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  • 1.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Dreams meeting reality? A gendered perspective on the relationship between occupational preferences in early adolescence and actual occupation in adulthood2015Ingår i: Journal of Youth Studies, ISSN 1367-6261, E-ISSN 1469-9680, Vol. 18, nr 8, s. 1077-1095Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    On the basis of longitudinal data from Sweden (n = 15,211), the article offers a gendered perspective on the relationship between occupational preferences during early adolescence and actual occupations in adulthood. Theoretically the study is based on socialisation theory and devaluation theory. The analyses show that preferences for one's future occupation were stronger among those who came to make gender-typical choices, than among those who chose a gender-atypical occupation. However, a gender difference was also found in that girls who came to choose a male dominated occupation showed a stronger preference for their future occupation in adolescence, than boys who came to choose a female dominated occupation. Results also showed that at a general level, the occupations in adulthood were even more gender segregated than the preferences in adolescence. This was particularly true for girls, who in adolescence expressed a stronger preference to work in a male dominated occupations, than they would later actually do.

  • 2.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Drug abuse and life-chances—Do childhood conditions matter? Results from a Swedish life course study2017Ingår i: Advances in Life Course Research, ISSN 1569-4909, E-ISSN 1879-6974, Vol. 32, s. 1-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that people whose childhoods are characterized by various types of resource deficiencies are at significantly higher risk than others of developing serious drug-abuse. Having confirmed the existence of this correlation in the study's data set, this study asked whether the different childhood conditions experienced by individuals with serious drug-abuse problems continue to affect their life chances once these problems have become established, or whether the drug abuse appears to produce such radically new life conditions that childhood conditions no longer play a significant role. Analyses were based on the Stockholm Birth Cohort study which includes data on a cohort of individuals (n = 15,117) from birth to middle age, and in addition to measurements of social and economic problems during childhood, the analysis also included a measurement of the family's socio-economic status and a measurement of the individual's own childhood resources in the form of school performance. Drug abuse was measured using an indicator of whether the individual had been admitted for inpatient treatment with a drug-related diagnosis at least once at ages 16–30 (n = 229). On basis of Cox and OLS regression models, the most important conclusion from the study was that heavy drug-abuse seems to involve such a fundamental change to individuals' life situation that variations in childhood conditions lose a substantial amount of their power to explain subsequent life course outcomes. However, the study did find a tendency for SES of family of origin to be related to mortality risk up to age 56, in that those from less privileged homes died to a somewhat higher extent. Individuals from more privileged homes did not manage to recover to a higher extent though, but tended to remain in heavy abuse. The study found no relationship between childhood conditions and recovery from heavy abuse.

  • 3.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Isolating the effect of eviction on criminal convictions: Results from a Swedish study2018Ingår i: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 61, nr 3, s. 263-282Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    On an individual level, criminal offending is linked to resource deficiencies. Since evictions tend to affect society’s weakest groups, we would expect evicted individuals to be convicted of crime to a higher degree than others even before eviction. But is there also a direct effect of eviction on criminal convictions? The aim of this study was to isolate the effect of eviction on criminal convictions. Propensity score matching was used and the analyses included all individuals evicted in Sweden from 2009 to 2010 (n = 5050), and a 10% sample of the adult population (n = 770,000). After matching based on relevant background factors, the analyses showed a significant increase in criminal convictions from the year of eviction until the end of the period studied, two to three years later. The pattern was similar for men and women. Future research should investigate eviction in relation to different types of crime.

  • 4.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jag ska bli professor jag, tralala. Ett genusperspektiv på vad 1960-talets unga ville bli och vad de senare blev2019Ingår i: Att odla kriminologi. Perspektiv på brott och utsatthet: En festskrift till Eva Tiby / [ed] Anita Heber, Lena Roxell, Kriminologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet , 2019, s. 293-307Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Jag ska bli professor jag, tralala: Ett genusperspektiv på vad 1960-talets unga ville bli och vad de senare blev2019Ingår i: Att odla kriminologi: Perspektiv på brott och utsatthet. En festskrift till Eva Tiby / [ed] Anita Heber, Lena Roxell, Stockholm: Kriminologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet , 2019, s. 293-307Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Sibling configuration and the right to fail – parental and children’s own scholastic aspirations in different types of families2019Ingår i: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, ISSN 0267-3843, E-ISSN 2164-4527Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to explore the life circumstances of singletons and first-born children, and the importance of the size of the sibling group, by focusing on scholastic aspirations, both on part of the children themselves, but also of their parents. The study used data collected with around 3650 children and their parents, and apart from information on the children’s and their parents’ explicit aspirations, there was also information on the children’s estimation of their parents’ aspirations. While only small differences in parental explicit aspirations were found, substantial differences were found with respect to the children’s own aspirations and their estimations of those of their parents. Only children were more likely to estimate high scholastic aspirations on part of their parents, as were first-borns with siblings. First- also tended to express higher scholastic aspirations themselves. Theoretically, strategic parenting and role specialization were used to explain the results.

  • 7.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Sibling configuration and the right to fail – parental and children’s own scholastic aspirations in different types of families2019Ingår i: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, ISSN 0267-3843, E-ISSN 2164-4527Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to explore the life circumstances of singletons and first-born children, and the importance of the size of the sibling group, by focusing on scholastic aspirations, both on part of the children themselves, but also of their parents. The study used data collected with around 3650 children and their parents, and apart from information on the children’s and their parents’ explicit aspirations, there was also information on the children’s estimation of their parents’ aspirations. While only small differences in parental explicit aspirations were found, substantial differences were found with respect to the children’s own aspirations and their estimations of those of their parents. Only children were more likely to estimate high scholastic aspirations on part of their parents, as were first-borns with siblings. First- also tended to express higher scholastic aspirations themselves. Theoretically, strategic parenting and role specialization were used to explain the results.

