanns avancerade planer på svenska bridreaktorer som skulle laddas med plutonium från de svenska tungvattenreaktorerna och bilda ett högteknologiskt energisystem som skulle ge Sverige fördelar i den internationella konkurrensen.

    Men det blev inte några storskaliga bridreaktorprogram i västvärlden. En rad faktorer av teknisk, ekonomisk och politisk natur gjorde att utvecklingen tog andra vägar. Trots det fungerade bilden av bridreaktorn som en framtidsvision inom kärnkraftsutvecklingen: som en lösning på de råvaruproblem uranreaktorerna tampades med, men utvecklades småningom också till en skräckbild.

    Bridreaktorn är ett exempel på en teknisk vision som inte uppfyllde sina industriella förväntningar. Men det hindrar inte att bridreaktorn var en inflytelserik teknik i en tid då viktiga beslut om kärnkraften gjordes. Föreliggande paper diskuterar hur bridreaktorn i sin egenskap av teknisk vision påverkade teknikutvecklingen, energipolitiken och miljödebatten.

  • 7.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Ett kärnkraftverk återuppstår: Från SNR300 till Wunderland Kalkar2012In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, Vol. 63Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Fast reactors as future visions: the case of Sweden2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Fast Reactors as Future Visions: The Case of Sweden2011In: A Comparative Study of European Nuclear Energy Programs / [ed] Albert Presas i Puig, Berlin: Max Planck Institute for the History of Science , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Forskningsinstitut i Tyskland: forskningsideal och historisk framväxt2010In: Teknik- och Vetenskapshistoriska dagar: 10 ‒ 12 november 2010 Lindholmen Science Park Göteborg, 2010, 13- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningsorganisation i Tyskland under andra halvan av 1900-talet har haft en distinkt nationell historia, starkt präglad av möjligheterna till återhämtning efter kriget och, senare, de utmaningar av ekonomisk karaktär som det återförenade landet ställdes inför. Samtidigt har det tyska forskningslandskapet vuxit fram under intensivt utbyte med utlandet och uttrycker på många sätt pan-europeiska ideal kring grundforskning, forskningsfrihet och innovation. Föreliggande papper fokuserar på två forskningsinstitutsorganisationer i Tyskland och deras historiska framväxt: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft och Fraunhofer Gesellschaft. Medan Max-Planck-Gesellschaft är en grundforskningsinstitution, oberoende från stat och industri men ändock i stort sett helt finansierad med offentliga medel, representerar Fraunhofer Gesellschaft nära nog dess motsats: industrinära institut med starkt fokus på innovation och utveckling. Medan den förra har sina rötter både i Weimarrepubliken och i de allierade styrkornas återrekonstruktion av landet efter kriget är den senare en utpräglad efterkrigsprodukt, präglad av samtida idéer om militär rustning och snabb tillväxt. Pappret fokuserar på de ideal kring organisation av grundforskning och tillämpad forskning som de två institutssystemen representerat och undersöker hur ideal som oberoende, excellens och tillväxt tar sig utryck i de två organisationerna. Som avslutning görs några reflektioner på vilka sätt situationen i Tyskland korresponderar med den svenska och vad som kan ses som unikt med det tyska systemet och dess historia.

  • 11.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Kalla kriget sett ur ett miljöperspektiv2011In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 11/7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Max Plancks strålande upptäckt2008In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 26/5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Miljörörelsens antagonister? : Tekniska yrkesföreningar som utmanare och förmedlare i miljödebatten2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljörörelsen som historiskt studieobjekt har ibland tyckts ha en närmast magisk lyskraft: den representerade det nya, det unga, det progressiva och kanske till och med det goda. Men det finns en annan sida av miljörörelsens historia, och det rör hur den motsatta polariseringen – det ”gamla”, de konservativa strukturerna, eller kanske de som hade ekonomiska intressen som stod i motsats mot till miljörörelsen – reagerade på denna nya samhällskraft.

    Teknik- och kärnkraftsdebatten under andra halvan av 1900-talet bidrog till en frustration hos ingenjörskåren över att inte längre ses som modernitetens vägröjare. Ingenjörerna upplevde kritiken från politiker och journalister som ”otacksamhet” över de tekniska framsteg som ingenjörsvetenskapen erbjudit mänskligheten. Den demokratisering av samhällsdebatten som skedde var alltså inte alltid välkommen.

