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  • 1.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholms universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Arlie Russell Hochschild2013In: Relationell socialpsykologi: klassiska och samtida teorier / [ed] Henrik Stenberg & Bo Isenberg, Stockholm: Liber , 2013, 1, p. 166-195Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Arlie Russell Hochschild2013In: Relationell socialpsykologi: klassiska och samtida teorier / [ed] Henrik Stenberg & Bo Isenberg, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, 1, p. 166-195Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholms universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Bengt Ohlsson: Rollkonflikt och autenticitet2015In: Sociologi genom litteratur / [ed] Cristofer Edling, Jens Rydgren, Lund: Arkiv förlag & tidskrift , 2015, p. 275-284Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bengt Ohlsson: Rollkonflikt och autenticitet2015In: Sociologi genom litteratur / [ed] Cristofer Edling, Jens Rydgren, Lund: Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2015, p. 275-284Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholms universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Emotional insights in the field2015In: Methods of exploring emotions / [ed] Helena Flam and Jochen Kleres, Abingdon: Routledge , 2015, p. 125-133Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Emotional insights in the field2015In: Methods of exploring emotions / [ed] Helena Flam and Jochen Kleres, Abingdon: Routledge, 2015, p. 125-133Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholms universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Emotional Participation: the use of the observer’s emotions as a methodological tool when studying professional stage actors rehearsing a role for the stage2009In: Nordic Theatre Studies, ISSN 0904-6380, E-ISSN 2002-3898, Vol. 21, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution aims to identify and clarify emotional aspects of conducting observation studies. The researcher, in most cases, does not want to interfere with or influence the phenomenon under observation, but uses her/himself as a tool to collect material. Even if the observer does not participate verbally, s/he can be emotionally participative using her/his emotions as a methodological tool, generating reflections and insights relative to the situations and persons that are the object of observation. Earlier contributions from social anthropology and psychotherapy are discussed and compared to examples from observations on the rehearsals of two theatre productions. One crucial point is that the researcher’s emotions can be more or less congruent with the situation at hand; a match as well as a mis-match can be used as information in the research process. Furthermore, the emotional expressions displayed by professional actors can be more or less emotionally anchored within them. Do the observer’s feelings correlate with the research subjects’ felt emotions or their portrayed emotions? Reflections on these issues can be used in interviews with research subjects to attain a more nuanced and tangible interpretation of the studied phenomenon.

  • 8.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Emotional Participation: the use of the observer’s emotions as a methodological tool when studying professional stage actors rehearsing a role for the stage2009In: Nordic Theatre Studies, ISSN 0904-6380, E-ISSN 2002-3898, Vol. 21, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution aims to identify and clarify emotional aspects of conducting observation studies. The researcher, in most cases, does not want to interfere with or influence the phenomenon under observation, but uses her/himself as a tool to collect material. Even if the observer does not participate verbally, s/he can be emotionally participative using her/his emotions as a methodological tool, generating reflections and insights relative to the situations and persons that are the object of observation. Earlier contributions from social anthropology and psychotherapy are discussed and compared to examples from observations on the rehearsals of two theatre productions. One crucial point is that the researcher’s emotions can be more or less congruent with the situation at hand; a match as well as a mis-match can be used as information in the research process. Furthermore, the emotional expressions displayed by professional actors can be more or less emotionally anchored within them. Do the observer’s feelings correlate with the research subjects’ felt emotions or their portrayed emotions? Reflections on these issues can be used in interviews with research subjects to attain a more nuanced and tangible interpretation of the studied phenomenon.