  • 8.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Ungas framtidstro2014Ingår i: Den långa vägen till arbetsmarknaden: om unga utanför / [ed] Jonas Olofsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 1, s. 297-309Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    What happened to the Swedish problem drug users of the 1960's and 1970's?2015Ingår i: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 109-132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS & DESIGN - In this study we follow a Stockholm birth cohort born in 1953 (n = 14 294) from youth to middle age. The cohort members were in their teenage years when drug abuse was established as a considerable threat to Swedish society and some of the cohort members themselves became drug abusers (n=431). RESULTS - As expected, life became dramatically worse for those with documented drug abuse when young, than for the rest of the cohort members. While 72 percent of those without documented drug abuse were socially included at the age of 56, the corresponding share among those with documented drug abuse was 18 per cent. And while 5 percent in the former group were diseased at 56, this was true for 38 percent in the latter group. Supplementary analyses showed that social inclusion was also less stable among those with documented drug abuse than among the rest of the cohort, and that the flow from exclusion to inclusion was virtually nonexistent, which was not the case for those without experience of drug abuse. CONCLUSIONS - Gender specific analyses showed that the situation, at least in absolute terms, tended to be even worse for male drug abusers than for women. Gender differences in alcohol abuse, criminality, and with respect to parenthood are suggested as possible explanations to be further studied in future research.

  • 10.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Future orientation climate in the school class: Relations to adolescent delinquency, heavy alcohol use, and internalizing problem2016Ingår i: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 70, s. 324-331Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known, based on previous research, that adolescents' thoughts and feelings about their future are related to the risk of delinquency, alcohol use as well as health. However, other well-known facts are that adolescents' actions are substantially shaped in interaction with peers and that, during adolescence, individuals spend a considerable amount of the day at school, in interaction with classmates. Despite this, there is an almost complete lack of studies exploring to what extent the school climate, as measured by thoughts and feelings about the future, can influence individual adolescents. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether the future orientation (FO) climate, measured at the school class level, is related to delinquency, alcohol use and internalizing problems at the individual level, among a sample of Swedish students 14–15 years of age. The data used come from the Swedish part of the Youth in Europe (YES!) study, which is part of the larger project Children of Immigrants - Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries (CILS4EU). In the present paper, we use data from the first wave, collected among 8th grade students in 2010/11 (n = 4119–4364). The method used was multilevel modeling (linear probability models (LPM) and linear regression analysis). The results showed that, in school classes where a high proportion of students had a positive future orientation, the risk of heavy alcohol use at the individual level was lower, also after adjusting for individual FO and for individual- and class-level socioeconomic conditions. A similar, but not statistically significant, tendency was found for delinquency. In addition, having a high proportion of students with a positive FO in a school class was associated with fewer internalizing problems, also after controlling for individual FO and socioeconomic conditions at the individual and school class level. We conclude that the surrounding school class, in terms of its general future orientation climate, may play a role for individual outcomes in the form of problem behaviors and mental health.

  • 11.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    The Gendered Mirror on the Wall: Satisfaction with Physical Appearance and Its Relationship to Global Self-esteem and Psychosomatic Complaints Among Adolescent Boys and Girls2018Ingår i: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 525-541Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated gender differences in satisfaction with physical appearance as a domain-specific aspect of self-esteem, and its association with global self-esteem and psychosomatic complaints. The data used was from the Stockholm School Survey, conducted among ninth grade students (15–16 years), with pooled information from six cross-sectional surveys in 2004–2014 (n = 32,117). Girls reported lower satisfaction with their appearance than boys. Satisfaction with appearance was more strongly associated with global self-esteem among girls, while the association with psychosomatic complaints was similar for both genders. There was a tendency towards a decline in satisfaction with appearance at the end of the study period for both genders, albeit more strong for girls. We conclude that satisfaction with appearance may contribute to our understanding of poor mental well-being among adolescent girls.

  • 12.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Bohman, Hannes
    Poor Family Relationships in Adolescence and the Risk of Premature Death: Findings from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study2019Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 10, artikel-id 1690Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor family relationships during childhood have been shown to have long-term negative effects on an offspring’s health. However, few studies have followed the offspring to retirement age, and relatedly, knowledge about the link between poor family relationships and premature death is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association between poor family relationships in adolescence and the risk of premature death, even when considering other adverse childhood conditions. Prospective data from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study were used, with 2636 individuals born in 1953 who were followed up until age 65. Information on family relations was based on interviews with the participants’ mothers in 1968. Information on mortality was retrieved from administrative register data from 1969–2018. Cox proportional hazards regressions showed that poor family relationships in adolescence were associated with an increased risk of premature death, even when adjusting for childhood conditions in terms of household social class, household economic poverty, contact with the child services, parental alcohol abuse, and parental mental illness (Hazard Ratio (HR), 2.08, 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.40–3.09). The findings show that poor family relationships in adolescence can have severe and long-lasting health consequences, highlighting the importance of early interventions.

  • 13.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Sandahl, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    School effectiveness and students' future orientation: A multilevel analysis of upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden2019Ingår i: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 70, s. 62-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Future orientation (FO) refers to individuals' beliefs and feelings about their future. Earlier research has primarily investigated correlates of FO at the individual and family level, but it seems likely that FO is also shaped by other central agents or institutions, such as the school. Earlier studies have found positive associations between “school effectiveness” and student performance, and negative associations in relation to e.g., bullying, delinquency, and health risk behaviors. The current study investigated three teacher-reported features of school effectiveness - school leadership, teacher cooperation and consensus, and school ethos - and their links with student-reported FO.

    Methods

    Survey data were collected in 2016 among 5131 students (aged 17–18 years) and 1061 teachers in 46 upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden, and merged with school-level register data. Two-level binary logistic regression analyses were performed.

    Results

    The analyses showed that higher teacher ratings of school leadership and school ethos were associated with a greater likelihood of reporting an optimistic FO among students. Teacher cooperation and consensus was however not associated with students' FO.

    Conclusion

    The findings indicate that the school environment contributes to shaping students' beliefs about their future. Thus, enhancing features of school effectiveness may be a way of promoting a positive development and brighter objective future prospects for the young, via pathways such as good student-teacher relations and academic motivation and achievement.

  • 14.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Openness to Gender Atypical Occupations in Youth: Do Peer Groups and School Classes Matter?2015Ingår i: Journal of Early Adolescence, ISSN 0272-4316, E-ISSN 1552-5449, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 97-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article analyses aspects of gender composition and social dominance in peer groups and school classes and their effects on the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations in young adolescents. The data set used contains information for some 13,000 girls and boys living in Stockholm in the early 1960s. Results from multi-level regressions show that gender composition is significantly related to openness to gender-atypical occupations at peer-group level only. As the causal direction of this relationship can be questioned, the result should be interpreted with caution. Concerning aspects of dominance, quite substantive effects on individual openness to gender-atypical occupations are found for girls, albeit not for boys. Thus, for girls, the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations of the most central girl in the school class significantly affects the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations of individual girls in that school class.

