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  • 1.
    Ericsson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Henriksen, Rie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bélteky, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundman, Ann-Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shionoya, Kiseko
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Long-Term and Transgenerational Effects of Stress Experienced during Different Life Phases in Chickens (Gallus gallus)2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 4, article id e0153879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress in animals causes not only immediate reactions, but may affect their biology for long periods, even across generations. Particular interest has been paid to perinatal stress, but also adolescence has been shown to be a sensitive period in mammals. So far, no systematic study has been performed of the relative importance of stress encountered during different life phases. In this study, groups of chickens were exposed to a six-day period of repeated stress during three different life phases: early (two weeks), early puberty (eight weeks) and late puberty (17 weeks), and the effects were compared to an unstressed control group. The short-term effects were assessed by behaviour, and the long-term and transgenerational effects were determined by effects on behavior and corticosterone secretion, as well as on hypothalamic gene expression. Short-term effects were strongest in the two week group and the eight week group, whereas long-term and transgenerational effects were detected in all three stress groups. However, stress at different ages affected different aspects of the biology of the chickens, and it was not possible to determine a particularly sensitive life phase. The results show that stress during puberty appears to be at least equally critical as the previously studied early life phase. These findings may have important implications for animal welfare in egg production, since laying hens are often exposed to stress during the three periods pinpointed here.

  • 2.
    Fogelholm, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inkabi, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Höglund, Andrey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johnsson, Martin
    Univ Edinburgh, Scotland; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Henriksen, Rie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Genetical Genomics of Tonic Immobility in the Chicken2019In: Genes, ISSN 2073-4425, E-ISSN 2073-4425, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying the molecular mechanisms of animal behaviour is an enduring goal for researchers. Gaining insight into these mechanisms enables us to gain a greater understanding of behaviour and their genetic control. In this paper, we perform Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping of tonic immobility behaviour in an advanced intercross line between wild and domestic chickens. Genes located within the QTL interval were further investigated using global expression QTL (eQTL) mapping from hypothalamus tissue, as well as causality analysis. This identified five candidate genes, with the genes PRDX4 and ACOT9 emerging as the best supported candidates. In addition, we also investigated the connection between tonic immobility, meat pH and struggling behaviour, as the two candidate genes PRDX4 and ACOT9 have previously been implicated in controlling muscle pH at slaughter. We did not find any phenotypic correlations between tonic immobility, struggling behaviour and muscle pH in a smaller additional cohort, despite these behaviours being repeatable within-test.

  • 3.
    Gering, Eben
    et al.
    Michigan State Univ, MI 48824 USA.
    Incorvaia, Darren
    Michigan State Univ, MI 48824 USA.
    Henriksen, Rie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Getty, Thomas
    Michigan State Univ, MI 48824 USA.
    Maladaptation in feral and domesticated animals2019In: Evolutionary Applications, ISSN 1752-4571, E-ISSN 1752-4571, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 1274-1286Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selection regimes and population structures can be powerfully changed by domestication and feralization, and these changes can modulate animal fitness in both captive and natural environments. In this review, we synthesize recent studies of these two processes and consider their impacts on organismal and population fitness. Domestication and feralization offer multiple windows into the forms and mechanisms of maladaptation. Firstly, domestic and feral organisms that exhibit suboptimal traits or fitness allow us to identify their underlying causes within tractable research systems. This has facilitated significant progress in our general understandings of genotype-phenotype relationships, fitness trade-offs, and the roles of population structure and artificial selection in shaping domestic and formerly domestic organisms. Additionally, feralization of artificially selected gene variants and organisms can reveal or produce maladaptation in other inhabitants of an invaded biotic community. In these instances, feral animals often show similar fitness advantages to other invasive species, but they are also unique in their capacities to modify natural ecosystems through introductions of artificially selected traits. We conclude with a brief consideration of how emerging technologies such as genome editing could change the tempos, trajectories, and ecological consequences of both domestication and feralization. In addition to providing basic evolutionary insights, our growing understanding of mechanisms through which artificial selection can modulate fitness has diverse and important applications-from enhancing the welfare, sustainability, and efficiency of agroindustry, to mitigating biotic invasions.

