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  • 1.
    Andersson-Stråberg, Teresia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gender differences in perceptions of pay-related justice, equality, and satisfaction.2006In: The Work, Stress, and Health Conference.: Miami, 3 – 6 March, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The practice of individualized pay has brought with it a great many challenges for employers in regard to how the pay-setting process and the communications of criteria and pay-related notifications should be managed. For instance, earlier research has shown that it is foremost pay satisfaction, attitudes towards individualized pay, pay equity and gender equality that contribute to positive work-related attitudes. Given that there is evidence of discrimination – primarily of women – occurring in regard to their pay levels and pay negotiations, the aim of this study is to explore if and how perceptions of the pay setting procedure, pay related justice, gender equality and equal opportunity differ between men and women.

    The empirical basis for this cross-sectional study is comprised of questionnaire data collected among 1316 Swedish government white-collar workers. The response rate was 68 percent (N=895) and the proportion of women was 35 percent. The results suggest that individualized pay as a system is something that both men and women desire and are happy with, although perceptions regarding how equal and fair the pay distribution is, who benefits and has an advantage in pay negotiations differed between men and women. Men perceived that men and women had equal opportunities and advantages in connection to individualized pay. Men were also more satisfied with their pay on the whole and felt that they were able to influence their pay level to a higher degree than women.

  • 2.
    Andersson-Stråberg, Teresia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att få vad man förtjänar: Rättviseupplevelser i samband med individuell lönesättning.2005In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 93-107Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har individuell lön haft ett påtagligt genombrott inom den offentliga sektorn sedan början av 1990-talet. Den grundläggande tanken är att individuell lön ska leda till ökad arbetsprestation, men för att detta lönesystem ska fungera som styrmedel måste de anställda acceptera kriterierna för fördelningen av lönemedel och uppleva att lönesättningen sker på ett rättvist sätt. Syftet med denna studie är att ta reda på vilka faktorer som kan bidra till individers upplevelser av rättvisa i lönesättningsprocessen. Sammanfattningsvis tyder resultatet på att det är arbetsklimat (t ex återkoppling på arbetsresultat) och lönefaktorer (t ex kännedom om lönekriterier och jämställdhet i lönefrågor) som har störst betydelse. Däremot tycks bakgrundsfaktorer och personlighet vara av marginell betydelse för individers upplevelser av lönerättvisa.

  • 3.
    Andersson-Stråberg, Teresia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perceptions of justice in connection with individualized pay setting2007In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 431-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individualized pay is typically assumed to enhance employee work motivation, but a precondition for such beneficial effects is that employees perceive the pay-setting process to be fair. The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the nature, determinants and consequences of pay justice. Questionnaire data, obtained from a Swedish nationally representative sample of nurses, provided support for distinguishing between distributive, procedural, interpersonal and informational justice. The results also showed that perceptions of pay justice were predicted by both work climate variables and factors related to the pay-setting procedure, even after controlling for demographic characteristics. Although pay justice had only marginal effects on employee work attitudes and behaviour when demographics, work climate and pay-related factors had been taken into account, justice was found to be an important goal in itself, given that a prerequisite for the success of any pay system is that it is perceived as fair.

  • 4.
    Andersson-Stråberg, Teresia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Attitudes towards individualized pay among human service workers in the public sector2005In: Change and quality in human service work: dedicated to the work of André Büssing / [ed] Christian Korunka & Peter Hoffmann, Munich: Rainer Hampp Verlag, 2005, 1, p. 67-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work climate has gone through immense changes during the recent decades, due to industrial reformation, economic recessions, technical advancements, and an increased global competition (Howard, 1995). The so-called New Public Management movement has inspired many European countries and has among other things led to changes in the way that wages are distributed (Pfeffer, 1997; Wikman, 2001). Wage distribution systems partly based on individual performance are increasingly taking over traditional wage distribution systems in many organizations in Europe (OECD, 1995). Employers appear to have great expectations that individualized performance-based wages will bring about higher employee motivation and performance etc (Lawler, 1991). The aim of this study is to investigate attitudes towards individualized pay among human service workers in the public sector and try to identify some of the factors behind their attitudes. Questionnaire data show that employees with the most positive attitudes towards individualized pay already had part of their salary based on performance. A person’s attitude towards individualized pay also seems to be positively related to perceived workload and mental health complaints. Older employees and employees with longer tenure reported the most negative attitudes towards individualized performance based wages. This study contributes to a better understanding of some of the factors underlying attitudes towards individually based wages among human service employees.