  • 15.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Future Prospects, Deprivation, and Criminality – A Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study2018Ingår i: Deviant behavior, ISSN 0163-9625, E-ISSN 1521-0456, Vol. 39, nr 10, s. 1280-1293Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article explores the longitudinal relationship between subjective and objective deprivation in early adolescence on the one hand, and criminal offending in adolescence and early adulthood on the other. Data from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study (n = 15,117), containing information from surveys and registers are used. Bivariate analyses confirm a relationship between low socioeconomic status and both subjective and objective deprivation. Subjective deprivation alone is related to offending only for those from less privileged background. Subjective and objective deprivation in combination is associated with a higher risk of offending for all individuals, although the less privileged background, the higher the risk.

  • 16.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Palme, Joakim
    Westholm, Erik
    Att utforska framtiden: valda perspektiv2012 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Visst går det att utforska framtiden på vetenskaplig grund! I boken ges exempel på hur perspektiv från såväl humaniora som samhälls- och naturvetenskap kan berika studiet även av det forskningsobjekt som ännu inte finns.

  • 17.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Roxell, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Your Own Personal Jesus? Doctrinal Beliefs versus Personal Spirituality Among Inmates Involved in the Monastery Route in Swedish Prisons2019Ingår i: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, ISSN 0021-8294, E-ISSN 1468-5906, Vol. 58, nr 1, s. 192-209Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies, mainly from the United States, have indicated that religious beliefs can help inmates to cope with imprisonment and to build hopes for the future. The purpose of this study was to examine if this is the case also in Sweden, which is usually considered to be one of the most secular countries in the world. The data consist of semistructured interviews with 14 prisoners participating in the so‐called Monastery Route activities within Swedish prisons. Although the activities are based on Christianity, the explicit aim is to invite individuals from all religions, as well as those with an open attitude toward spirituality. How do the inmates formulate their beliefs (if any) along the lines of doctrinal religiousness and personal spirituality, respectively? And, how does this orientation affect the ability to cope with imprisonment, as well as the views of the future? The results show that a small number of the participants defined themselves as Christian, but that the majority had instead developed a more personal form of spirituality. This provided them with a means of working with themselves and gave them a sense of inner calm. The study's findings are contrasted against conflicting results from the United States.

  • 18.
    B. Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Sandahl, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Future Orientation among Students Exposed to School Bullying and Cyberbullying Victimization2018Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, nr 4, artikel-id 605Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Future orientation can be defined as an individual’s thoughts, beliefs, plans, and hopes for the future. Earlier research has shown adolescents’ future orientation to predict outcomes later in life, which makes it relevant to analyze differences in future orientation among youth. The aim of the present study was to analyze if bullying victimization was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting a pessimistic future orientation among school youth. To be able to distinguish between victims and bully-victims (i.e., students who are both bullies and victims), we also took perpetration into account. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey performed in 2016 among ninth grade students (ages 15–16 years) (n = 5144). Future orientation and involvement in school bullying and in cyberbullying were based on self-reports. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. The results demonstrated that victims and bully-victims of school bullying and of cyberbullying were more likely to report a pessimistic future orientation compared with students not involved in bullying. These associations were shown also when involvement in school bullying and cyberbullying were mutually adjusted. The findings underline the importance of anti-bullying measures that target both school bullying and cyberbullying.

  • 19.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Olsson, Gabriella
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Future orientation, gambling and risk gambling among youth: A study of adolescents in Stockholm2019Ingår i: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, ISSN 0267-3843, E-ISSN 2164-4527Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between adolescents’ future orientation and their engagement in gambling and in risk gambling, respectively. The data used come from the Stockholm School Survey, collected in 2016 among students in the ninth grade in elementary school (15–16 years) and in the second grade of upper secondary school (17–18 years) in Stockholm municipality (n = 11,661). The results showed that adolescents who expected their future to be ‘much worse’ than that of others were more inclined to engage in gambling and in risk gambling compared with adolescents who expected their future to be similar to that of others. Furthermore, adolescents who expected their future to be ‘much better’ than that of others had an increased likelihood of engaging in gambling but not in risk gambling. The results are discussed in the light of elements from rational choice theory.

  • 20.
    Engström, Susanne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Automation, decentralisering och prestationsutveckling: analys av förändringsmönster vid svenska företag under ett decennium2002Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska företag har sedan slutet av 1980-talet genomfört förändringar i syfte att förbättra sin prestation inom ett eller flera områden. Långt ifrån alla har dock varit framgångsrika. Förändringsaktiviteterna har tilldragit sig många forskares intresse, och generellt är forskningen inom området överens om att utformningen av företagets organisation har betydelse för utfallet av implementeringen av avancerade teknologiska lösningar. Samma grad av konsensus finns inte vad gäller frågan om utfallet blir bättre om förändringsarbetet huvudsakligen är inriktat på teknologiska förändringar, organisatoriska förändringar eller till kombinationer av dessa. I denna uppsats presenteras fyra studier, tre kvantitativa och en kvalitativ. Syftet med de studier som jag genomför är att kartlägga förändringsmönstret genom att: S1: analysera till vilken grad företag fokuserar sina förändringar tilli. utveckling av tekniska system (T-förändring, förändring med T- fokusii. utveckling av arbetsorganisation (O-förändring, förändring med O- fokus)iii. eller till kombinationer av dessa två utvecklingsalternativ (OT- förändring, förändring med OT-fokus) samt studera förändringsmönstrets prestationspåverkan genom att:S2: analysera vilken betydelse olika förändringfokus enligt i-iii kan ha för utvecklingen av företags prestation. Detta i syfte att undersöka om det går att påvisa att någon fokus enligt i-iii är förenat med större positiv inverkan på prestationsutvecklingen än andra. Resultatet pekar på: (S1) att företag i stor utsträckning förändrar såväl sin teknologi som sin organisation. Ju längre tidsperiod som beaktas desto fler företag genomför förändringar inom båda dessa områden. Bland de studerade företagen inom tillverkande sektor som inte kombinerar de två utvecklingsalternativen dominerar utveckling av arbetsorganisation. Bland handels-/tjänsteföretagen dominerar istället utvecklingen av tekniska system. (S2) att olika förändringsfokus enligt i-iii har olika betydelse för utvecklingen av företags prestation i de olika studierna, men att det sammantagna resultatet talar för en kombinerad utveckling, åtminstone över en längre tidsperiod betraktat och om man bland tillverkande företag fokuserar bearbetningen. Resultaten indikerar några möjliga förklaringar till varför det är så svårt att uppnå konsensus vad gäller (S2). En möjlig orsak till att olika studier uppvisar olika resultat är att prestationseffekterna är tidsfördröjda och att tidsfördröjningen är olika för olika förändringsfokus. En annan möjlig orsak är att den studerade tidsperioden har betydelse för bedömningen av förändringsfokus hos företagen, vilket i sin tur har betydelse för de slutsatser som man kan dra beträffande sambandet mellan förändringsfokus och prestation. För att kunna öka kunskapen inom området krävs bland annat att forskare i framtida studier tar bättre hänsyn till tidsfördröjningen mellan genomförd förändring och prestationsutfall. Mätning av förändringsutfall försvåras även av att företag har en begränsad kunskap om vad de kan uppnå med de organisationer de implementerat eller avser att implementera samt att kunskapen om hur man kan genomföra mätningar av organisationsförändringar förefaller mycket begränsad. Detta skulle kunna vara ett intressant område för fortsatt forskning.

