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  • 1.
    Aare, Kätlin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lippus, Pärtel
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Creak in the respiratory cycle2018In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2018 / [ed] B. Yegnanarayana, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2018, p. 1408-1412Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creakiness is a well-known turn-taking cue and has been observed to systematically accompany phrase and turn ends in several languages. In Estonian, creaky voice is frequently used by all speakers without any obvious evidence for its systematic use as a turn-taking cue. Rather, it signals a lack of prominence and is favored by lengthening and later timing in phrases. In this paper, we analyze the occurrence of creak with respect to properties of the respiratory cycle. We show that creak is more likely to accompany longer exhalations. Furthermore, the results suggest there is little difference in lung volume values regardless of the presence of creak, indicating that creaky voice might be employed to preserve air over the course of longer utterances. We discuss the results in connection to processes of speech planning in spontaneous speech.

  • 2.
    Aare, Kätlin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Backchannels and breathing2014In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2014: Stockholm, June 9-11, 2014 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University , 2014, p. 47-52Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the timing of backchannel onsets within speaker’s own and dialogue partner’s breathing cycle in two spontaneous conversations in Estonian. Results indicate that backchannels are mainly produced near the beginning, but also in the second half of the speaker’s exhalation phase. A similar tendency was observed in short non-backchannel utterances, indicating that timing of backchannels might be determined by their duration rather than their pragmatic function. By contrast, longer non-backchannel utterances were initiated almost exclusively right at the beginning of the exhalation. As expected, backchannels in the conversation partner’s breathing cycle occurred predominantly towards the end of the exhalation or at the beginning of the inhalation. 

  • 3.
    Aare, Kätlin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Inhalation amplitude and turn-taking in spontaneous Estonian conversations2015In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2015 Lund, June 8-10, 2015 / [ed] Malin Svensson Lundmark, Gilbert Ambrazaitis, Joost van de Weijer, Lund: Lund University , 2015, p. 1-5Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the relationship between inhalation amplitude and turn management in four approximately 20 minute long spontaneous multiparty conversations in Estonian. The main focus of interest is whether inhalation amplitude is greater before turn onset than in the following inhalations within the same speaking turn. The results show that inhalations directly before turn onset are greater in amplitude than those later in the turn. The difference seems to be realized by ending the inhalation at a greater lung volume value, whereas the initial lung volume before inhalation onset remains roughly the same across a single turn. The findings suggest that the increased inhalation amplitude could function as a cue for claiming the conversational floor.

  • 4.
    Buschmeier, Hendrik
    et al.
    Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Malisz, Zofia
    Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Skubisz, Joanna
    Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Wachsmuth, Ipke
    Bielefleld University, Germany.
    Kopp, Stefan
    Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Wagner, Petra
    Bielefeld University, Germany.
    ALICO: A multimodal corpus for the study of active listening2014In: Proceedings of LREC 2014, 2014, p. 3638-3643Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Active Listening Corpus (ALICO) is a multimodal database of spontaneous dyadic conversations with diverse speech andgestural annotations of both dialogue partners. The annotations consist of short feedback expression transcription with correspondingcommunicative function interpretation as well as segmentation of interpausal units, words, rhythmic prominence intervals andvowel-to-vowel intervals. Additionally, ALICO contains head gesture annotation of both interlocutors. The corpus contributes to researchon spontaneous human–human interaction, on functional relations between modalities, and timing variability in dialogue. It also providesdata that differentiates between distracted and attentive listeners. We describe the main characteristics of the corpus and present the mostimportant results obtained from analyses in recent years.

  • 5.
    Cortes, Elisabet Eir
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Šimko, Juraj
    Articulatory Consequences of Vocal Effort Elicitation Method2018In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2018 / [ed] B. Yegnanarayana, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2018, p. 1521-1525Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Articulatory features from two datasets, Slovak and Swedish, were compared to see whether different methods of eliciting loud speech (ambient noise vs. visually presented loudness target) result in different articulatory behavior. The features studied were temporal and kinematic characteristics of lip separation within the closing and opening gestures of bilabial consonants, and of the tongue body movement from /i/ to /a/ through a bilabial consonant. The results indicate larger hyper - articulation in the speech elicited with visually presented target. While individual articulatory strategies are evident, t he speaker groups agree on increasing the kinematic features consistently within each gesture in response to the increased vocal effort. Another concerted strategy is keeping the tongue response considerably smaller than that of the lips, presumably to preserve acoustic prerequisites necessary for the adequate vowel identity. While the method of visually presented loudness target elicits larger span of vocal effort, the two elicitation methods achieve comparable consistency per loudness conditions.

