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  • 1.
    Adaba, Godfried Bakiyem
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    El Mekawy, Mohamed Sobih Aly
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Business-IT Alignment in Trade Facilitation: A Case Study2010Ingår i: Organizational, Business, and Technological Aspects of the Knowledge Society / [ed] Lytras, M.D.; Ordonez De Pablos, P.; Ziderman, A.; Roulstone, A.; Maurer, H.; Imber, J.B., Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag , 2010, Vol. 112, 146- s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the information age, no organization can thrive without harnessing the power of IT. The effective deployment of IT to achieve business goals and gain competitive advantage requires the alignment of business and IT strategies of organizations. Using the Strategic Alignment Maturity model, this paper evaluates strategic alignment maturity of Customs Excise Preventive service, a frontline public organization charged with trade facilitation in Ghana. Strategic alignment maturity is at level 3; which implies the existence of an established process to leverage IT for efficiency and effectiveness. Efforts are required to strengthen alignment and fully harness the potential of IT to facilitate trade in Ghana.

  • 2.
    El Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    AlSabbagh, Bilal
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Kowalski, Stewart
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    The Impact of Business-IT Alignment on Information Security Process2014Ingår i: HCI in Business: Proceedings / [ed] Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, Springer, 2014, 25-36 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Business-IT Alignment (BITA) has the potential to link with organi-zational issues that deal with business-IT relationships at strategic, tactical and operational levels. In such context, information security process (ISP) is one of the issues that can be influenced by BITA. However, the impact has yet not been researched. This paper investigates the BITA impact on ISP. For this in-vestigation, the relationships of elements of the Strategic Alignment Model and the components of Security Values Chain Model are considered. The research process is an in-depth literature survey followed by case study in two organiza-tions located in United States and the Middle East. The results show clear impact of BITA on how organizations would distribute allocated security budget and resources based on the needs and risk exposure. The results should support both practitioners and researchers to gain improved insights of the relationships between BITA and IT security components.

  • 3.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    FROM SOCIETAL TO ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE: THE IMPACT ON BUSINESS-IT ALIGNMENT2012Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Business-IT alignment (BITA) has clearly become more important over the last decade. However, considerable difficulties remain when attempting to achieve a mature level of BITA. Therefore, research efforts which have resulted in a number of theoretical models have been able to help in devising and applying supportive tools for assessing different components of BITA. However, most of these efforts have either been produced in Anglo-Saxon countries or have been based on specific experiences in those countries. Consequently, they have tended to ignore a number of factors which differ in nature due to variations in cultural contexts. However, organisational culture has been given little consideration. Societal and organisational cultural aspects of BITA are particularly important because the majority of BITA models tend to focus more on the efficiency and effectiveness of BITA components rather than on trying to create ways in which how BITA can be achieved or maintained in different contexts. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to investigate the impact of societal and organisational culture on achieving BITA and influencing its maturity. The main result is an extended BITA model developed originally by Luftman, known as; Luftman’s Strategic Alignment Maturity Model (SAM), which is influenced by the organisational culture perspective. The research method and process advocated by Peffers et al. (2007) is used in the thesis to design the extended-SAM, consisting of six activities. The first of these activities involves identifying specific problems. This is achieved by an extensive literature survey of theories related to BITA, an explorative study of the impact of organisational culture on BITA and a classification of the general limitations of BITA. The second activity concerns the requirement for definitions of the designed artifact. The third activity is then specified in terms of designing the artifact; i.e. an extended-SAM. The design is based on constructed hypotheses of the potential impact of organisational culture elements (based on Smit et al.’s model (2008) on BITA attributes (based on SAM), and followed by an empirical study of 6 multinational organisations, for testing the hypotheses. Following that, in the fourth activity, various processes for extending SAM are demonstrated in different seminars within the IT management group at DSV, in conference papers and in different seminars of the Swedish research School of Management and Information Technology (MIT) (Forskarskolan Management och IT. In the fifth activity, the extended-SAM model is evaluated in 5 multinational organisations to test its practicality and utility. In the last activity, a journal paper (Paper III in the thesis) is presented to summarise all the processes. The communication is also carried out through pre-licentiate and the licentiate seminars. The extended-SAM shows in the result of the thesis that organisational culture is a clear factor that should be considered while assessing and studying BITA maturity. In addition, by considering organisational culture, assessing BITA is clearly shown as being more accurate and as reflecting a more detailed picture of the organisation’s BITA.