  • 21.
    Engström, Susanne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Managing information to unblock supplier-led innovation in construction: barriers to client decision-making on industrialized building in Sweden2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med denna avhandling är att bidra till en ökad förståelse av beställarens roll som beslutsfattare avseende leverantörsledd innovation. Analysen fokuserar på den professionella beställarens förmåga att hantera information om innovationer som går utanför de nuvarande referensramarna. Avhandlingen diskuterar hur denna förmåga hos beställarna kan förstås i termer av dess potentiella inverkan på beslutsfattarnas bedömningar och beslut gällande leverantörsledda innovationer. Innovationer som behandlas i denna forskning är sprungna från industriellt byggande, där entreprenörer och materialleverantörer under många år har utvecklat metoder, organisation och tekniska lösningar. Beställare förefaller inte i någon högre grad ha stöttat denna utveckling och det finns indikationer på att många fortfarande upplever detta som nytt och annorlunda.Den teoretiska referensramen integrerar teori om informationsprocessande i organisationer, meningsskapande kommunikation och beslutsteori. För att kunna beakta tolkningar, betydelser och bedömningar som beställare gör så har flera olika datainsamlingsmetoder använts. Dessa har adresserat beställare och entreprenörer, inom och mellan byggprojekt. Avhandlingens samlade resultat, baserade på de teoretiska och empiriska diskussionerna, presenteras i form av ”propositions” vilka kopplas till tidigare byggforskningsresultat.Vid beslutsfattande som rör industriellt byggande och relaterade innovationer saknar kunderna inte bara information. De måste också kunna hantera en mångfald av nya betydelser och motstridiga tolkningar. Här indikerar resultaten att beställarnas förmåga är låg utifrån nuvarande sätt att organisera informationshantering och kommunikation. Det föreslås vidare att om innovationen skiljer sig avsevärt från konventionen (status quo), så blir det än viktigare att i organisationen möjliggöra ett medvetandegörande av olika tolkningar och förståelse. Detta för att öka förutsättningarna för beslutsfattare att kunna komma fram till även sådana slutsatser som strider mot etablerade föreställningar. Att utgå från en fördefinierad mening, i termer av t ex specificerade lösningar i anbuden, policys och beslutskriterier kan stödja beslutsfattande gällande konventionella lösningar men samtidigt blockera utveckling och implementering av innovationer. Den dominerande projektlogiken inom byggandet föreslås också begränsa och separera meningsskapande inom såväl som mellan organisationer och därmed vara en potentiell kommunikationsbarriär mellan beställare och entreprenörer, särskilt vid kommunikation gällande innovationer som leder mot en förändrad byggprocess.

  • 22.
    Engström, Susanne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Overcoming barriers to innovation: demonstrating an argument in favour of communication arenas2014Ingår i: Proceedings 30th Annual Association of Researchers in Construction Management Conference, Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2014, s. 1007-1016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous development efforts including steady-state innovations are necessary for such purposes as of improving short-term performance. However, there is also the need to enable more radical renewal, where development efforts typically stretch beyond the single-project milieu. Supplier-led innovation towards e.g. affordable, sustainable building constitutes such an example. To open up for more radical renewal, one implication of an earlier proposed innovation-barrier/enabler model is the need for sustainable client-contractor arenas for communication, enabling the continuous re-thinking of current experience and understanding by allowing for clients' and contractors' different/conflicting meanings to surface and interact. In Swedish building such arenas seem to be lacking. Underpinning the argumentation is previous research addressing barriers for supplier-led innovation from theoretical perspectives of organizational information-processing and descriptive behavioural decision-making. To better understand the significance of suggested arenas, data were collected in three steps. First, representatives of a building company were interviewed about their personal views regarding barriers/enablers for supplier-led innovation and what primarily determine clients' accept/reject of the builder's standardized system solution. Second, the building-company representatives met with representatives from three client organizations for a round-table discussion concerning barriers to innovation and sector renewal, and means to overcome. Finally, follow-up interviews with building-company representatives sought to capture personal reflections following from foregoing discussion. Collected data were analysed in relation to the previously proposed model, thus simultaneously developing the model and making it more accessible to building practitioners. Cross-analyses of interviews and client-contractor discussion revealed multiple gaps of understanding. Furthermore, to open up for innovation challenging steady-state it is suggested that both client organizations and contractor organizations need to pay close attention to how meanings and understandings are formed and shared within as well as between organizations. A subsequent implication is the need for a more systematically employed communication arena, stretching beyond the short-term project milieu.