  • 6.
    Edlund, Jens
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Catching wind of multiparty conversation2014In: Proceedings of Multimodal Corpora: Combining applied and basic research targets (MMC 2014) / [ed] Jens Edlund, Dirk Heylen, Patrizia Paggio, Reykjavik, Iceland: European Language Resources Association , 2014, p. 35-36Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes the design of a novel multimodal corpus of spontaneous multiparty conversations in Swedish. The corpus is collected with the primary goal of investigating the role of breathing and its perceptual cues for interactive control of interaction. Physiological correlates of breathing are captured by means of respiratory belts, which measure changes in cross sectional area of the rib cage and the abdomen. Additionally, auditory and visual correlates of breathing are recorded in parallel to the actual conversations. The corpus allows studying respiratory mechanisms underlying organisation of spontaneous conversation, especially in connection with turn management. As such, it is a valuable resource both for fundamental research and speech techonology applications.

  • 7.
    Edlund, Jens
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Department of Linguistics.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Is breathing prosody?2014In: International Symposium on Prosody to Commemorate Gösta Bruce, Lund: Lund University , 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though we may not be aware of it, much breathing in face-to-face conversation is both clearly audible and visible. Consequently, it has been suggested that respiratory activity is used in the joint coordination of conversational flow. For instance, it has been claimed that inhalation is an interactionally salient cue to speech initiation, that exhalation is a turn yielding device, and that breath holding is a marker of turn incompleteness (e.g. Local & Kelly, 1986; Schegloff, 1996). So far, however, few studies have addressed the interactional aspects of breathing (one notable exeption is McFarland, 2001). In this poster, we will describe our ongoing efforts to fill this gap. We will present the design of a novel corpus of respiratory activity in spontaneous multiparty face-to-face conversations in Swedish. The corpus will contain physiological measurements relevant to breathing, high-quality audio, and video. Minimally, the corpus will be annotated with interactional events derived from voice activity detection and (semi-) automatically detected inhalation and exhalation events in the respiratory data. We will also present initial analyses of the material collected. The question is whether breathing is prosody and relevant to this symposium? What we do know is that the turntaking phenomena that of particular interest to us are closely (almost by definition) related to several prosodic phenomena, and in particular to those associated with prosodic phrasing, grouping and boundaries. Thus, we will learn more about respiratory activity in phrasing (and the like) through analyses of breathing in conversation. References Local, John K., & Kelly, John. (1986). Projection and 'silences': Notes on phonetic and conversational structure. Human Studies, 9, 185-204. McFarland, David H. (2001). Respiratory markers of conversational interaction. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44, 128-143. Schegloff, E. A. (1996). Turn organization: One intersection of grammar and interaction. In E. Ochs, E. A. Schegloff & S. A. Thompson (Eds.), Interaction and Grammar (pp. 52-133), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • 8.
    F. Renner, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    When a Dog is a Cat and How it Changes Your Pupil Size: Pupil Dilation in Response to Information Mismatch2017In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2017 / [ed] Francisco Lacerda, David House, Mattias Heldner, Joakim Gustafson, Sofia Strömbergsson, Marcin Włodarczak, 2017, p. 674-678Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we investigate pupil dilation as a measure of lexical retrieval. We captured pupil size changes in reaction to a match or a mismatch between a picture and an auditorily presented word in 120 trials presented to ten native speakers of Swedish. In each trial a picture was displayed for six seconds, and 2.5 seconds into the trial the word was played through loudspeakers. The picture and the word were matching in half of the trials, and all stimuli were common high-frequency monosyllabic Swedish words. The difference in pupil diameter trajectories across the two conditions was analyzed with Functional Data Analysis. In line with the expectations, the results indicate greater dilation in the mismatch condition starting from around 800 ms after the stimulus onset. Given that similar processes were observed in brain imaging studies, pupil dilation measurements seem to provide an appropriate tool to reveal lexical retrieval. The results suggest that pupillometry could be a viable alternative to existing methods in the field of speech and language processing, for instance across different ages and clinical groups.