  • 9.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholms universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Facilitating emotion management: organisational and individual strategies in the theatre2014In: International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion, ISSN 1740-8938, E-ISSN 1740-8946, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 193-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detailed analysis of two theatre productions shows that the conceptof bounded emotionality can be used to tease out aspects of emotionmanagement that would not otherwise have been detectable. Non-instrumentalways to manage emotions – to facilitate emotion work – are used in situationswhere the goal is to produce quality performances, not to promote well-beingas such. The rehearsal period consists of phases that require different emotionmanagement strategies. In an initial phase, a secure working climate isestablished to deal with feelings of insecurity and shame. A creative phaseallows for role-related emotions, and a crisis phase calls for a balance betweenfrontstage and backstage regions. In a final phase, the ensemble closes its ranksand prepares to meet the audience. The director is expected to ‘manipulate withfinesse’, transforming his/her leadership role during the rehearsal process fromthat of boss to coach. Private, role-related and situation-related emotions aredifferentiated, showing how emotions are seized, channelled and divided inorder to direct emotional energy in effective ways. Finally, we discussimplications for organisations outside the theatrical domain.

  • 10.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Facilitating emotion management: organisational and individual strategies in the theatre2014In: International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion, ISSN 1740-8938, E-ISSN 1740-8946, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 193-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detailed analysis of two theatre productions shows that the conceptof bounded emotionality can be used to tease out aspects of emotionmanagement that would not otherwise have been detectable. Non-instrumentalways to manage emotions – to facilitate emotion work – are used in situationswhere the goal is to produce quality performances, not to promote well-beingas such. The rehearsal period consists of phases that require different emotionmanagement strategies. In an initial phase, a secure working climate isestablished to deal with feelings of insecurity and shame. A creative phaseallows for role-related emotions, and a crisis phase calls for a balance betweenfrontstage and backstage regions. In a final phase, the ensemble closes its ranksand prepares to meet the audience. The director is expected to ‘manipulate withfinesse’, transforming his/her leadership role during the rehearsal process fromthat of boss to coach. Private, role-related and situation-related emotions aredifferentiated, showing how emotions are seized, channelled and divided inorder to direct emotional energy in effective ways. Finally, we discussimplications for organisations outside the theatrical domain.

  • 11.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholms universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Martine Herzog-Evans, French Renentry Courts and Rehabilitation: Mister Jourdain of Desistance2017In: Punishment & Society, ISSN 1462-4745, E-ISSN 1741-3095, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 260-262Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Martine Herzog-Evans, French Renentry Courts and Rehabilitation: Mister Jourdain of Desistance2017In: Punishment & Society, ISSN 1462-4745, E-ISSN 1741-3095, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 260-262Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholms universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Professional emotion management as a rehearsal process2015In: Professions & Professionalism, ISSN 1893-1049, E-ISSN 1893-1049, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work of stage actors has long been used as a simile for every day role playing, generating theoretical concepts to describe how people work to pre-sent themselves in general and how they manage their emotions in particular. Building on this tradition, this article analyses professional stage actors’ deliberate emotion management as an embodied professionalisation process, focusing the relation between emotional experience and expression through the concepts of decoupling, double agency and habituation. Observations and interviews with thea-tre actors rehearsing for a role revealed how they gradually develop a capacity for double agency, decoupling the experience from the expression of emotions, which are eventually habituated in a form adapted to the role character. This process of professionalising emotion management is beneficial to the presentation of role-appropriate emotions and furthers the ability to cope with the endeavour of manag-ing emotions at work. Implications for professions outside the artistic domain are discussed.

  • 14.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Professional emotion management as a rehearsal process2015In: Professions & Professionalism, ISSN 1893-1049, E-ISSN 1893-1049, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work of stage actors has long been used as a simile for every day role playing, generating theoretical concepts to describe how people work to pre-sent themselves in general and how they manage their emotions in particular. Building on this tradition, this article analyses professional stage actors’ deliberate emotion management as an embodied professionalisation process, focusing the relation between emotional experience and expression through the concepts of decoupling, double agency and habituation. Observations and interviews with thea-tre actors rehearsing for a role revealed how they gradually develop a capacity for double agency, decoupling the experience from the expression of emotions, which are eventually habituated in a form adapted to the role character. This process of professionalising emotion management is beneficial to the presentation of role-appropriate emotions and furthers the ability to cope with the endeavour of manag-ing emotions at work. Implications for professions outside the artistic domain are discussed.