  • 23.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Hedgren, Erika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Sustaining inertia?: Construction clients' decision-making and information-processing approach to industrialized building innovations2012Ingår i: Construction Innovation, ISSN 1471-4175, E-ISSN 1477-0857, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 393-413Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Humans tend to rely on beliefs, assumptions and cognitive rules-of-thumb for making judgments and are biased against taking more uncertain alternatives. Such inertia has implications for client organizations' decision making about innovations, which are inherently more uncertain than conventional alternatives. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to furthering the understanding of barriers to overcoming inertia in client decision making in new-build. Design/methodology/approach – A descriptive behavioural decision-making perspective is combined with an organizational information-processing perspective. To identify and discuss individual and organizational barriers that potentially distort clients' decision making on innovation, the analysis addresses aggregated data from four studies. The analysis focuses on inferences and interpretations made by decision makers in Swedish client organizations, their information-processing practices and the subsequent impacts on perceived meanings and judgments about industrialized multi-storey, timber-framed building innovations, which are perceived by Swedish clients as new and different building alternatives. Findings – Cognitive and organizational barriers maintain status-quo decisions. Clients are inclined to make biased judgments about industrialized-building alternatives because non-applicable cognitive rules-of-thumb, based on their experiences of conventional-building alternatives, are used. Furthermore, client organizations' information-processing practices do not allow different meanings to surface, interact and potentially suggest different conclusions, at odds with established beliefs. Originality/value – The paper's conclusions highlight how inertia is sustained in client decision making in new-build. They illustrate the limitations of a common engineering approach, i.e. supporting decision making about innovations by focusing on providing more information to the decision maker in order to reduce uncertainty, as well as managing multiple meanings by reductionism.

  • 24.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Levander, Erika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Clients as drivers of innovation: lessons from industrialised construction in Sweden2010Ingår i: Ph.D. Research Workshop on Technology and Innovation in Construction: Held at Department of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Porsön, Luleå, 29 September 2010 / [ed] Paul Chan; Ylva Sardén, 2010, s. 10-20Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the construction sector, the rate of innovations is perceived to be low. Stakeholder pressure has been identified as an important trigger for innovation. But do Swedish construction clients positively respond to, and thus drive, innovation? The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding of the client's role, as a decision maker, for improving the rate of innovation in construction. This by learning from the case of industrialised construction (IC) in Sweden. Swedish construction clients are generally positive to the expected benefits of IC, but are not actively driving the change towards industrialisation. IC challenges common practice as well as stakeholder expectations and schemata on which decisions are made. Case studies addressing Swedish clients' response to IC show that the uncertainties related to potential future regret are prominent issues. Empirical evidence also indicates high levels of equivocality which, according to information processing theory, cannot be reduced by simply increasing the amount of information. To enable client-driven change, improved information processing capability is suggested. Clients that gather and process information on innovation can reduce bias in decision making. Early adopters of innovations such as IC must also manage high levels of equivocality as the amount of information is low and common practice is challenged. A higher involvement of clients in innovation development is advised.

  • 25.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Levander, Erika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Clients as drivers of innovation: lessons from industrialised construction in Sweden2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the 6th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organisation: Shaping the Construction/Society Nexus / [ed] Kim Haugbølle ; Stefan Christoffer Gottlieb ; Kalle E. Kähkönen ; Ole Jonny Klakegg; Göran A. Lindahl ; Kristian Widén, Hørsholm: Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University , 2011, Vol. 1 ; Clients and Users, s. 13-24Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    From the Pilot Project to the Mainstream Practice: Learning Explored in Planning and Design of a Low-Energy Quarter2015Ingår i: Procedia Economics and Finance, E-ISSN 2212-5671, Vol. 21, s. 288-296Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pilot projects are common platforms for developing/testing construction methods or solutions for e.g. low-energy house-building. Whereas studies report on their technical/engineering outcomes, little is known from a learning perspective. In our study of pilot-project learning, the planning for and assessment of learning from a “low-energy quarter” pilot was explored. In step one, the initiators and the local authority participantswere addressed. The findings of the interviews indicatedthe changed understandings during the pilot of e.g. the planning and design criteria for sustainable building. Although stressed at the pilot outset, it seems that the learning among the stakeholders was not so well documented or systematically evaluated and shared so that the mainstream practice could have been informed or changed

  • 27.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Sardén, Ylva
    Stehn, Lars
    Towards improving client-contractor communication in industrialised building2009Ingår i: Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference, 2009, September 7-9, Albert Hall, Nottingham / [ed] Andrew Dainty, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2009, s. 21-30Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Criticism of the building sector in Sweden, concerning for example high cost and poor quality, has lead to a growing interest in industrialised building. However, the effect on the sector and the overall building market is still quite insignificant. One business challenge for industrialised building companies to face in order to become more competitive is to further improve client/market interaction, improve mutual understanding and to reduce uncertainties in client relations. In this ongoing work the communication between industrialised building companies and building clients is examined. The aim is to identify important points of client-contractor communication that affect project outcome and present barriers to effective communication. In addition to a literature review, with the aim to define effective communication , the client-contractor communication in different building projects has been studied. Empirical data was collected through interviews and workshops, observations and project-specific documentation, addressing both clients and contractors. The results indicate that, in order to improve client-contractor communication, it seems important to assess if a barrier to effective communication is client uncertainty, and concerned with lack of information, or if it is client equivocality, which requires richer information rather than more information. The barrier must then be addressed accordingly. In the industrialised building context, client-contractor communication is probably distorted by lack of market/client knowledge concerning the industrialised building process, but also by previous experiences from traditional building.

  • 28.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Barriers to client-contractor communication: Implementing process innovation in a building project in Sweden2016Ingår i: International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, ISSN 1740-2891, E-ISSN 1740-2905, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 151-171Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Client-contractor communication is vital for achieving project goals but also for adopting innovations. However, this type of communication does not take place across just one interface but across several. In the present study, barriers to client-contractor communication were addressed with the intention of specifically highlighting the potential impact of the project-based setting. A case study of a building project where process innovation was to be implemented provided the data. The analysis focused on meaning-making by different participants during progression of the project until its completion. Although the project was successfully completed, some of the aims of the process innovation were not realised as planned due to emerging meaning-making problems. A main suggestion from the reported findings was that the predominant project logic in construction may be a key barrier to client-contractor communication in implementing innovations presented by actors on the supply-side

  • 29.
    Engström, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Sardén, Ylva
    Competitive impact of industrialised building: in search for explanations to the current state2009Ingår i: Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference, 2009, September 7-9, Albert Hall, Nottingham / [ed] Andrew Dainty, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2009, s. 413-424Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialised building has been proposed as a means of satisfying changes needed in the Swedish building sector. Over the last decade industrialised building has also developed as a niche within this sector. Given its potential, however, some stakeholders think that industrialised building has not yet had the impact they expected, and that the building sector is still in need of change to meet demands for cost reduction, quality improvement and longer managerial time-spans. Consequently, questions arise regarding the competitive position of industrialised building today, and the underlying causes for its present state. This study is based on a literature review, assessing industrialised building over recent decades, and on complementary interviews with researchers and practitioners. The findings are summarised in a conceptual model that outlines the sought effects of industrialised building, as well as the forces that drive and restrain change towards industrialised building. The demands on the building sector are the main drivers of change for the industry. However, the market itself is not actively driving change towards industrialised building, and the information and understanding required to support clients' decision on whether to enforce market power in one or the other direction is not readily available. How building clients value different building possibilities is also unclear. Suggested future challenges are to reduce client uncertainty, to improve client power and to facilitate the comparison of performance between traditional and industrialised building alternatives.