  • 4.
    Henriksen, Rie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johnsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, L
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The domesticated brain: genetics of brain mass and brain structure in an avian species.2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As brain size usually increases with body size it has been assumed that the two are tightly constrained and evolutionary studies have therefore often been based on relative brain size (i.e. brain size proportional to body size) rather than absolute brain size. The process of domestication offers an excellent opportunity to disentangle the linkage between body and brain mass due to the extreme selection for increased body mass that has occurred. By breeding an intercross between domestic chicken and their wild progenitor, we address this relationship by simultaneously mapping the genes that control inter-population variation in brain mass and body mass. Loci controlling variation in brain mass and body mass have separate genetic architectures and are therefore not directly constrained. Genetic mapping of brain regions indicates that domestication has led to a larger body mass and to a lesser extent a larger absolute brain mass in chickens, mainly due to enlargement of the cerebellum. Domestication has traditionally been linked to brain mass regression, based on measurements of relative brain mass, which confounds the large body mass augmentation due to domestication. Our results refute this concept in the chicken.

  • 5.
    Henriksen, Rie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University of Groningen, Netherlands .
    Rettenbacher, Sophie
    University of Vet Med, Austria .
    Groothuis, Ton G G.
    University of Groningen, Netherlands .
    Maternal corticosterone elevation during egg formation in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) influences offspring traits, partly via prenatal undernutrition2013In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 191, p. 83-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between maternal stress during pregnancy in humans and the subsequent physical and mental health disorders in their children has inspired a wide array of studies on animal models. Almost all of these studies have used mammalian species, but more recently oviparous species in which the embryo develops outside the mothers body have received more attention. These new models facilitate disentangling of the underlying mechanism due to the accessibility of the prenatal environment, the egg. Studies in birds have found that maternal stress during egg formation induces phenotypic alterations in the offspring that hatch from these eggs. However, different offspring traits have been measured in different studies and potential underlying mechanisms are barely addressed. In this study we experimentally manipulated maternal corticosterone levels in laying hens. We found that mothers with experimentally elevated plasma corticosterone levels produced offspring that are smaller at hatching, less competitive, less fearful, have lower immunocompetence and higher plasma testosterone levels, as well as an alteration of visually guided behavioural lateralization. Earlier we have showed that eggs produced by these corticosterone treated mothers were lighter and contained lower concentrations of testosterone and progesterone in the yolk. While yolk hormones showed no correlation with any offspring traits, egg mass correlated positively with offsprings body mass from hatching until 10 days of age and hatching mass correlated positively with the offsprings ability to compete for food, indicating that prenatal under nutrition might mediate some effects of maternal stress.

  • 6.
    Johnsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gering, Eben
    Department of Zoology, Michigan University, Michigan, USA.
    Willis, Pamela
    Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
    Lopez, Saioa
    UCL Genetics Institute, University College London, London, UK.
    Van Dorp, Lucy
    UCL Genetics Institute, University College London, London, UK.
    Hellenthal, Garrett
    UCL Genetics Institute, University College London, London, UK.
    Henriksen, Rie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Friberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Feralisation targets different genomic loci to domestication in the chicken.2016In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 7, article id 12950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feralisation occurs when a domestic population recolonizes the wild, escaping its previous restricted environment, and has been considered as the reverse of domestication. We have previously shown that Kauai Island's feral chickens are a highly variable and admixed population. Here we map selective sweeps in feral Kauai chickens using whole-genome sequencing. The detected sweeps were mostly unique to feralisation and distinct to those selected for during domestication. To ascribe potential phenotypic functions to these genes we utilize a laboratory-controlled equivalent to the Kauai population-an advanced intercross between Red Junglefowl and domestic layer birds that has been used previously for both QTL and expression QTL studies. Certain sweep genes exhibit significant correlations with comb mass, maternal brooding behaviour and fecundity. Our analyses indicate that adaptations to feral and domestic environments involve different genomic regions and feral chickens show some evidence of adaptation at genes associated with sexual selection and reproduction.