  • 15.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholms universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Rehearsing Emotions: The Process of Creating a Role for the Stage2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis takes as its starting point the dramaturgical metaphor of the world as a stage, which is used in sociological role theories. These theories often presume what stage acting is about in order to use it as a simile for every day acting. My intention is to investigate how stage actors actually work with their roles, in particular how they work with emotions, and how it affects their private emotions.

    The thesis draws on participant observation and interviews with actors during the rehearsal phase of two productions at a large theatre in Sweden. The results show that the inhabiting of a role for the stage is more difficult and painstaking than has been assumed in role theories so far. Shame and insecurity are common, particularly in the start up phase of the rehearsals. Interestingly, these emotions do not disappear with growing experience, but instead become recognized and accepted as part of the work process.

    The primary focus is the interplay between the actors' experience and expression of emotions, often described in terms of surface and deep acting, concepts which are elaborated and put into a process perspective. Analysis of the rehearsal process revealed that actors gradually decouple the privately derived emotional experiences that they use to find their way into their characters from the emotions that they express on the stage. Thus private experiences are converted to professional emotional experiences and expressions, triggered by situational cues. When the experience has been expressed the physical manifestation can be repeated with a weaker base in a simultaneous experience, since the body remembers the expression. It is important though, that the emotional expression is not completely decoupled from a concomitant experience; then the expression looses its vitality. The ability to professionalize emotions makes the transitions in and out of emotions less strenuous but can infiltrate and cause problems in the actors' intimate relations.

  • 16.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rehearsing Emotions: The Process of Creating a Role for the Stage2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis takes as its starting point the dramaturgical metaphor of the world as a stage, which is used in sociological role theories. These theories often presume what stage acting is about in order to use it as a simile for every day acting. My intention is to investigate how stage actors actually work with their roles, in particular how they work with emotions, and how it affects their private emotions.

    The thesis draws on participant observation and interviews with actors during the rehearsal phase of two productions at a large theatre in Sweden. The results show that the inhabiting of a role for the stage is more difficult and painstaking than has been assumed in role theories so far. Shame and insecurity are common, particularly in the start up phase of the rehearsals. Interestingly, these emotions do not disappear with growing experience, but instead become recognized and accepted as part of the work process.

    The primary focus is the interplay between the actors' experience and expression of emotions, often described in terms of surface and deep acting, concepts which are elaborated and put into a process perspective. Analysis of the rehearsal process revealed that actors gradually decouple the privately derived emotional experiences that they use to find their way into their characters from the emotions that they express on the stage. Thus private experiences are converted to professional emotional experiences and expressions, triggered by situational cues. When the experience has been expressed the physical manifestation can be repeated with a weaker base in a simultaneous experience, since the body remembers the expression. It is important though, that the emotional expression is not completely decoupled from a concomitant experience; then the expression looses its vitality. The ability to professionalize emotions makes the transitions in and out of emotions less strenuous but can infiltrate and cause problems in the actors' intimate relations.

  • 17.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholms universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Stage Actors and Emotions at Work2007In: International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion, ISSN 1740-8938, E-ISSN 1740-8946, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 161-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the distinctions between ‘playing’ and ‘playing at’ and between deep and surface acting made by Goffman and Hochschild, using examples from stage-rehearsals. This reveals how stage actors switch between these modes and employ various manifestations, rather than using either of them exclusively. The findings are thought to have conceptual implications beyond the particular case of stage acting. One tentative conclusion is that the difference between an actor rehearsing an emotion-laden situation and experiencing a similar situation in real life lies in how the situation is confronted and handled rather than in the actual emotions.

