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  • 1.
    Hellstrand, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Attempting institutional change: Swedish apprenticeship, 1890-19172016In: Nordic Journal of Educational History, ISSN 2001-7766, E-ISSN 2001-9076, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 31-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden never got an apprentice law after apprenticeship was de-regulated in 1864. This has been attributed to unified opposition to legislation from industry employers and trade unions, with the craft employers as the only advocates. Analysing the pattern of agreement and disagreement in the political struggle over apprenticeship in the Swedish case in 1890–1917, it is clear that opposition was not that uniform, nor was the support from the craft employers that undivided. This article makes use of Kathleen Thelen’s model of institutional change in order to shed new light on the developments in Sweden. The model states that any apprentice law requires a coalition of two or more out of the state, the crafts and the metalworking industries – divided into employers and workers. Legislation, in turn, is a near requirement for the survival of strong apprenticeship. In this article the Swedish case will be discussed in relation to two of Thelen’s cases, Germany and Great Britain. In Germany an apprentice law was passed in 1897, while in Great Britain no modern apprentice law was ever passed. Similarities can be found between both of these cases and the Swedish case.

  • 2.
    Hellstrand, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Lärlingsfrågan: Institutionell förändring, ekonomiska föreställningar och historiska begrepp i den svenska debatten om lärlingsutbildningen, 1890-19172020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The turn of the 20th century was a formative period of industrialisation and class formation, and a key period in the development of European systems of vocational education and training. At that time, apprenticeship training was frequently debated in Sweden, just as it was in many other parts of Europe. However, even though the apprentice question was seen as important enough to be repeatedly examined in public inquiries in the decades around 1900, Sweden did not get an apprenticeship law.

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate why Sweden did not get an apprenticeship law in the period 1890–1917, with a focus on the debate about what, if anything, to do about apprentice training. Using language-oriented analysis, the thesis contributes new knowledge about the development of the Swedish system of vocational education and training. The studies are based on primary sources from multiple actors – from the craft employers’ organisations to public inquiries and consultation statements by industry employers, unions and parliament. However, the focus is on the craft employers, who were the main proponents of apprentice legislation.

    The first article analyses agreement and disagreement in political argumentation. Many of these arguments contain an economic aspect, and the second article investigates economic perceptions of apprentice training. The first and second article, in line with much of the existing literature, emphasises the impact of class conflicts and the growth of industry on the politics of apprenticeship. The third article therefore takes a closer look at how these structural changes are imprinted on the craft employers’ language in the debate on apprenticeship, by analysing historical concepts connected to yrke and fack (both of which can be roughly translated as vocation, occupation or trade, although fack is also a Swedish term for trade union), klass (class) and stånd (estate).

    The main findings highlight a previously overlooked level of support for the idea of apprenticeship legislation among both employers and unions, combined with strong disagreements concerning the content of the proposed legislation. It is clear that there was both a craft/industry divide and a worker/employer divide. The latter has in previous research been emphasised as detrimental to the prospects for apprenticeship legislation. In the Swedish case, this class conflict reduced the chances of such legislation, as the state was also either unwilling or unable to introduce an apprentice law without agreement between employers and workers. The first article outlines much of these findings, while the second and third articles, in exploring other aspects of the apprentice question, further reinforce and nuance the main results.

  • 3.
    Hellstrand, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Mästare, idkare, arbetsgivare? Yrke, fack, klass och stånd i lärlingsfrågan i Sverige 1891-19132020Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skulle eller skulle inte Sverige få en lärlingslag? Det var den huvudsakliga frågan i en debatt som kallades för lärlingsfrågan, runt sekelskiftet 1900. Liknande debatter fördes ungefär samtidigt i andra europeiska länder. Flera av dessa länder fick också lärlingslagar. I Sverige blev det dock inte någon lärlingslag. Tidigare forskning har visat att samhällsomvandlingen – framför allt arbetares och arbetsgivares organisering och industrisektorns tillväxt – påverkade lärlingsfrågans utveckling. Denna artikel tar sig an dessa aspekter i de svenska hantverksarbetsgivarnas debatt om lärlingsfrågan, år 1891–1913, i ett begreppshistoriskt bidrag till svensk yrkesutbildningshistoria. En riksdagsdebatt och två statliga lagförslag utgör jämförelsepunkter. Syftet är att fördjupa förståelsen av hur debatten om lärlingsfrågan färgades av samhällsomvandlingen genom att analysera hantverksarbetsgivarnas begreppsbruk inom partsrelationernas semantiska fält via språkbruket kring (1) yrke, fack, klass och stånd, (2) den anställande och den anställda parten i ett arbetsavtal eller lärlingsavtal, (3) vilka grupper som hantverksarbetsgivarna anser sig tillhöra och vilka de inte anser sig tillhöra. I analysen ingår även hantverksarbetsgivarnas erfarenhetsrum och förväntanshorisont eller annorlunda uttryckt deras beskrivningar av dåtid, nutid och framtid. Resultatet visar att hantverksarbetsgivarna såg lärlingslagen som en lösning på konflikten med arbetarna. Tanken var antingen att återetablera en kunskapsbaserad yrkesgemenskap och/eller att lärlingsutbildningens uppfostrande element skulle leda till minskad antagonism. I dessa lösningar var yrkesbegreppet centralt. Partsrelationerna skilde sig också åt mellan hantverk och industri, vilket återspeglas i användning av begreppen mästare, idkare och arbetsgivare. Den begreppshistoriska analysen av partsrelationernas semantiska fält samt hantverksarbetsgivarnas erfarenhetsrum och förväntanshorisont placerar in lärlingsfrågan i en bredare samhällsomvandling under en omvälvande och formativ period.

  • 4.
    Hellstrand, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations.
    Perceptions of the economics of apprenticeship in Sweden c. 19002019In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 12-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, apprentice training was frequently debated in Sweden, just as in many other parts of Europe. This study analyses the economic perceptions of apprenticeship in the Swedish debate. Economic theories of apprenticeship, from Becker's human capital concept to institutional theories, are used as a point of comparison. How the contemporary actors understood the economics of apprenticeship helps us understand the conditions of Swedish post-guild apprenticeship. The analysis reveals similarities between the contemporary description and the economic theories of on-the-job training, as well as historically specific aspects of the perceptions of the economics of apprenticeship. Both in the economic theories and in the turn-of-the-century debate, the problems plaguing apprenticeship tie in to the question of whether or not there was a sufficient level of training from a societal perspective, or if there was underinvestment. This, in turn, leads to the question of the need for state intervention to correct a potential market failure. At the time, the perceived problems of apprenticeship were used as justification for a proposed apprentice law, which was never passed, and limited state financial support for training that was instituted in 1917.

  • 5.
    Hellstrand, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lundh Nilsson, Fay
    Yrkesutbildning:  2011In: Utbildningshistoria: en introduktion / [ed] Esbjörn Larsson, Johannes Westberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
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