  • 9.
    Forssén Renner, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Wlodarzcak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The surprised pupil: New perspectives in semantic processing research2016In: ISSBD 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the research on semantic processing and brain activity, the N400-paradigm has been long known to reflect a reaction to unexpected events, for instance the incongruence between visual and verbal information when subjects are presented with a picture and a mismatching word. In the present study, we investigate whether an N400-like reaction to unexpected events can be captured with pupillometry. While earlier research has firmly established a connection between changes in pupil diameter and arousal, the findings have not been so far extended to the domain of semantic processing. Consequently, we measured pupil size change in reaction to a match or a mismatch between a picture and an auditorily presented word. We presented 120 trials to ten native speakers of Swedish. In each trial a picture was displayed for six seconds, and 2.5 seconds into the trial the word was played through loudspeakers. The picture and the word were matching in half of the trials, and all stimuli were common high-frequency monosyllabic Swedish words. For the analysis, the baseline pupil size at the sound playback onset was compared against the maximum pupil size in the following time window of 3.5 seconds. The results show a statistically significant difference (t(746)=-2.8, p < 0.01) between the conditions. In line with the hypothesis, the pupil was observed to dilate more in the incongruent condition (on average by 0.03 mm). While the results are preliminary, they suggest that pupillometry could be a viable alternative to existing methods in the field of language processing, for instance across different ages and clinical groups. In the future, we intend to validate the results on a larger sample of participants as well as expand the analysis with a view to locating temporal regions of greatest differences between the conditions. In the future, we intend to validate the results on a larger sample of participants as well as expand the analysis with a functional analysis accounting for temporal changes in the data. This will allow locating temporal regions of greatest differences between the conditions.

  • 10. Hammarsten, Jonna
    et al.
    Harris, Roxanne
    Henriksson, Nilla
    Pano, Isabelle
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Temporal aspects of breathing and turn-taking in Swedish multiparty conversations2015In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2015 / [ed] Malin Svensson Lundmark, Gilbert Ambrazaitis, Joost van de Weijer, Lund: Centre for Languages and Literature, 2015, p. 47-50Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interlocutors use various signals to make conversations flow smoothly. Recent research has shown that respiration is one of the signals used to indicate the intention to start speaking. In this study, we investigate whether inhalation duration and speech onset delay within one’s own turn differ from when a new turn is initiated. Respiratory activity was recorded in two three-party conversations using Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography. Inhalations were categorised depending on whether they coincided with within-speaker silences or with between- speaker silences. Results showed that within-turn inhalation durations were shorter than inhalations preceding new turns. Similarly, speech onset delays were shorter within turns than before new turns. Both these results suggest that speakers ‘speed up’ preparation for speech inside turns, probably to indicate that they intend to continue. 

  • 11.
    Heldner, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Carlsson, Denise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Does lung volume size affect respiratory rate and utterance duration?2019In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2019, 2019, p. 97-102Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored whether lung volume size affects respiratory rate and utterance duration. The lung capacity of four women and four men was estimated with a digital spirometer. These subjects subsequently read a nonsense text aloud while their respiratory movements were registered with a Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography (RIP) system. Utterance durations were measured from the speech recordings, and respiratory cycle durations and respiratory rates were measured from the RIP recordings. This experiment did not show any relationship between lung volume size and respiratory rate or utterance duration.