  • 4.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Kaboudvand, Ehsan
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Extending BITA Maturity Model from Organizational Culture Perspective2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the 45th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences / [ed] Ralph H. Sprague, Jr., IEEE Computer Society, 2012, 5011-5022 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Business-IT alignment (BITA) has gained attention during the past few years. As a result, a number of theoretical models that can be applied as supportive tools for assessing different components of BITA have been developed. However, most of these efforts have been produced either in Anglo-Saxon Countries or rooted in the experiences gained from these countries. Consequently, they ignore the factor that is subjected to change due to difference in cultural contexts. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of organizational culture on achieving BITA and influences its maturity. The research method and process that was followed, namely an in-depth literature survey followed by an empirical study of 51 Swedish multinational organizations.

  • 5.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    A Framework to Support Practitioners in Evaluating Business-IT Alignment Models2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the Nineteenth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Association for Information Systems, 2013, 1-12 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many business-IT alignment (BITA) models have been designed to support organizations in achieving, assessing and maintaining alignment between business and IT. These models focus on different components and emphasize different perspectives. This makes it difficult for practitioners to choose appropriate BITA models given organization at-hand. In this paper, an evaluation framework supporting practitioners to choose appropriate BITA models is presented. The framework was designed following design science as main research approach. The design process was based on literature and empirical studies. The literature study contributed in constructing a tentative version of the framework which was refined through an empirical study in 6 organizations. The final framework consists of 25 criteria categorized into four groups, and was demonstrated on six major BITA models showing its feasibility. Finally, the framework was evaluated by interviewing two business consultants and three CIOs from large-sized Swedish companies. The evaluation shows the framework having a complete set of criteria, but its usability and efficiency could be increased.

  • 6.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Organizational Culture Impact on Business-IT Alignment: A Case Study of a Multinational Organization2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the 44th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences / [ed] Ralph H. Sprague, Jr., IEEE Computer Society, 2011, 1-11 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance of BITA has increased over the past few years. However, achieving and maturing BITA still has apparent difficulties. Therefore, research efforts resulted in a number of theoretical models that can be applied as supportive tools for assessing different components of BITA. Most of these efforts have been produced either in Anglo-Saxon Countries or based on their experiences. The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of organizational culture on maturity of BITA. The paper relies on the nine dimensions of Project GLOBE to understand societal as well as organizational culture. It also relies on the bottom-up comprehensive approach of Luftman's Strategic Alignment Maturity Model to understand organization's alignment components. To fulfill the purpose of this study, a comparative analysis has been carried out between two subsidiaries of a multinational organization with a federal organizational structure that operate in Egypt and Sweden. The results shows: a) a potential difference in how different components of BITA are interpreted and implemented in different organizational culture, and b) that the impact of organizational culture on BITA maturity is more complex than what is expected especially on variables that require social interactions.

  • 7.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    An evaluation framework for comparing business-IT alignment models: A tool for supporting collaborative learning in organizations2015Ingår i: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 51, nr Part B, 1229-1247 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers and practitioners have argued on the importance of business-IT alignment (BITA) for organizations to maximize the business value of IT. As a result, a vast number of BITA models have been designed to support organizations in achieving, assessing and maintaining BITA. These models focus on different components (i.e. concepts/aspects of alignment) and emphasize different perspectives of the alignment (i.e. how alignment is perceived by practitioners). This makes it difficult for practitioners to choose an appropriate BITA model for a specific organization. In this paper, an evaluation framework to support practitioners in choosing appropriate BITA models is proposed. The framework was constructed following design science as a research approach. The design science activities were carried out in an iterative manner until reaching a final artefact. The process started with an extensive literature survey that led to designing a tentative model. Following that, different empirical iterations contributed to the framework development. The final framework consists of 25 criteria categorized into four groups. It was tested on six major BITA models, demonstrating its feasibility. Finally, the framework was evaluated by interviewing five business consultants and seven IT managers from large Swedish organizations. The evaluation shows that the framework has a complete set of criteria with a sufficient level of coherence, but its usability and efficiency is argued differently. The framework, additionally, is argued to potentially be used as a collaborative learning tool on requirement of BITA between practitioners from both business and IT domain or serve in the academic world.