    I mitt papper kommer jag att undersöka hur Svenska teknologföreningen – ingenjörernas yrkesorganisation som 1960-talet var en sammanslutning med både tyngd och inflytande – regerade på miljödebatten. Jag kommer att diskutera dels hur formellt apolitiska organisationer valde att engagera sig i miljöfrågor för att kunna framstå som relevanta, samtidigt som de slets mellan olika professionella ideal. En annan fråga är hur miljörörelsens idéer bars vidare – vilka organisationer deltog i utmejslandet av vad som sedan blev den starka rörelsen på 1970-talet, och vilken roll hade de ”konservativa” strukturerna i detta? Syftet är att söka rötterna till en av 1900-talets viktigaste sociala rörelser - den gröna rörelsen - och öka förståelsen för hur idéer sprids och slår rot.

  • 14.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Nuclear Waste and Historical Time: Review of Into Eternity: A Film for the Future2013In: Technology and culture, ISSN 0040-165X, E-ISSN 1097-3729, Vol. 52, no 2, 371-372 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Danish documentary Into Eternity: A Film for the Future has received substantial attention in recent years. It portrays the efforts in Finland to construct a permanent repository where used nuclear fuel is supposed to slumber for 100,000 years, and explores questions connected to this. As an intervention in nuclear debates, Into Eternity is effective. With restraint and subtlety, the film allows the waste problem's inherent drama to take center stage. Major aspects of the issue are depicted, including messages to future generations, the condition and value of the waste a thousand years from now, and the imagined technological competencies of the future. Other topics could have been given space in the documentary, such as economic perspectives and other technical solutions. But the film should serve as an excellent introduction for teaching technology, ethics, and related matters, or to commence discussions about time-spans involved in nuclear waste storage.

  • 15.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    När tekniken utvecklas är bränslet hybris2007In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 9/5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Pionjärarbete om fysikens tysta kunskap2005In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 6/10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Recension av Hård&Jamison, Hubris and Hybrids: A Cultural History of Technology and Science2009In: Polhem: Tidskrift för teknikhistoria, ISSN 0281-2142, Vol. 2007/2008Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Research Institutes in Germany: Basic and Applied Science institutionalized?2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The organization of post-war science has taken distinctly different paths in different countries, based on historical rationales, national funding patterns and institutional structure. The German Max Planck-Society is a research-only network of basic research institutes whose organization and establishment relies heavily on the high valuation of basic research, as well as principles of separation of basic and applied science and ideals of independent research. The paper investigates the historical roots and organizational character of this scientific milieu. Also, the separation between the Max Planck-Society and the more industrially orientated Franuhofer institutes is discussed and problemized. One conclusions is that in spite distinctly different roles in the German research landscape, separating basic from applied research, the two organization both stresses their usefulness and contribution to the “common good” in official presentations.

  • 19.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Teknikens kvinnor: Perspektiv på en mångfacetterad historia2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ökningen av kvinnor inom den tekniska världen har gått mycket långsamt, och än idag är endast cirka en fjärdedel av utexaminerade kvinnliga ingenjörer kvinnor. Runt 24 procent av Sveriges Ingenjörers 139 000 medlemmar är kvinnor, och kvinnliga ingenjörer tjänar i ingångslön ungefär 800 kronor mindre i månaden än sina manliga kollegor. Kvinnliga chefer utgör endast fem procent inom tekniktunga företag, vilket kan jämföras med drygt 40 procent kvinnor bland de anställda över lag. Med våra kvinnliga pionjärer i ryggen har vi kommit en lång väg – men det finns också en bra bit kvar att gå.

  • 20.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Teknikval är avgörande för kärnkraftens framtid2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Tekniska hjältedåd och bestrålad forskning2004In: Artefakter / [ed] Sven Widmalm, Hedemora: Gidlund , 2004, 343-374 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    The Boundaries of Nuclear Power: Security and Exclusion at Reactor FR-02006In: Taking place: The Spatial Contexts of Science, Technology and Business / [ed] Baraldi, Fors & Houltz, Sagamore Beach: Science History Publications , 2006, 109-126 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    The geopolitics of uranium: Swedish energy dependencies from a transnational perspective2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A metaphor that is often used to describe energy supply is that of a nation’s blood circulation. Indeed, a permanent interruption in the supply of energy would be lethal to any society. Sweden – a neutral country in cold war Europe – belongs to those countries that are, and have been, very strongly dependent on imports of energy, and this implies a special vulnerability. Today two imported energy carriers – oil and uranium – each covers some 30 % of the total.