  • 12.
    Heldner, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Wagner, Petra
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Deep throat as a source of information2018In: Proceedings Fonetik 2018 / [ed] Åsa Abelin, Yasuko Nagano-Madsen, Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg, 2018, p. 33-38Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this pilot study we explore the signal from an accelerometer placed on the tracheal wall (below the glottis) for obtaining robust voice quality estimates. We investigate cepstral peak prominence smooth, H1-H2 and alpha ratio for distinguishing between breathy, modal and pressed phonation across six (sustained) vowel qualities produced by four speakers and including a systematic variation of pitch. We show that throat signal spectra are unaffected by vocal tract resonances, F0 and speaker variation while retaining sensitivity to voice quality dynamics. We conclude that the throat signal is a promising tool for studying communicative functions of voice prosody in speech communication.

  • 13.
    Heldner, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Beňuš, Štefan
    Gravano, Agustín
    Voice Quality as a Turn-Taking Cue2019In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2019 / [ed] Gernot Kubin, Zdravko Kačič, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2019, p. 4165-4169Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work revisits the idea that voice quality dynamics (VQ) contributes to conveying pragmatic distinctions, with two case studies to further test this idea. First, we explore VQ as a turn-taking cue, and then as a cue for distinguishing between different functions of affirmative cue words. We employ acoustic VQ measures claimed to be better suited for continuous speech than those in own previous work. Both cases indicate that the degree of periodicity (as measured by CPPS) is indeed relevant in the production of the different pragmatic functions. In particular, turn-yielding is characterized by lower periodicity, sometimes accompanied by presence of creaky voice. Periodicity also distinguishes between backchannels, agreements and acknowledgements.

  • 14.
    Heldner, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Is breathing silence?2016In: Proceedings of Fonetik 2016 / [ed] Jens Edlund, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016, p. 35-38Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether inhalation noises are treated as silences in speech communication. A perception experiment revealed differences in pause detection thresholds for breathing pauses and silent pauses. This in turn indicates that breathing pauses are treated differently by the perceptual system, and could potentially carry a communicative function. 

  • 15.
    Heldner, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Pitch Slope and End Point as Turn-Taking Cues in Swedish2015In: Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences / [ed] Maria Wolters, Judy Livingstone, Bernie Beattie, Rachel Smith, Mike MacMahon, Jane Stuart-Smith, Jim Scobbie, Glasgow: University of Glasgow , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relevance of parameters related to slope and end-point of pitch segments for indicating turn-taking intentions in Swedish. Perceptually motivated stylization in Prosogram was used to characterize the last pitch segment in talkspurts involved in floor-keeping and turn- yielding events. The results suggest a limited contribution of pitch pattern direction and position of its endpoint in the speaker’s pitch range to signaling turn-taking intentions in Swedish. 

  • 16.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    House, DavidHeldner, MattiasStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.Gustafson, JoakimStrömbergsson, SofiaWlodarczak, MarcinStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Interspeech 2017: Situated interaction: Book of abstracts2017Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Laskowski, Kornel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics. Voci Technologies, Inc., USA.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    A Scalable Method for Quantifying the Role of Pitch in Conversational Turn-Taking2019In: 20th Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue: Proceedings of the Conference, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2019, p. 284-292Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pitch has long been held as an important signalling channel when planning and deploying speech in conversation, and myriad studies have been undertaken to determine the extent to which it actually plays this role. Unfortunately, these studies have required considerable human investment in data preparation and analysis, and have therefore often been limited to a handful of specific conversational contexts. The current article proposes a framework which addresses these limitations, by enabling a scalable, quantitative characterization of the role of pitch throughout an entire conversation, requiring only the raw signal and speech activity references. The framework is evaluated on the Switchboard dialogue corpus. Experiments indicate that pitch trajectories of both parties are predictive of their incipient speech activity; that pitch should be expressed on a logarithmic scale and Z-normalized, as well as accompanied by a binary voicing variable; and that only the most recent 400 ms of the pitch trajectory are useful in incipient speech activity prediction.