  • 8.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    BUSINESS-IT ALIGNMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE RELATIONSHIPS: TOWARDS AN INTEGRATED VIEW2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2016), Association for Information Systems, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The analyses of literature on business-IT alignment (BITA) and Organisational Culture (OC) domains of prac-tice revealed needs for combined studies as the impact of each domain on the other is not well studied in re-search. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a set of relationships between components of BITA and OC towards development of a BITA-Culture integrated view. For achieving this purpose, we adopted a multi-stage (based on mixed-method) approach starting by an extensive literature review on both BITA and OC for constructing hypotheses on correlations between their components. Following that, an empirical research was conducted in three case organisations for empirical investigation of relationships and for refining the hy-potheses. To test the research hypotheses an extended quantitative test was performed by a survey on 117 busi-ness and IT practitioners. The results were the bases for developing the BITA-Culture integrated view. This integrated view is aimed to support both practitioners in order to understand the insights of the relationships between BITA and OC components and provide a road-map for improvements or desired changes in OC with highlighted target business areas.

  • 9.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    The Impact Of Business-It Alignment On Organizational Culture2014Ingår i: Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS 2014), Proceedings, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational culture continues to be cited as one of the most important factors for organizations’ success in an increasingly competitive and IT-driven global environment. Given the fact that organizational culture has an influence all over the organization, the complexity of its nature is increased when considering the relationship between business and IT. As a result, different factors that have influence on changing organizational culture were highlighted in literature. These factors are found in the research literature distributed in three main group; micro-environment factors, macro-environment factors and leader’s impact. One of the factors that have not been yet well investigated in researches is concerning business-IT alignment (BITA. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of BITA maturity on organizational culture. The research process that we have followed is a literature survey followed by an in-depth case study. The result of this research shows a clear interrelation in theories of both BITA and organizational culture, and clear indications of BITA impact on organizational culture and its change. The findings may support both practitioners and researchers in order to understand the insights of the relationships between BITA and organizational culture components and provide a roadmap for improvements or desired changes in organizational culture with highlighted target business area.

  • 10.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Sedvall, Karl-Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekici, Murat
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    From Theory to Practice: Barriers to Business-IT Alignment in Organizations Acting in Sweden2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 48th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-48), IEEE Computer Society, 2015, 4523-4533 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In research, many barriers to BITA are presented based on different theoretical frameworks. However, these barriers are studied either from a pure theoretical perspective or with limited empirical scope. This consequently hinders the achievement of BITA in organizations. In this paper the practitioners view of barriers to BITA are investigated aiming at producing a list of barriers which practitioners can use as a ground for better achievement of BITA. The list of barriers was identified by conducting two in-depth case studies on multinational organizations acting in Sweden along with two focused group discussions of researchers, and followed by a survey on 74 large and medium sized organizations on the Swedish market. The result of this study is a list of 45 barriers to BITA from the perspectives of business and IT practitioners.

  • 11.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Rusu, Lazar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Sedvall, Karl-Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ekici, Murat
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Strategic and Tactical Business-IT Alignment Barriers in Organizations Acting in Sweden2015Ingår i: International Journal of IT - Business Alignment and Governance, ISSN 1947-9611, E-ISSN 1947-962X, Vol. 6, nr 2, 31-55 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In research, many barriers to BITA are presented based on different theoretical frameworks. However, these barriers are studied either from a pure theoretical perspective or with limited empirical scope. This consequently hinders the achievement of BITA in organizations. In this article the practitioners view of barriers to BITA are investigated aiming at producing a list of barriers which practitioners can use as a ground for better achievement of BITA. The list of barriers was identified by conducting three in-depth case studies on multinational organizations acting in Sweden along with two focused group discussions of researchers, and followed by a survey on 74 large and medium sized organizations on the Swedish market. The result of this study is a list of 45 barriers to BITA from the perspectives of business and IT practitioners.

  • 12.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed Sobih Aly
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    From Theory to Practice of Business-IT Alignment: Barriers, an Evaluation Framework and Relationships with Organisational Culture2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Business-IT alignment (BITA) continues to be a top management concern. It generally refers to a preferred condition in which the relationship between business and IT is optimised to maximise the business value of IT. Early approaches in both research and practice have focused on the role of IT in supporting business strategies. Today, a more extended approach of BITA has been embraced that recognises soft factors that are related to people and culture issues at both tactical and operational levels of organisations. ‘Why alignment is important’ is not the crucial question today. In fact ‘how it can be achieved and matured’ is the real concern of business executives. There exists a number of theoretical models for conceptualising BITA, however, they have different focuses and contain different BITA components. Therefore, there is a need for a means of supporting practitioners for selecting an appropriate model.