  • 30.
    Hedlund, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Hörte, Sven-åke
    Changes in development approaches of technological and work organization and the impact on performance2000Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses the joined data and results of two separate studies together covering the change actions of 49 Swedish manufacturing companies during a ten-year period, 1988-1997. The purpose is to reveal the long-term change patterns of synchronous or non-synchronous change of technology and work organisation. The results are that during the studied ten-year period a lesser percentage of companies pursue synchronous change than non-synchronous. The general change pattern is indicating more focus on change of organisation than on technology, and this tendency has grown stronger in resent years. The results presented in this paper also indicate that synchronously changing companies during 1988-1997 tend to have had greater performance increases during recent years than non-synchronously changing companies.

  • 31.
    Hedlund, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Hörte, Sven-åke
    Changes in development approaches of technology and work organization and the impact on performance2000Ingår i: Operations Management "Crossing Borders and Boundaries: The Changing Role of Operations": Papers from the 7th International Conference of the European Operations Management Association Ghent, Belgium June 4-7 2000 / [ed] Roland Van Dierdonck; Ann Vereecke, Ghent: University, Faculty of economics and business administration , 2000, s. 267-274Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Hedlund, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Hörte, Sven-åke
    Technological and organisational development and its management1999Ingår i: Managing Operations Networks: Venice, Italy, June 7th-8th 1999 / [ed] Emilio Bartezzaghi; Roberto Filippini; Gianluca Spina; Andrea Vinelli, Padova: Servizi Grafici Editorali , 1999, s. 829-836Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 33.
    Hedlund, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Hörte, Sven-åke
    Technological and organizational development and its management1999Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The technological- and organisational development 1992-1997, and the corresponding changes of seven internal and four external performance measures of 56 Swedish firms are analysed, as well as the way the change efforts are managed. The general results are that the firms have moved towards higher levels of decentralisation and automation. The internal performance of the firms has improved if firms have upgraded the technology, or both their technology and organisation. Investments in increased automation tend to improve the quality performance of the firms, while the opposite result is associated with the introduction of a more decentralised organisation. The results for the external performance support that higher automation is related to higher quality, but this is at the expense of less flexibility in product change. The managerial implications discussed are if firms should focus on improved technology, organisation or both, and how to manage the change process.

  • 34.
    Hedlund, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Hörte, Sven-åke
    Teknologi, Organisation och Management (TOM): slutrapport2000Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35.
    Johnsson, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Engström, Susanne
    Ett industriellt byggande kräver aktiv beställare2009Ingår i: Husbyggaren : bygg, el, VVS, anläggning, ISSN 0018-7968, Vol. 51, nr 7, s. 6-8Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 36.
    Lejfalk, Michael
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi.
    Norling, Susanne
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi.
    En jämförandestudie mellan intraprenad och traditionell driftsform i kommunalt äldreboende.: Sett ur personalens synvinkel2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den samhällsdebatt om konkurrensutsättning av kommunala verksamheter som diskuterats i media har föranlett ett flertal kommuner att genom förändrade driftsformer möta privatiseringen. Syftet med studien var att jämföra två äldreboenden med olika driftsformer inom kommunal regi, ett traditionellt drivet äldreboende och en intraprenad, sett ur personalens synvinkel. Till studien använde vi oss av både kvantitativ- och kvalitativ forskningsmetod. Det empiriska materialet samlades in genom tidigare forskning, enkätundersökning och intervjuer med personal på de båda äldreboendena samt kvalitativa intervjuer med ledningen. Vi använde oss av det deduktiva förhållningssättet genom att utgå från det systemteoretiska forskningsperspektivet. Resultatet visade på små skillnader både i arbetstillfredsställelse och i de äldres kvalitet mellan de båda äldreboendena. Ur ett ekonomiskt perspektiv fanns positiva effekter i intraprenaden genom att personalen var mer medvetna om de ekonomiska aspekterna. Frivillighet är viktigt vid valet vid valet av förändrad driftsform och att ledarskapet har en viktig roll.

    Sökord: Alternativa driftsformer, intraprenad, äldreomsorg, äldreboenden, system teori.

  • 37.
    Levander, Erika
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Engström, Susanne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Sardén, Ylva
    Länsstyrelsen i Norrbotten.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Construction clients' ability to manage uncertainty and equivocality2011Ingår i: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 29, nr 7, s. 753-764Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While risk and uncertainty management have received much attention within construction management research, management of information interpretation remains unexplored. Situations that are generally overlooked are those where increased amounts and flow of information are not the solution to the human problem of managing multiple meanings of information and conflicting interpretations, i.e. ‘equivocality’. The aim is to identify and differentiate between construction clients’ uncertainty and equivocality about industrialized construction in Sweden, and, in the light of those findings, to evaluate clients’ current information processing practice on investment decisions in new-build in order to assess and discuss clients’ ability to manage uncertainty and equivocality. Based on information processing theory, analysis of aggregated data from three previous studies shows that there is a need to manage both uncertainty and equivocality. At the same time, clients’ ability to do this is found to be limited. Consequently, when industrialized construction moves clients beyond their current frame of reference, clients’ information processing practice does not support decision making. It is also proposed that differentiating between uncertainty and equivocality will enable a more profound understanding of the sequential order for information processing, i.e. that one must define questions (reduce equivocality) before one can find answers to the questions (reduce uncertainty).