  • 5.
    Andersson-Stråberg, Teresia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The impact of pay-related justice perceptions on employee work attitudes, psychological well-being, and work-related behavior.2006In: 7th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology.: Dublin, Ireland, November 8-10, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The use of individualized pay has increased during the last decades. Employers expect individualized pay systems to bring about more efficient and motivated employees, who are willing to heighten their work efforts in order to achieve organizational goals. A certain amount of cooperation and communication between supervisor and employee throughout the different parts in the individualized pay-setting process is required. Although research on leadership and its impact on employees perceptions are extensive (Pfeffer, 1997), there is need to study whether interpersonal competency of leaders in the pay-setting process affects outcomes such as employee satisfaction, performance and well-being. It would be reasonable to assume that employees who have a positive view of the supervisor-employee relationship and regards the supervisor’s conduct in the pay-setting process as fair, also would experience a greater satisfaction, commitment, and are less inclined to quit than individuals with more negative perceptions of the relationship with their supervisor and his/her conduct in the pay-setting process. Questionnaire data was collected among 721 health care workers. The response rate was 81 percent (N=582). The proportion of women was 88 percent, and the mean age 48 (SD=10) years. The results indicate that a clear communication concerning expectations and goals is probably the most important supervisor quality for all five outcomes, followed by supervisor legitimacy and competency, respectful treatment and gender equality.

  • 6.
    Stråberg, Teresia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Employee perspectives on individualized pay: Attitudes and fairness perceptions2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of various types of individualized pay setting has increased dramatically in Sweden. In order for individualized pay to work as an incentive, the pay system has to be perceived as fair. This thesis focuses on the various subjective perceptions that arise in relation to individualized pay setting, since such perceptions may have consequences for employee attitudes and behavior. Using survey data from Swedish human service workers (Study I and II) as well as other public employees (Study III), the general aim was to shed more light on employees’ pay attitudes and fairness perceptions in connection with individualized pay setting. Study I examined some of the explanatory factors behind employee pay attitudes. The results showed that perceiving a clear connection between work results and pay, and perceiving a sound working climate, were both related to more positive attitudes towards the pay distribution process. Study II examined factors potentially associated with pay-related justice perceptions. The results demonstrated that perceptions of having sufficient feedback, proper information on pay criteria, gender equality, and lower workloads were connected with more favorable views of pay justice. Pay justice perceptions, in turn, appeared only to be marginally connected with employees’ work-related attitudes and behavior. Study III investigated whether women’s and men’s perceptions of the individualized pay-setting process differed. The results showed that both genders had a similar awareness of the organizational policies and goals. The women, however, reported much lower levels of pay-related gender equality than the men and perceived that men, overall, benefited more from individualized pay setting. In conclusion, employees’ perceptions of a well-functioning working climate, apparent links between work effort and pay, as well as perceived equal opportunities contribute to individualized pay systems being viewed as more fair.

  • 7.
    Stråberg, Teresia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gender Equality and the Individualised Pay-Setting Process2008In: Reward Management: Facts and Trends in Europe / [ed] M. Vartiainen, C. Antoni, X. Baeten, N. Hakonen, R. Lucas, & H. Thierry, Lengerich: Science Publishers , 2008, 1st, p. 48-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The practice of individualized pay has increased through Europe during the last decades. In order for individualized pay setting to bring about intended positive outcomes such as employee motivation and productivity, the pay setting should be considered fair. Unequal pay distribution among men and women may consequently be a threat to the pay system’s incentive effect. We have investigated differences between men’s and women’s perceptions and attitudes toward a number of factors involved in the individualized pay-setting process. The results suggest that although both genders seem to be satisfied with the system itself, there are substantial differences regarding how equal and fair men and women perceive the pay distribution to be, as well as who benefits from it.desiring  Oare rganizations who wants to probably come to terms with discrimination of women should make an effort on a local level, rather than depend upon central institutions to do it for them.

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