  • 18.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Stage Actors and Emotions at Work2007In: International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion, ISSN 1740-8938, E-ISSN 1740-8946, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 161-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the distinctions between ‘playing’ and ‘playing at’ and between deep and surface acting made by Goffman and Hochschild, using examples from stage-rehearsals. This reveals how stage actors switch between these modes and employ various manifestations, rather than using either of them exclusively. The findings are thought to have conceptual implications beyond the particular case of stage acting. One tentative conclusion is that the difference between an actor rehearsing an emotion-laden situation and experiencing a similar situation in real life lies in how the situation is confronted and handled rather than in the actual emotions.

  • 19.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Wettergren, Åsa
    A sociological perspective on emotions in the judiciary2016In: Emotion Review, ISSN 1754-0739, E-ISSN 1754-0747, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 32-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing a sociological perspective on judicial emotions, we argue that previous studies underemphasize structural andinteractional dimensions. Through key concepts in the sociology of emotions we relate professional court actors’ emotionmanagement to the emotional regime of the judiciary. Examples from the Swedish judiciary illustrate three main arguments:(a) The idea of rational justice as nonemotional must be investigated as a joint accomplishment including collective emotionmanagement; (b) Judicial objectivity requires situated emotion management and empathy, orientated by emotions of pride/shame;(c) The structural dimensions of power/status mitigate feeling and display rules. The situated power of the judge is upheld byritual deference from other court professionals. Concluding, we suggest topics to develop structural and interactional perspectiveson judicial emotion.

  • 20.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Wettergren, Åsa
    A sociological perspective on emotions in the judiciary2016In: Emotion Review, ISSN 1754-0739, E-ISSN 1754-0747, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 32-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing a sociological perspective on judicial emotions, we argue that previous studies underemphasize structural andinteractional dimensions. Through key concepts in the sociology of emotions we relate professional court actors’ emotionmanagement to the emotional regime of the judiciary. Examples from the Swedish judiciary illustrate three main arguments:(a) The idea of rational justice as nonemotional must be investigated as a joint accomplishment including collective emotionmanagement; (b) Judicial objectivity requires situated emotion management and empathy, orientated by emotions of pride/shame;(c) The structural dimensions of power/status mitigate feeling and display rules. The situated power of the judge is upheld byritual deference from other court professionals. Concluding, we suggest topics to develop structural and interactional perspectiveson judicial emotion.

  • 21.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Wettergren, Åsa
    The emotional labour of gaining and maintaining access to the field2015In: Qualitative Research, ISSN 1468-7941, E-ISSN 1741-3109, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 688-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of emotions in qualitative research receives increasing attention. We argue for an activerather than a reactive approach towards emotions to improve the quality of research; emotionsare a vital source of information and researchers use emotions strategically. Analysing the emotionwork of researchers in the process of gaining, securing and maintaining access to the Swedishjudiciary, we propose that the emotion work involved is a type of emotional labour, requiredby the researcher in order to successfully collect data. The particular case of researching elitesis highlighted. Emotional labour is analysed along three dimensions: 1. Strategic emotion work– building trust outwards and self-confidence inwards; 2. Emotional reflexivity – attentiveness toemotional signals monitoring one’s position and actions in the field; and 3. Emotion work to copewith emotive dissonance – inward-directed emotion work to deal with the potentially alienatingeffects of strategic emotion work.

  • 22.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Wettergren, Åsa
    The emotional labour of gaining and maintaining access to the field2015In: Qualitative Research, ISSN 1468-7941, E-ISSN 1741-3109, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 688-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of emotions in qualitative research receives increasing attention. We argue for an activerather than a reactive approach towards emotions to improve the quality of research; emotionsare a vital source of information and researchers use emotions strategically. Analysing the emotionwork of researchers in the process of gaining, securing and maintaining access to the Swedishjudiciary, we propose that the emotion work involved is a type of emotional labour, requiredby the researcher in order to successfully collect data. The particular case of researching elitesis highlighted. Emotional labour is analysed along three dimensions: 1. Strategic emotion work– building trust outwards and self-confidence inwards; 2. Emotional reflexivity – attentiveness toemotional signals monitoring one’s position and actions in the field; and 3. Emotion work to copewith emotive dissonance – inward-directed emotion work to deal with the potentially alienatingeffects of strategic emotion work.