  • 7.
    Johnsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Edinburgh, Scotland; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Henriksen, Rie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fogelholm, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Höglund, Andrey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Genetics and Genomics of Social Behavior in a Chicken Model2018In: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, E-ISSN 1943-2631, Vol. 209, no 1, p. 209-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The identification of genes affecting sociality can give insights into the maintenance and development of sociality and personality. In this study, we used the combination of an advanced intercross between wild and domestic chickens with a combined QTL and eQTL genetical genomics approach to identify genes for social reinstatement, a social and anxiety-related behavior. A total of 24 social reinstatement QTL were identified and overlaid with over 600 eQTL obtained from the same birds using hypothalamic tissue. Correlations between overlapping QTL and eQTL indicated five strong candidate genes, with the gene TTRAP being strongly significantly correlated with multiple aspects of social reinstatement behavior, as well as possessing a highly significant eQTL.

  • 8.
    Johnsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Edinburgh, England; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Henriksen, Rie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Höglund, Andrey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Fogelholm, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Genetical genomics of growth in a chicken model2018In: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 19, article id 72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The genetics underlying body mass and growth are key to understanding a wide range of topics in biology, both evolutionary and developmental. Body mass and growth traits are affected by many genetic variants of small effect. This complicates genetic mapping of growth and body mass. Experimental intercrosses between individuals from divergent populations allows us to map naturally occurring genetic variants for selected traits, such as body mass by linkage mapping. By simultaneously measuring traits and intermediary molecular phenotypes, such as gene expression, one can use integrative genomics to search for potential causative genes. Results: In this study, we use linkage mapping approach to map growth traits (N = 471) and liver gene expression (N = 130) in an advanced intercross of wild Red Junglefowl and domestic White Leghorn layer chickens. We find 16 loci for growth traits, and 1463 loci for liver gene expression, as measured by microarrays. Of these, the genes TRAK1, OSBPL8, YEATS4, CEP55, and PIP4K2B are identified as strong candidates for growth loci in the chicken. We also show a high degree of sex-specific gene-regulation, with almost every gene expression locus exhibiting sex-interactions. Finally, several trans-regulatory hotspots were found, one of which coincides with a major growth locus. Conclusions: These findings not only serve to identify several strong candidates affecting growth, but also show how sex-specificity and local gene-regulation affect growth regulation in the chicken.

  • 9.
    Rettenbacher, Sophie
    et al.
    University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Austria .
    Groothuis, T. G.
    University of Groningen, the Netherlands .
    Henriksen, Rie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Möstl, E.
    University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Austria .
    Corticosterone in bird eggs: The importance of analytical validation2013In: Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift (1914), ISSN 0043-535X, Vol. 100, no 9-10, p. 283-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It was recently found that high concentrations of chicken yolk gestagens and gestagen metabolites hamper corticosterone quantification via immunoassays. However, the situation in chicken albumen is still unresolved. In addition, the ratio of steroid hormone in the yolk of wild birds might differ. To investigate these matters, corticosterone and gestagens were measured in individual fractions of high-performance liquid-chromatographic separations of chicken albumen and yolk of red jungle fowl. Similarly, yolk extracts of hens with corticosterone-releasing implants or placebos were analysed to assess the impact of elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations on authentic yolk corticosterone levels. We also compared the results of a previously used corticosterone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to those from a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit. The analytical validations of chicken albumen, bankiva yolk and yolks from hens with or without artificially elevated plasma corticosterone levels indicated that the main share of the immunoreactivity measured via corticosterone immunoassays was caused by substances other than authentic corticosterone. In albumen, the concentration of authentic corticosterone was below the detection limit. Analysis of bankiva yolk revealed three major gestagen peaks with concentrations of up to 2000 ng per fraction and a corticosterone peak of about 0.8 ng per fraction. Both corticosterone assays found a slightly higher corticosterone peak in a corticosterone-implanted hens yolk (EIA: 0.7 ng; RIA: 0.5 ng per fraction) compared to the sham-treated female (EIA: 0.5 ng; RIA: 0.2 ng per fraction) but both antibodies also bound to several other substances, presumably gestagens. Although a certain amount of circulating corticosterone might pass into the yolk, direct quantification of corticosterone in non-homogenized avian egg samples via immunoassays is not advisable.

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