  • 38.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Engström, Susanne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Furthering sustainable building or not?: Discussing contractors' reflections on a sustainable building pilot project2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 31st Annual ARCOM Conference: 7-9 September 2015, Lincoln, UK / [ed] Ani Raiden; Emmanuel Aboagye-Nimo, Lincoln: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2015, Vol. 1, s. 447-456Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Governmental initiatives in Sweden that aim to support the shift towards a more sustainable building stock are frequently organized as pilot (or demonstration) projects. Pilot projects have been suggested to provide platforms for learning, where for example communication can be enhanced across actors and domains, and changes in practices can be supported. However, they have also been associated with a limited diffusion of project outcomes to mainstream practice as well as difficulties fulfilling project intentions and demands regarding sustainability. In an on-going study of a pilot project for the planning and design of a housing area in a sub-arctic environment, the advancement in the understanding and use of sustainable building practices in a sustainable building pilot project is explored. Interviews were conducted with representatives of the five local contractors that participated in the pilot project, addressing their retrospective descriptions and reflections from a personal and an organizational viewpoint. In keeping with earlier sustainable building research, the project initiators' intention was to develop a shared and holistic understanding of sustainable building. Multiple stakeholders were invited to participate and during interviews the cooperation among contractors was generally put forth as a positive pilot project experience. However, our findings expose tensions between sustainable building intentions and sustainable building as operationalized in the pilot project. Three types of barriers to the advancement of the understanding and use of sustainable building practices are recognised: a skewed balance of sustainability domains; neglect of local context; and a skewed balance of stakeholder perspectives. While intangible pilot project outcomes such as these are commonly neglected, their further study could provide valuable insights into the advancement of sustainable building. Acknowledging the complexity of defining and applying sustainable building, we also propose that more attention should be paid to managing stakeholders' multiple and conflicting views in sustainable building projects.

  • 39.
    Lundberg, Mary
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Engström, Susanne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Diffusion of innovation in a contractor company: the impact of the social system structure on the implementation process2019Ingår i: Construction Innovation, ISSN 1471-4175, E-ISSN 1477-0857, artikel-id 632762Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    In the construction industry, it has proven difficult to implement and realize innovation efforts, for example in the development of industrialized construction and use of platform concepts. Thus, the purpose of this study is to characterize the innovation diffusion process in the social system of a large Swedish contractor company. Specifically, the diffusion of three innovative industrialized house-building (IHB) platforms and factors affecting their adoption and implementation (particularly effects of their perceived radicality in relation to the company's decentralized characteristics) are identified and discussed.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A case study approach was applied, using empirical material including semi-structured interviews and archival records (research reports from earlier studies at different points in time related to each innovation and annual corporate reports). The material was analyzed using Rogers' (2003) five-stage innovation process model, acknowledging the importance of social systems' structures.

    Findings

    Structural characteristics of the social system strongly affect innovation diffusion. In subsystems that had not been involved in initiation of the innovations, they were regarded as radical, which hindered their adoption and implementation.

    Research limitations/implications

    This study builds upon the recent findings that successful innovation implementation depends on a range of contingencies in the construction context. Although the diffusion of the innovations per se has been traced over a ten-year period, generalizability is limited because the results come from one construction company.

    Practical implications

    Contractors have invested substantially in the development of industrialized construction and use of platform concepts, but less in their implementation, so they have obtained little gain. How innovations are perceived and implemented in different subsystems affects the success of their implementation in the overarching social system.Originality/valueThis study adheres to previous calls for more research on firm level in the complex social system of construction companies by adopting a ten-year perspective on the diffusion of innovation at a large contractor addressing in particular the impact of the innovations perceived radicality in relation to the decentralized characteristics of the company.

  • 40.
    Lundberg, Mary
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Engström, Susanne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Methods used for knowledge management and organizational learning in the practice of construction projects: a systematic literature review2017Ingår i: Proceedings of working papers from the ARCOM and BEAM Centre Early Career Researcher and Doctoral Workshop on Building Asset Management / [ed] Craig Thomson, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 41.
    Lundberg, Mary
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Engström, Susanne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Methods used in the everyday practice of construction projects for knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many construction practitioners and researchers would agree that acquiring the knowledge created in construction projects is a prerequisite for organizational learning and improved practice. This applies also to continuous improvement by a lean strategy. Various technological tools and methods for knowledge acquisition have been proposed, but their success depends on acknowledging the involved individuals and on the interaction between project actors, i.e. embracing the principle of respect for people in a lean strategy. A systematic literature review to identify methods used in the everyday practice in construction projects for the sharing and transfer of tacit knowledge has been performed.

    Findings indicate that a combination of technological and social methods are used for knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer in construction projects. Social methods such as workshops, different kinds of often informal face-to-face meetings, various forms of reviews, mentorships, and site visits, are commonly used for sharing and transfer of tacit knowledge. Therefore, these methods which also often involve different actors should form part of a lean construction strategy.

  • 42.
    Nelson, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nieuwenhuis, Rense
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Sweden: Adjoining the Guarantee Pension with NDC2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes old-age incomes in Sweden from a pension policy perspective, focusing on both the economic position of elderly citizens and the redistributive effects of the pension system’s different parts. The empirical analyses show that each subsequent cohort that reaches retirement age faces higher relative poverty risks than previous cohorts. The relative decline in the value of the guaranteed minimum pension vis-à-vis the real income growth of wage earners brings to the forefront the issues of indexation of the guarantee and the ceiling on the means-tested housing benefits like the basic safety net for pensioners.

  • 43.
    Sardén, Ylva
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Engström, Susanne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Modern methods of construction: a solution for an industry characterised by uncertainty?2010Ingår i: ARCOM twenty-Sixth Annual Conference 2010, September 6-8, Leeds / [ed] Charles O. Egbu; Eric Lou, Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management , 2010, s. 1101-1110Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern methods of construction (MMC) are suggested to deal more effectively with uncertainties that construction commonly presents to clients and contractors, i.e. uncertainties inherent in traditional construction regarding e.g. time, defects, safety, environmental impact, costs, profits and lifecycle performance. But do MMC really reduce these uncertainties? Furthermore, MMC change stakeholders’ frames of references and they also carry their own inherent uncertainties from the previous century, e.g. poor quality and social exclusion. Perhaps MMC introduce more uncertainty than they reduce? These questions are addressed in this review that covers current research from the leading construction management journals as well as institutional reports from Sweden and UK. Uncertainties inherent in traditional construction are put in relation to the attributes offered by MMC, and the attributes are discussed with respect to their ability to reduce uncertainty, for clients and contractors respectively. Conclusions from the review are that the industrialized construction process, when fully implemented, does contribute to uncertainty reduction through its predictability regarding time schedules, costs, and improved working conditions. On the other hand, this implies standardized processes which also lead to a greater need for standardized components, early decision of the final design and a non-transparent production process that is hard to monitor for the client. These attributes of MMC challenge roles, responsibilities and put new demands on different stakeholders of the construction process, which contribute to uncertainty for both client and contractor.