     

    Sweden is of course not alone in its dependence on imported fuels. The world’s energy resources are unevenly distributed, and since the mid 19th century the pursuit of coal, oil, gas and uranium has been an important constituent of international politics and economics. Transnational fuel dependencies have a politics of their own: the strongest nations have used economical, political and if necessary military means to control energy sources in far away territories in order to secure their energy supplies at home. This is often referred to as the geopolitics of energy, and there has been quite some research about it. There has been less research on how small nations have tried to handle their dependencies on far away countries using “soft” means rather than “hard” ones. By studying how Sweden has done this we hope to contribute to an understanding of the geopolitics of energy of small nations.

     

    This paper is a part of a larger research project (together with prof Arne Kaijser and Dr Per Högselius) where we investigate Sweden’s strategies for coping with the dependencies on energy from abroad. My case study in the project will investigate the role of uranium import in Sweden.

     

    In the 1940s and 50s, Sweden planned to develop a domestic nuclear energy system based on Swedish uranium. However, this autarky policy was abandoned in the mid1960s for economic reasons, and the Swedish power industry decided to build light water reactors and import enriched uranium from the United States. In 1966, the Swedish Government signed a 30 year agreement with the United States concerning the purchase of enriched uranium. On the Swedish side, the imports of uranium were orchestrated by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel Supply company, SKBF, owned jointly by the major Swedish power companies. But a high ranking civil servant was made president of the board; a sign of the political influence on the company.

     

    Uranium imports had multiple steps and required contracts not only for uranium ore, but also for the conversion and enrichment. In the 1970s and 80s there was a gradual shift to purchasing uranium ore primarily from non-nuclear weapon states. And when it comes to enrichment, the initial dependency on the US was decreased by enrichment contracts with the joint European companies Eurodif and Urenco and with the Soviet company Techsnabexport. A central question is to what extent security policy considerations affected these changes.

     

    In 1984, SKBF changed name to SKB and changed its focus from ensuring nuclear fuel to handling nuclear waste, and uranium imports became the responsibility of the reactor owning power companies. I will discuss this tension between private and state initiative in Swedish nuclear fuel policy and why this balance has changed over time.

     

    I will focus at which actors and which motives that have been central in these decisions and whether it is possible to identify a distinct but evolving ‘Swedish model’ in actors’attempts to deal with vulnerabilities stemming from energy import dependence, and if this model has applied to the energy system as a whole, i.e. the same model has applied to all types of fuels. My analysis will be based on a LTS-perspective. 

  • 24.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    The politics of uranium: Swedish nuclear fuel imports in an international perspective2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    The Swedish Debate over Breeder Reactors and Plutonium2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Tysklands energipolitik utgår från säkerhetsfrågan2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), History of Science and Technology.
    Visionen om outtömlig energi: Bridreaktorn i svensk kärnkraftshistoria 1945–802010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The fast breeder is a type of nuclear reactor that aroused much attention in the 1950s and 60s. Its ability to produce more nuclear fuel than it consumes offered promises of cheap and reliable energy, and thereby connected it to utopian ideas about an eternal supply of energy.  Furthermore, the ideas of breeder reactors were a vital part of the post-war visions about the nuclear future.

     

    This dissertation investigates the plans for breeder reactors in Sweden, connecting them to the contemporary development of nuclear power with heavy or light water and the discussions of nuclear weapons, as well as to the general visions of a prosperous technological future. The history of the Swedish breeder reactor is traced from high hopes in the beginning, via the fiasco of the Swedish heavy water program, partly focusing on the activities at the company AB Atomenergi and investigating how it planned and argued for its breeder program and how this was received by the politicians. The story continues into the intensive environmental movement in the 1970s, ending with the Swedish referendum on nuclear energy in 1980, which can be seen as the final point for the Swedish breeder. The thesis discusses how the nuclear breeder reactor was transformed from an argument for nuclear power to an argument against it. The breeder began as a part of the vision of a society with abundant energy, but was later seen as a threat against the new sustainable world.

     

    The nuclear breeder reactor is an example of a technological vision that did not meet its industrial expectations. But that does not prevent the fact that breeder was an influential technology in an age where import decisions about nuclear energy were made. The thesis argues that important decisions about the contemporary reactors were taken with the idea that they in a foreseeable future would be replaced with the efficient breeder. And the last word on the breeder reactor is not said – today, reactor engineers around the world are showing a renewed interest in this elusive reactor type.

  • 28.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Why did the Breeder Reactor Fail?: Swedish and international nuclear development in a cold war context2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the visions about nuclear breeder reactors, plans set out in the aftermath of World War II. This seemed like the ideal solution for future energy, and even small countries, as Sweden, launched breeder reactor programs. The breeder reactor never reached industrial development, interestingly; however, different countries cancelled their breeder project at different times. In this article, in addition to discussing why breeder reactors failed generally, I also suggest possible explanations for the differences in when the reactors failed, particularly between Europe and the United States. Though the breeder reactor never fulfilled its promises, it is an interesting example about the complex mechanisms behind technological development. It tells us a story about a technological failure that is not simple, but must be understood in a social, economical and political context.