  • 18. Malisz, Zofia
    et al.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Buschmeier, Hendrik
    Skubisz, Joanna
    Kopp, Stefan
    Wagner, Petra
    The ALICO corpus: analysing the active listener2016In: Language resources and evaluation, ISSN 1574-020X, E-ISSN 1574-0218, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 411-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Active Listening Corpus(ALICO) is a multimodal data set ofspontaneous dyadic conversations in German with diverse speech and gesturalannotations of both dialogue partners. The annotations consist of short feedbackexpression transcriptions with corresponding communicative function interpreta-tions as well as segmentations of interpausal units, words, rhythmic prominenceintervals and vowel-to-vowel intervals. Additionally, ALICO contains head gestureannotations of both interlocutors. The corpus contributes to research on spontaneoushuman–human interaction, on functional relations between modalities, and timingvariability in dialogue. It also provides data that differentiates between distractedand attentive listeners. We describe the main characteristics of the corpus andbriefly present the most important results obtained from analyses in recent years

  • 19. Suni, Antti
    et al.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Vainio, Martti
    Šimko, Juraj
    Comparative Analysis of Prosodic Characteristics Using WaveNet Embeddings2019In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2019 / [ed] Gernot Kubin, Zdravko Kačič, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2019, p. 2538-2542Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a methodology for assessing similarities and differences between language varieties and dialects in terms of prosodic characteristics. A multi-speaker, multi-dialect WaveNet network is trained on low sample-rate signal retaining only prosodic characteristics of the original speech. The network is conditioned on labels related to speakers’ region or dialect. The resulting conditioning embeddings are subsequently used as a multi-dimensional characteristics of different language varieties, with results consistent with dialectological studies. The method and results are illustrated on a Swedia 2000 corpus of Swedish dialectal variation.

  • 20.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    RespInPeace: Toolkit for processing respiratory belt data2019In: Proceedings of Fonetik 2019, 2019, p. 115-118Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    RespInPeace is a Python toolkit for processing respiratory data collected using Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography (RIP). It provides methods for signal normalisation, calibration, parametrisation as well as for detection of respiratory events, such as inhalations, exhalations and breath holds. The paper gives a short overview of the most important functions of the program.

  • 21.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory Constraints in Verbal and Non-verbal Communication2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper we address the old question of respiratory planning in speech production. We recast the problem in terms of speakers' communicative goals and propose that speakers try to minimize respiratory effort in line with the H&H theory. We analyze respiratory cycles coinciding with no speech (i.e., silence), short verbal feedback expressions (SFE's) as well as longer vocalizations in terms of parameters of the respiratory cycle and find little evidence for respiratory planning in feedback production. We also investigate timing of speech and SFEs in the exhalation and contrast it with nods. We find that while speech is strongly tied to the exhalation onset, SFEs are distributed much more uniformly throughout the exhalation and are often produced on residual air. Given that nods, which do not have any respiratory constraints, tend to be more frequent toward the end of an exhalation, we propose a mechanism whereby respiratory patterns are determined by the trade-off between speakers' communicative goals and respiratory constraints.

  • 22.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Šimko, Juraj
    University of Helsinki.
    Suni, Antti
    University of Helsinki.
    Vainio, Martti
    University of Helsinki.
    Classification of Swedish dialects using a hierarchical prosodic analysis2018In: Proceedings of Speech Prosody 2018, 2018, p. 304-308Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Capturing respiratory sounds with throat microphones2017In: Nordic Prosody: Proceedings of the XIIth Conference, Trondheim 2016 / [ed] Jardar Eggesbö Abrahamsen, Jacques Koreman, Wim van Dommelen, Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2017, p. 181-190Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a pilot study using throat microphones for recording respiratory sounds. We demonstrate that inhalation noises are louder before longer stretches of speech than before shorter utterances (< 1 s) and in silent breathing. We thus replicate the results from our earlier study which used close-talking head-mounted microphones, without the associated data loss due to cross-talk. We also show that inhalations are louder within than before a speaking turn. Hence, the study provides another piece of evidence in favour of communicative functions of respiratory noises serving as potential turn-taking (for instance, turn-holding) cues. 