  • 23.
    Blix, Stina
    Stockholms universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Skådespelarens yrkeskunnande: en fenomenologisk studie2004In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, no 1, p. 37-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Six theatre actors of both sexes differing in education and length of experience were interviewed individually on their professional competence. Phenomenological reduction generated six fundamental constituents of the actors' professional competence interpreted in terms of a ”wheel model”: mastery of technical skills such as being able to control one’s voice and one's body; daring to approach each new role with an open mind; being able to work effectively with co-actors in an ensemble; having a capacity for a high degree of empathy; being able to keep one’s professional and private life separate; doing one’s best at each performance. Each constituent was seen as contributing to the essence of an actor’s skill - the ability to make a role figure come alive. Similarities and differences compared with other professions are pointed out. The significance of daring to have an open mind, that is of encountering personal emotions, such as early experiences of emotional significance, in the "front region", when studying a new role together with the director and with co-actors, is emphasized.

  • 24.
    Blix, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Skådespelarens yrkeskunnande: en fenomenologisk studie2004In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, no 1, p. 37-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Six theatre actors of both sexes differing in education and length of experience were interviewed individually on their professional competence. Phenomenological reduction generated six fundamental constituents of the actors' professional competence interpreted in terms of a ”wheel model”: mastery of technical skills such as being able to control one’s voice and one's body; daring to approach each new role with an open mind; being able to work effectively with co-actors in an ensemble; having a capacity for a high degree of empathy; being able to keep one’s professional and private life separate; doing one’s best at each performance. Each constituent was seen as contributing to the essence of an actor’s skill - the ability to make a role figure come alive. Similarities and differences compared with other professions are pointed out. The significance of daring to have an open mind, that is of encountering personal emotions, such as early experiences of emotional significance, in the "front region", when studying a new role together with the director and with co-actors, is emphasized.

  • 25. Roach Anleu, Sharyn
    et al.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholms universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Mack, Kathy
    Researching Emotion in Courts and the Judiciary: A Tale of Two Projects2015In: Emotion Review, ISSN 1754-0739, E-ISSN 1754-0747, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 145-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dominant image of judicial authority is emotional detachment; however, judicial work involves emotion. This presents a challenge for researchers to investigate emotions where they are disavowed. Two projects, one in Australia and another in Sweden, use multiple sociological research methods to study judicial experience, expression, and management of emotion. In both projects, observational research examines judicial officers' display of emotion in court, while interviews investigate judicial emotional experiences. Surveys in Australia identify emotions judicial officers generally find important in their work; in Sweden, shadowing allows researchers to investigate individual judicial emotion experiences and expression. Evaluating the different methods used demonstrates the limitations and effectiveness of particular research designs, the value of multiple methods and the challenges for researching emotion.

  • 26. Roach Anleu, Sharyn
    et al.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Mack, Kathy
    Researching Emotion in Courts and the Judiciary: A Tale of Two Projects2015In: Emotion Review, ISSN 1754-0739, E-ISSN 1754-0747, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 145-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dominant image of judicial authority is emotional detachment; however, judicial work involves emotion. This presents a challenge for researchers to investigate emotions where they are disavowed. Two projects, one in Australia and another in Sweden, use multiple sociological research methods to study judicial experience, expression, and management of emotion. In both projects, observational research examines judicial officers' display of emotion in court, while interviews investigate judicial emotional experiences. Surveys in Australia identify emotions judicial officers generally find important in their work; in Sweden, shadowing allows researchers to investigate individual judicial emotion experiences and expression. Evaluating the different methods used demonstrates the limitations and effectiveness of particular research designs, the value of multiple methods and the challenges for researching emotion.