    Furthermore, there is a need for a more practice-oriented research that target higher maturity of BITA by understanding the organisational context, including barriers that hinders BITA and the mutual relationships between organisational culture and BITA. Thus, the overall problem addressed in the thesis is the following: In spite of extensive literature on business-IT alignment, there is still limited maturity of business-IT alignment in practice due to the limited knowledge on barriers that hinder BITA achievement from practitioners’ perspective, on the means for supporting the selection of an appropriate model for assessing BITA, and on mutual relationships between BITA and organisational culture.

    Based on this research problem, five research objectives were developed. The first two objectives corresponded to barriers to achieving BITA and supporting the selection of BITA model respectively. The remaining three objectives corresponded to the two unidirectional influences between BITA and organisational culture (OC) and to the mutual relationships between them respectively. Different research methodologies and strategies were applied to achieve the research objectives, including qualitative and quantitative studies as well as design science.

    The results presented in the thesis, each corresponding to an objective, are the following: 

    • A list of barriers that practitioners can use as a basis for better achievement of BITA, a better focus on strategic vs. tactical barriers, and their relationships to BITA components.
    • An evaluation framework that supports practitioners in selecting appropriate BITA models for assessing and modelling BITA.
    • An extended version of the strategic alignment model (SAM) of Luftman (2000), which considers organisational culture.
    • An analysis of the impact of BITA components on organisational culture profiles.
    • A BITA-organisational culture integrated view that supports decision-makers in facilitating decisions regarding both BITA and organisational culture.

    The results of the research provide both theoretical and empirical contributions to the business-IT alignment research and practice.

  • 13. Paasch, Jesper M.
    et al.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Vucic, Nikola
    Kitsakis, Dimitrios
    Karabin, Marcin
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    BUILDING A MODERN CADASTRE: LEGAL ISSUES IN DESCRIBING REAL PROPERTY IN 3D2016Ingår i: Geodetski vestnik, ISSN 0351-0271, E-ISSN 1581-1328, Vol. 60, nr 2, 256-268 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-dimensional (3D) real property has been the subject of increased research activity during the last decade. This article continues the discussions of the legal framework sessions at the 4th international workshop on 3D cadastres in Dubai 2014 in order to further develop and analyse the legal concepts of 3D real property, and presents an overview of experiences from 3D property use and registration. The outcome is intended to initiate discussions on the legal framework of 3D cadastres and aims at identifying the main topics concerning the legal aspects of 3D property and cadastre.

  • 14.
    Rusu, Lazar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    El Mekawy, Mohamed
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    The Strategic Role of Information Technology in a Multinational Company: A Case of an Organization with Subsidiaries in Egypt and Sweden2011Ingår i: Cases on Business and Management in the MENA Region: New Trends and Opportunities, IGI Global , 2011, 135-155 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this case study research is to study the strategic role that information technology ( IT) plays in two subsidiaries - located in Egypt and Sweden - of a multinational company with a federal organizational structure. Using a well-established evaluation framework and a widely accepted model, we examine two important aspects of the strategic role of IT: i) how IT supports business and organizational strategy; and ii) the maturity of business and IT strategy alignment. The case study discusses the importance of having a balanced relationship among business strategy, information strategy, organizational strategy, and the way in which business and IT managers should act to improve business-IT alignment, also referred to as strategic alignment. Based on the results of the comparative analysis of the two companies, the research presents concrete recommendations that IT decision-makers from the two subsidiaries of the multinational company should consider to improve IT performance.

  • 15.
    Rusu, Lazar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Kaboudvand, Ehsan
    An Organizational Culture Perspective in Business-IT Alignment2012Ingår i: International Journal of IT - Business Alignment and Governance, ISSN 1947-9611, E-ISSN 1947-962X, Vol. 3, nr 1, 1-26 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Business-IT alignment (BITA) has gained attention during the last decade. As a result, a number of theoretical models that can be applied as supportive tools for assessing different components of BITA have been developed. However, most of these efforts have been produced in different countries and they ignore the factor that’s subjected to change due to cultural contexts. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of organizational culture on achieving BITA and influences its maturity. The research method and process follows the design science research and is done in three phases. First, an in-depth literature survey followed by a survey was carried out to identify and classify limitations of BITA attributes (based on Luftman’s strategic alignment maturity (SAM)) model and then, hypothesize the potential impact of organizational culture element (based on the Smit et al. model) on BITA attributes. Second, an empirical study is carried out to test the hypotheses in order to identify the limited BITA attributes based on organizational culture context. These attributes are further classified for proposing an extended version to the SAM model. Finally, the extended-SAM model is evaluated in 6 Swedish large and medium organizations to test its practicality for comparing its assessment with the assessment of the original SAM model.

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