  • 24.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Exhalatory turn-taking cues2018In: Proceedings 9th International Conference on Speech Prosody 2018 / [ed] Katarzyna Klessa, Jolanta Bachan, Agnieszka Wagner, Maciej Karpiński, Daniel Śledziński, Poznań, Poland: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2018, p. 334-338Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is a study of kinematic features of the exhalation which signal that the speaker is done speaking and wants to yield the turn. We demonstrate that the single most prominent feature is the presence of inhalation directly following the exhalation. However, several features of the exhalation itself are also found to significantly distinguish between turn holds and yields, such as slower exhalation rate and higher lung level at exhalation onset. The results complement existing body evidence on respiratory turn-taking cues which has so far involved mainly inhalatory features. We also show that respiration allows discovering pause interruptions thus allowing access to unrealised turn-taking intentions.

  • 25.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory belts and whistles: A preliminary study of breathing acoustics for turn-taking2016In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2016 / [ed] Nelson Morgan, International Speech Communication Association, 2016, p. 510-514Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents first results on using acoustic intensity of inhalations as a cue to speech initiation in spontaneous multiparty conversations. We demonstrate that inhalation intensity significantly differentiates between cycles coinciding with no speech activity, shorter (< 1 s) and longer stretches of speech. While the model fit is relatively weak, it is comparable to the fit of a model using kinematic features collected with Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography. We also show that incorpo- rating both kinematic and acoustic features further improves the model. Given the ease of capturing breath acoustics, we consider the results to be a promising first step towards studying communicative functions of respiratory sounds. We discuss possible extensions to the data collection procedure with a view to improving predictive power of the model. 

  • 26.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory Properties of Backchannels in Spontaneous Multiparty Conversation2015In: Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences / [ed] Maria Wolters, Judy Livingstone, Bernie Beattie, Rachel Smith, Mike MacMahon, Jane Stuart-Smith, Jim Scobbie, Glasgow: University of Glasgow , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we report on first results of a newly started project focussing on interactional functions of breathing in spontaneous multiparty conversation. Specifically, we investigate respiratory patterns associated with backchannels (short feedback expressions), and compare them with breathing cycles observed during longer stretches of speech or while listening to interlocutor’s speech. Overall, inhalations preceding backchannels were found to resemble those in quiet breathing to a large degree. The results are discussed in terms of temporal organisation and respiratory planning in these utterances. 

  • 27.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory turn-taking cues2016In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2016 / [ed] Nelson Morgan, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2016, p. 1275-1279Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates to what extent breathing can be used as a cue to turn-taking behaviour. The paper improves on existing accounts by considering all possible transitions between speaker states (silent, speaking, backchanneling) and by not relying on global speaker models. Instead, all features (including breathing range and resting expiratory level) are estimated in an incremental fashion using the left-hand context. We identify several inhalatory features relevant to turn-management, and assess the fit of models with these features as predictors of turn-taking behaviour.

  • 28.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Edlund, Jens
    Breathing in Conversation: An Unwritten History2015In: Proceedings of the 2nd European and the 5th Nordic Symposium on Multimodal Communication / [ed] Kristiina Jokinen, Martin Vels, Linköping, 2015, p. 107-112Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper attempts to draw attention of the multimodal communication research community to what we consider a long overdue topic, namely respiratory activity in conversation. We submit that a turn towards spontaneous interaction is a natural extension of the recent interest in speech breathing, and is likely to offer valuable insights into mechanisms underlying organisation of interaction and collaborative human action in general, as well as to make advancement in existing speech technology applications. Particular focus is placed on the role of breathing as a perceptually and interactionally salient turn-taking cue. We also present the recording setup developed in the Phonetics Laboratory at Stockholm University with the aim of studying communicative functions of physiological and audio-visual breathing correlates in spontaneous multiparty interactions

  • 29.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Edlund, Jens
    Communicative needs and respiratory constraints2015In: 16th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH 2015): Speech Beyond Speech Towards a Better Understanding of the Most Important Biosignal, 2015, p. 3051-3055Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates timing of communicative behaviour with respect to speaker’s respiratory cycle. The data is drawn from a corpus of multiparty conversations in Swedish. We find that while longer utterances (> 1 s) are tied, predictably, primarily to exhalation onset, shorter vocalisations are spread more uni- formly across the respiratory cycle. In addition, nods, which are free from any respiratory constraints, are most frequently found around exhalation offsets, where respiratory requirements for even a short utterance are not satisfied. We interpret the results to reflect the economy principle in speech production, whereby respiratory effort, associated primarily with starting a new respiratory cycle, is minimised within the scope of speaker’s communicative goals. 