  • 29.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Winds of time: Lessons from Utö in the Stockholm Archipelago, 1990-20012013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 62, 124-130 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When investigating the success or failure of different wind power projects, it is essential to take into account how they were historically situated. This study focuses on attempts to develop wind power in an archipelago setting, at Utö in Sweden. It has been argued that the development of Swedish wind power slowed during the 1990s; by revisiting the early days of wind power, looking at resistance and support, and connecting success factors, this can be further investigated.

    Whereas earlier research pointed out institutional conditions and site-specific conditions as crucial for successful wind power development and acceptance, the picture can be made more complete by discussing how wind power projects are affected by time-specific historical conditions. In the case of Utö, these can partly be associated with a newly launched political support program that gave the project political legitimacy and added a “pioneering spirit” to the endeavor. Conversely, when wind power is not seen as “pioneering” or “experimental” any more, but as a mere industrial activity, other incentives may need to be offered to municipalities.

  • 30.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Jonter, Thomas
    SU, Ekhist.
    Between Welfare and Warfare: The Rise and Fall of the ‘Swedish Line’ in Nuclear Engineering2010In: Science for welfare and warfare: technology and state initiative in cold war Sweden / [ed] Lundin, Per, Stenlås, Niklas & Gribbe, Johan, Sagamore Beach, MA: Science History Publications , 2010Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Jonter, Thomas
    SU, ekhist.
    The Rise of the Nuclear System of Innovation in Sweden2008Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Jonter, Thomas
    SU.
    The Rise of the Nuclear System of Innovation in Sweden, 1945-19702007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Högselius, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Åberg, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    The Geopolitics of Energy: Swedish International Dependencies in a Historical Perspective2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A metaphor that is often used to describe energy supply is that of a nation’s blood circulation. Indeed, a permanent interruption in the supply of energy would be lethal to any society. Sweden – a neutral country in cold war Europe – belongs to those countries that are, and have been, very strongly dependent on imports of energy, and this implies a special vulnerability. Today two imported energy carriers – oil and uranium – each covers some 30 % of the total.

    Sweden is of course not alone in its dependence on imported fuels. The world’s energy resources are unevenly distributed, and since the mid 19th century the pursuit of coal, oil, gas and uranium has been an important constituent of international politics and economics. The strongest nations have used economical, political and if necessary military means to control energy sources in far away territories in order to secure their energy supplies at home. This is often referred to as the geopolitics of energy, and there has been quite some research about it. There has been much less research on how small nations have tried to handle their dependencies on far away countries using “soft” means rather than “hard” ones. By studying how Sweden has done this we hope to contribute to an understanding of the geopolitics of energy of small nations.

    We will focus at which actors and which motives that have been central in these decisions and whether it is possible to identify a distinct but evolving ‘Swedish model’ in actors’ attempts to deal with vulnerabilities stemming from energy import dependence, and if this model has applied to the energy system as a whole, i.e. the same model has applied to all types of fuels.

  • 34.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Kaiserfeld, Thomas
    Det tomma Ingenjörshuset: Sociala processer, historiska händelser och ingenjörernas professionalitet2015In: Med varm hand: Texter tillägnade Arne Kaijser / [ed] Wormbs&Kaiserfeld, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Hakkarainen, Petri
    et al.
    Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) in Potsdam, Germany..
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Diverging Nuclear Energy Paths: Swedish and Finnish Reactions to the Energiewende2012In: RELP - A Journal of Renewable Energy Law and Policy, ISSN 1869-4942, no 4, 234-244 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden and Finland, consideration of the German Energiewende is often reduced to the nuclear phase-out decision. It is precisely in the field of nuclear energy that the two Nordic countries and Germany have ended on different paths. This article charts the historical development of nuclear power in both Sweden and Finland in order to explain why they did not follow Germany in its post-Fukushima decision and whether changes in their respective positions are to be expected.

  • 36.
    Kaijser, Arne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Högselius, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Åberg, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Under the Damocles Sword: Managing Swedish Energy Dependence2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Larsen, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Science laboratories and geographies of technology: A study of measurement techniques and international citation of Nobel laureates2011In: The 4th Norwegian Conference of History of Science: Book of abstracts, Oslo: University of Oslo , 2011, 30- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
1 - 37 of 37
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