  • 44.
    Stehn, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Engström, Susanne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Serrander, Peter
    AB Fristad Bygg, Sverige.
    Projekt: Beställarrollen i ett industriellt byggande i trä2010Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Att reducera beställarens osäkerhet vid beslut om att initiera byggprojekt genom att ta fram förslag på styrmedel anpassade för den industriella byggprocessen. För att utveckla dessa nya styrmedel avser projektet attstudera beställarnas nuvarande styrmedel, vilka huvudsakligen är utvecklade med utgångspunkt från det traditionella byggandet och därför anpassade efter detta, studera de specifika krav som en industriell byggprocess ställer, och jämföra beställarnas styrmedel med dessa krav för att identifiera eventuella gap och hinder för beställare att, vid beslut om att initiera byggprojekt, kunna beakta industriella byggalternativ tillsammans med mer traditionella.  

  • 45.
    Stehn, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Uusitalo, Petri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Lavikka, Rita
    Engström, Susanne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Managing tension between exploitation and exploration in industrialized house-buildingManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Propose - Aim of this paper is to understand what constitutes exploitation, exploration and how the tension between exploitation and exploration is managed over-time. Dynamic capabilities provide means for companies to successfully survive in the long-run. However, these capabilities are poorly understood and less studied in house-building. Industrialized house-building often involves long-term investments and therefore provide a contemporary setting for studying dynamic capabilities empirically.

    Design/method/approach - A longitudinal case study was conducted to understand how an industrialized house-building company exploits and explores, reconfigures resources over time and deals with tensions between exploitative and explorative actions.

    Findings - The findings show several managerial activities to manage short-term variation and exploitation and long-term variation and exploration. The study also reveals how activities are employed to handle the tension between exploration and exploitation.

    Originality/value - The results challenge the assumption that trade-offs need to be made between innovation and efficiency. In contrast to previous findings, the study shows that the case company is not constrained in terms of a combined exploitative and explorative strategy to house-building.

  • 46.
    Svensson, Susanne
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    "Ett steg i taget": Stöd till livsstilsförändringar vid metabolt syndrom en intervjustudie2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Studier har visat att allt fler människor i vårt samhälle lider av bukfetma/övervikt, höga blodfetter, högt blodtryck samt förhöjt blodsocker, en definition av dessa begrepp är det metabola syndromet som är det mest etablerade uttrycket. Den primära behandlingen för det metabola syndromet är att förbättra sina levnadsvanor. Distriktssköterskan kan genom kunskap, kompetens och förståelse hjälpa patienter till att förändra sina livsstilsvanor och förebygga det metabola syndromet. Syftet var att beskriva distriktssköterskors erfarenheter av stöd till livsstilsförändringar för patienter med metabolt syndrom. Studien genomfördes med fokusintervju i vilken fem distriktssköterskor deltog. Materialet analyserades utifrån en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. I resultatet framträder tre kategorier: Att informera och dela med sig av sin kunskap, att bjuda in i vårdandet och att motivera. Sammanfattningsvis kom det fram att det främsta motivet till att pa tienterna blir motiverade till att förändra sin livsstil är när de ser att deras värden förbättras. Resultatet visar att de små livsstilsförändringarna är lättare att leva med än att göra större förändringar vilket ofta kan leda till besvikelse.

  • 47.
    Uusitalo, Petri
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Engström, Susanne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Detecting and understanding bottlenecks in production using multiple methods2017Ingår i: ICCREM 2016: BIM Application and Offsite Construction - Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Construction and Real Estate Management 2016 / [ed] Wang Y.,Al-Hussein M.,Shen G.Q.P.,Zhu Y., Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2017, s. 307-315Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a competitive situation where clients demand for high responsiveness to order-specific requirements, suppliers of volumetric preassemblies are struggling to maintain efficiency in production. In operation management literature, bottleneck detection has been suggested as key to continuous improvement processes in manufacturing. Yet, there is no consensus on definition and detection of bottlenecks. In an ongoing study, aiming to better understand manufacturing implications of high responsiveness to unique clients' specifications, a volumetric preassembly company providing prefabricated bathroom pods was addressed. Bottlenecks were explored based on three methods suggested in the literature i.e. by asking knowledgeable employees, by observing WIP inventory, and by analyzing process data in a field experiment. By juxtaposing the results, a mixed and somewhat contradictory view was displayed of bottlenecks and their potential root causes. Thus, a more complex view emerges of how to understand and address bottlenecks to improve production efficiency, highlighting the need to potentially extend shop-floor assessments to include supplier and client interfaces.

  • 48.
    Åberg, Susanne
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    "Ju roligare saker é, desto lättare lär man sig, ju mer tar man in.": En kvalitativ undersökning om lärares kontra elevers tankar om meningsskapande undervisning.2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka vad lärare kontra elever anser att förutsättningarna är, för att upplevelsen av en meningsskapande undervisning ska infinna sig. Detta belyses utifrån två frågeställningar som fokuserar på vad eleverna upplever att meningsskapande undervisning är och vad lärarna anser vara viktiga delar i en meningsskapande undervisning. För att ta reda på detta användes kvalitativa intervjuer och undersökningsgrupperna bestod av två enskilda lärarintervjuer och fyra elevgruppintervjuer.

    Uppsatsen vilar på Deweys kommunikativa meningsteori och hans tankar kring det transaktionella perspektivet. Genom att interagera i kommunikativa sammanhang uppstår transaktioner som skapar mening. Resultatet konstaterar att det finns många delar som påverkar den meningsskapande undervisningen. Allt från intresse, lust och glädje inför skolarbetet, till upplägget av undervisningen och den sociala miljön mellan eleverna på skolan. Resultatet i undersökningen visade dock på varierad samstämmighet då det kommer till vad lärare och elever upplever som meningsskapande undervisning. Vissa delar såsom intresse anses av båda parter vara av betydelse medan glädje inte anses vara av betydande faktor för meningsskapande av lärarna. 

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