  • 30.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Laskowski, Kornel
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Aare, Kätlin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Improving Prediction of Speech Activity Using Multi-Participant Respiratory State2017In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2017 / [ed] Francisco Lacerda, David House, Mattias Heldner, Joakim Gustafson, Sofia Strömbergsson, Marcin Włodarczak, Stockholm: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, p. 1666-1670Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One consequence of situated face-to-face conversation is the co- observability of participants’ respiratory movements and sounds. We explore whether this information can be exploited in pre- dicting incipient speech activity. Using a methodology called stochastic turn-taking modeling, we compare the performance of a model trained on speech activity alone to one additionally trained on static and dynamic lung volume features. The method- ology permits automatic discovery of temporal dependencies across participants and feature types. Our experiments show that respiratory information substantially lowers cross-entropy rates, and that this generalizes to unseen data. 

  • 31. Ćwiek, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Wagner, Petra
    Acoustics and discourse function of two types of breathing signals2017In: Nordic Prosody: Proceedings of the XIIth Conference, Trondheim 2016 / [ed] Jardar Eggesbö Abrahamsen, Jacques Koreman, Wim van Dommelen, Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2017, p. 83-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breathing is fundamental for living and speech, and it has been a subject of linguistic research for years. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in tackling the question of possible communicative functions of breathing (e.g. Rochet-Capellan & Fuchs, 2014; Aare, Włodarczak & Heldner, 2014; Włodarczak & Heldner, 2015; Włodarczak, Heldner, & Edlund, 2015). The present study set out to determine acoustic markedness and communicative functions of pauses accompanied and non-accompanied by breathing. We hypothesised that an articulatory reset occurring in breathing pauses and an articulatory freeze in non-breathing pauses differentiates between the two types. A production experiment was conducted and some evidence in favour of such a phenomenon was found. Namely, in case of non-breathing pauses, we observed more coarticulation evidenced by a more frequent omission of plosive releases. Our findings thus give some evidence in favour of the communicative function of breathing.

  • 32. Šimko, Juraj
    et al.
    Aalto, Daniel
    Lippus, Pärtel
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Vainio, Martti
    Pith, perceived duration and auditory biases: Comparison among languages2015In: Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences / [ed] Maria Wolters, Judy Livingstone, Bernie Beattie, Rachel Smith, Mike MacMahon, Jane Stuart-Smith, Jim Scobbie, Glasgow: University of Glasgow , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to fundamental frequency height, its movement is also generally assumed to lengthen the perceived duration of syllable-like sounds. The lengthening effect has been observed for some languages (US English, French, SwissGerman, Japanese) but reported to be absent for another (Thai, Latin American Spanish, German). In this work, native speakers of Estonian, Finnish, Mandarin and Swedish performed a two-alternative forced choice duration discrimination experiment with pairs of complex tones varying in several acoustic dimensions. According to a logistic regression analysis, the duration judgements are affected by intensity, f0 level, and f0 movement for all languages, but the strength of these influences varies across languages and a pattern revealed by the relative strengths correlates with phonological properties of the languages. The findings are discussed in the light of current hypotheses of the origin of pitch modulation of perceived duration.

  • 33. Šimko, Juraj
    et al.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Suni, Antti
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Vainio, Martti
    Coordination between f0, intensity and breathing signals2017In: Nordic Prosody: Proceedings of the XIIth Conference, Trondheim 2016 / [ed] Jardar Eggesbö Abrahamsen, Jacques Koreman, Wim van Dommelen, Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2017, p. 147-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper presents preliminary results on temporal coordination of breathing, intensity and fundamental frequency signals using continuous wavelet transform. We have found tendencies towards phase-locking at time scales corresponding to several prosodic units such as vowel-to-vowel intervals and prosodic words. The proposed method should be applicable to a wide range of problems in which the goal is finding a stable phase relationship in a pair of hierarchically organised signals.

1 - 33 of 33
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