  • 27. Roach Anleu, Sharyn
    et al.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholms universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Mack, Kathy
    Wettergren, Åsa
    Observing judicial work and emotions: using two researchers2016In: Qualitative Research, ISSN 1468-7941, E-ISSN 1741-3109, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 375-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observation is an important component of research to examine complex social settings and iswell-established for studying courtroom dynamics and judicial behaviour. However, the manyactivities occurring at once and the multiple participants, lay and professional, make it impossiblefor a sole researcher to observe and understand everything occurring in the courtroom. Thisarticle reports on the use of two researchers to undertake court observations, in two differentstudies, each nested in a different research design. The social nature of data collection and thevalue of dialogue between the two researchers in interpreting observed events, especially whenstudying emotion, are readily apparent in both studies.

  • 28. Roach Anleu, Sharyn
    et al.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Mack, Kathy
    Wettergren, Åsa
    Observing judicial work and emotions: using two researchers2016In: Qualitative Research, ISSN 1468-7941, E-ISSN 1741-3109, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 375-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observation is an important component of research to examine complex social settings and iswell-established for studying courtroom dynamics and judicial behaviour. However, the manyactivities occurring at once and the multiple participants, lay and professional, make it impossiblefor a sole researcher to observe and understand everything occurring in the courtroom. Thisarticle reports on the use of two researchers to undertake court observations, in two differentstudies, each nested in a different research design. The social nature of data collection and thevalue of dialogue between the two researchers in interpreting observed events, especially whenstudying emotion, are readily apparent in both studies.

  • 29. Wettergren, Åsa
    et al.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholms universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Empathy and Objectivity in the Legal Procedure: The Case of Swedish Prosecutors2016In: Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, ISSN 1404-3858, E-ISSN 1651-2340, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 19-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of empathy, the capacity to read someone else’s emotions, in the legal context has previously been studied in relation to primarily judges’ decision-making, often with a concern for objectivity. Our purpose is to study professional emotion management in the legal process through an analysis of Swedish prosecutors’ use of empathy. An ethnographic data collection took place between 2012 and 2015, including shadowing, observations and interviews with 36 prosecutors from 3 prosecution offices. The analysis shows that during the investigation, empathy helps identify the prerequisites of a crime and deciding if and how to prosecute. When preparing for trial, empathy is used to anticipate the situation in court. During the trial, the empathic process includes management of the emotions of others in order to stage credible testimonies, convince the judge and calm victims. The empathic process is oriented and restricted by the emotive–cognitive judicial frame through which prosecutors are rewarded by emotions of comfort and pride in demonstrating expertise of legal coding. We conclude that empathy is integral to prosecutors’ professional performance, including the requirement to be objective. The study points to the problems with silencing emotions and maintaining a positivist notion of objectivity in the legal system.

  • 30. Wettergren, Åsa
    et al.
    Bergman Blix, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Empathy and Objectivity in the Legal Procedure: the Case of Swedish Prosecutors2016In: Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, ISSN 1404-3858, E-ISSN 1651-2340, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 19-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of empathy, the capacity to read someone else’s emotions, in the legal context has previously been studied in relation to primarily judges’ decision-making, often with a concern for objectivity. Our purpose is to study professional emotion management in the legal process through an analysis of Swedish prosecutors’ use of empathy. An ethnographic data collection took place between 2012 and 2015, including shadowing, observations and interviews with 36 prosecutors from 3 prosecution offices. The analysis shows that during the investigation, empathy helps identify the prerequisites of a crime and deciding if and how to prosecute. When preparing for trial, empathy is used to anticipate the situation in court. During the trial, the empathic process includes management of the emotions of others in order to stage credible testimonies, convince the judge and calm victims. The empathic process is oriented and restricted by the emotive–cognitive judicial frame through which prosecutors are rewarded by emotions of comfort and pride in demonstrating expertise of legal coding. We conclude that empathy is integral to prosecutors’ professional performance, including the requirement to be objective. The study points to the problems with silencing emotions and maintaining a positivist notion of objectivity in the legal system.

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